Archives par étiquette : évaluation/valorisation/valuation

Konventionen der Arbeitsintegration

Alan Canonica (2017)

Zeitschrift für Unternehmensgeschichte (Journal of Business History), 62(2), pp. 233–255.

English Abstract. Conventions of Occupational Integration. The Employment of Disabled People in Swiss Enterprises (1950 to 1980). Disabled people’s access to the labour market is one of the leading ideas in disability policy. Its success depends on the willingness of employers to employ handicapped people. Both historical and social studies focus on the welfare state or the people in question, while the perspective of the employers is often neglected. Under what conditions are companies willing to employ people whose performance diverges from the common interest to maximise economic output? Switzerland is well suited for a case study, since there are no regulations for employers, such as a quota-system. Incorporating the theory of «économie des conventions», this study investigates how employers’ associations and companies justify employment of disabled people and how these people are valued. The timeframe investigated spans from the immediate post-war period to 1980.

Link to the review

Notes de lecture des « Embarras des recruteurs »

Deux notes de lecture de l’ouvrage d’Emmanuelle Marchal : Les Embarras des recruteurs. Enquête sur le marché du travail (Éditions de l’EHESS, 2015)

Sociologie
François Sarfati, « Emmanuelle Marchal, Les Embarras des recruteurs. Enquête sur le marché du travail (Éditions de l’EHESS, 2015) », Sociologie [En ligne]

Sociologie du travail
Carole Tuchszirer, « Emmanuelle Marchal, Les embarras des recruteurs. Enquête sur le marché du travail », Sociologie du travail [En ligne], Vol. 59 – n° 1 | Janvier-Mars 2017

The (Valuation) Politics of Privatization

Debbie Becher  (2017)

Review Essay of « Barman, Emily (2016): Caring Capitalism: The Meaning and Measure of Social Value. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. » Contemporary Sociology 46(5), pp. 521-526 .

Barman’s new Caring Capitalism: The Meaning and Measure of Social Value illustrates how the pursuit of social good through business has become a more capacious activity than previously recognized, embedded in almost every arena of the modern corporate world. She demonstrates how the pursuit of social good has become integral, almost ingrained, across practically all industries and private organizations operating under capitalism today. She makes the point through the book’s three sections. The first covers the least surprising and earliest examples of this kind of activity: nonprofit organizations that self-consciously pursue do-good missions, as an alternative to or directly through market activity. The second part follows those who operate on the outside and attempt to force or nudge for-profit corporations to create social goods (or avoid social bads) by, for instance, labeling consumer goods as “fair trade” or “organic” or by crafting investment priorities around avoiding tobacco and guns. More broadly, these are cases of what is often called private regulation, including early initiatives to enforce “corporate social responsibility” and “socially responsible investing.” The final part of the book puts the most surprising developments on display: for-profit, multi-national corporations of all kinds that are taking on the charge. Here Barman highlights corporations that are being pressured to orient their activities toward the social good. This section includes the mainstreaming of investment evaluations by Bloomberg and colleagues that link social welfare to corporate profit. It also tracks the development of multi-national “inclusive businesses” whose core goals include poverty elimination and community development. Caring Capitalism does not examine what these corporations are actually doing to achieve social goods; instead, the book is focused on how they demonstrate such achievements across practically all corporate fields of activity.

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Algorithmes de prix, intelligence artificielle et équilibres collusifs

Frédéric Marty (2017)

Sciences Po OFCE. Working Paper, n°14, 2017-05-01.

Résumé. Les algorithmes de prix mis en oeuvre par des firmes concurrentes peuvent constituer le support de collusions. Les ressources offertes par le Big Data, les possibilités d’ajustement des prix en temps réel et l’analyse prédictive peuvent permettre d’atteindre rapidement et de maintenir durablement des équilibres de collusion tacite. Le recours à l’intelligence artificielle pose un enjeu spécifique en ce sens que l’algorithme peut découvrir de lui-même l’intérêt d’un accord tacite de non-agression et que l’analyse de son processus décisionnel est particulièrement difficile. Ce faisant la sanction de l’entente sur la base du droit des pratiques anticoncurrentielles ne va pas de soi. L’article explore donc les voies de régulation possibles, que celles-ci passent par des audits ou par l’activation de règles de responsabilité.

Abstract. Algorithmic pricing may help competitors to collude. Big Data, real time pricing and predictive analysis may favour a quick reach to tacit collusion agreement and a durable equilibrium. Artificial Intelligence induces a specific issue as the algorithm may autonomously discover the possible gains associated to this kind of non-aggression equilibrium and as it is difficult to make its decisional process accountable. Hence sanctioning this on the ground of anticompetitive practices prohibition is not obvious. This paper explores the alternative ways of regulation as experimentations or implementation of liability rules.

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Moving Institutional Logics Forward: Emotion and Meaningful Material Practice

Roger Friedland (2017)

Organization Studies. Online first.

Abstract. Institutional theory, and the institutional logics approach in particular, lacks the feelings that produce, sustain and disrupt institutional practice. This is due in part to rational, instrumental understandings of the individual in practice, and in part to the cognitive and linguistic understanding of that practice, sustained by classification, qualification and belief. Emotion, a joining of language and bodily affect, is ready at hand for institutional theory. There is increasing recognition that emotion is a powerful device for institutionalization and de-institutionalization. In this essay, I consider emotion’s position in institutional theory and how we might position it in an institutional logics approach. I will argue that emotion not only mediates institutions, but can itself be institutional.

Link to the review

Pre-print version via ResearchGate

The Values of Strategy: Valuation Practices, Rivalry and Strategic Agency

Martin Kornberger (2017)

Organization Studies. Online first.

Abstract. The concept of value is held dear by strategy theorists and practitioners alike as they share a concern about value creation, value propositions, value add, value chains, shareholder value and a plethora of other value constructs. Yet, despite its centrality, the concept of value has attracted limited attention in strategy scholarship. Most commonly, notions of value as profit or utility, inherited from economic theory, are assumed rather than analyzed. This paper advances the discussion of value in the strategy discourse by conceptualizing value as a correlate of valuation practices. Following this view, value is neither understood as the property of an object nor as a subjective preference; rather, values are constituted through valuation practices including rankings, ratings, awards, reviews and other valuation mechanisms that bestow values upon things in the first place. The paper explores this idea through analyzing valuation practices and their constitutive mechanisms; and it exploits this idea for the conceptualization of rivalry and strategic agency. The learnings are two-fold: because goods are ordered, hierarchized and “appreciated” by consumers, critics, competitors and others through mediating valuation practices, it follows that (1) rivalry takes place at the level of valuation practices as they constitute the spaces in which accounts of worth are constructed and contested; and that (2) strategic agency may be understood in relation to an actor’s capacity to cope with and influence these valuation practices.

Link to the review

Version via ResearchGate

Marketing and compromising for sustainability. Competing orders of worth in the North Atlantic

John H. Finch, Susi Geiger & Rachel Joy Harkness (2017)

Marketing Theory, 17(1), pp. 71-93.

Abstract. The purpose of our article is to propose that compromising is a constitutive characteristic of those marketing systems that entail matters of public interest or concern. In such markets, actors design compromises as they encounter criticisms of and contending justifications for the market’s products, as these refer to price, efficiency in production and use, regulatory compliance or ecological sustainability. Tests and justifications are vital in order to determine what is valuable and by which measure. As a theory framework, the economic sociology of conventions provides a basis for assessing these contests, compromises, and justifications over the issue of worth in a marketing context. Through an ethnographic study of the regulated activities of chemicals service companies supporting the upstream petroleum industry, we assess how actors evaluate and justify the market’s products and services in this environmentally sensitive setting by means of tests drawing from different orders of worth: the green, the industrial and the market order. Our contributions show that by artful and pragmatic compromising around exchanges, actors in marketing systems can balance several conflicting orders of worth over the question of worth without needing to converge on an overriding institutional logic.

Link to the article

Proposition d’un sujet de thèse en économie dans le cadre du Concours d’accès aux contrats doctoraux des établissements d’enseignement supérieur

Directeur de thèse : Christian Bessy, IDHE.S ENS Paris-Saclay,
Contact : bessy@idhe.ens-cachan.fr

Titre : Le rôle des conseils en propriété industrielle dans la valorisation des brevets et la construction des marchés de technologie

Mots-clefs : Conseil en brevet, marchés de technologie, évaluation, politique d’innovation

Il existe aujourd’hui une littérature abondante sur le rôle des intermédiaires dans la construction des marchés de technologie, littérature qui se renouvelle aujourd’hui du fait du développement de plateformes numériques d’innovation ouverte. Mais peu est dit sur la place des conseils en propriété industrielle dans la construction de ces marchés de technologie et des différentes fonctions qu’ils accomplissent allant bien au-delà de la rédaction et du dépôt de brevet : mise en relation et rédaction des accords de licence, évaluation des titres de propriété industrielle, règlement des litiges en contrefaçon. Suivant une approche institutionnaliste en économie, ils participent à l’équipement des marchés en contribuant à la définition des catégories juridiques mais aussi des conventions en matière d’évaluation des titres de propriété industrielle et de langage de description des inventions techniques. Cette analyse pourrait s’inscrire dans l’écriture d’une histoire économique contemporaine du droit de la propriété industrielle prenant pleinement en compte le rôle de ces intermédiaires à côté de celui des juristes et des économistes (et des ingénieurs). Il s’agit de comprendre plus précisément depuis les années 1980 l’hyper valorisation que connaît le système de brevet et sa critique récente en matière d’innovation, au nom d’un « retour des communs », en examinant une voie explicative autre que celle qui repose sur le laxisme des offices de propriété industrielle conduisant les examinateurs à accorder des brevets de mauvaise qualité.

Le travail empirique commencerait par une série d’interviews auprès de ces intermédiaires avec la visée de déboucher sur une enquête statistique concernant leur mode d’organisation. Le doctorant pourrait s’appuyer dans un premier temps sur l’annuaire des Conseils en propriété industrielle qui permettrait de réaliser une première cartographie de ces intermédiaires (taille du cabinet, région d’implantation, activités (brevet, marque, dessin et modèle)). Dans un deuxième temps, l’idée serait de construire un échantillon représentatif de ces cabinets de conseil pour leur adresser un questionnaire statistique permettant d’appréhender les formes d’organisation et de gestion de leurs activités, ainsi que leurs stratégies de développement.

Différents indicateurs statistiques permettraient d’éclairer l’action collective de régulation de cette profession et de sa fusion éventuelle avec la profession d’avocats qui existe dans différents pays européens mais qui n’a pas vu le jour en France, malgré des tentatives allant de ce sens depuis une douzaine d’années.

The role of the industrial property attorneys in the valuation of patents and the construction of technology markets

Key words: Patent agents, markets for technology, valuation, innovation policy

Today there is an abundant literature on the role of intermediaries in building markets for patented technology. But little is said about the role of industrial property attorneys in the construction of these markets for technology and different functions they perform well beyond writing and filing of patent: matching between licensor and licensee and design of licensing agreements, assessment of industrial property titles, infringement litigation. Following an institutionalist approach in economics, they participate in the equipment of markets for technology contributing to the definition of the legal categories but also conventions of valuation of the titles of industrial property. This analysis could register in writing a contemporary economic history of the law of industrial property taking full account of the role of these intermediaries beside that of lawyers and economists (and engineers). It comes to understand more precisely since the 1980s the hyper development that knows the patent system and its recent criticism, on behalf of a ‘return of the Commons’, by examining one explanatory path other than that based on the laxity of the industrial property offices driving examiners to grant patents of poor quality. The empirical work would begin with a series of interviews with these intermediaries with the aim to lead to a statistical survey regarding their mode of organization, the way they develop their activities and they manage different resources or assets.

Special Issue « Markets and Classifications. Categorizations and Valuations as Social Processes Structuring Markets » Historical Social Research

Karoline Krenn (Ed.) (2017)

Historical Social Research, 42(1).

In the last couple of years the discussion on market classifications has received new topicality through the unbounded possibilities offered by digital technologies to track behavioral data. Understanding the social foundations of categories and classification systems is a fundamental problem in sociology. In markets, classifications are present in the variety of goods traded, in quality differentiations and their association to goods, and, also their matching with consumers. From a pure business perspective such marking of market identities is based on objective characteristics. In contrast, it is the aim of social science studies to pay attention to the formation of market categories, to examine the social construction processes underlying these classifications and to demonstrate their contingencies. In this vein, the contributions to this HSR Special Issue, which come from various theoretical schools such as the new economic sociology or the economics of convention, present recent research across a range of economic settings: financial markets, fashion markets, consumer markets and others. Despite the varieties of markets and national institution settings, essential resemblances show. Among the topics covered: The case of the French impact investment market, arguing for a dual function of judgment devices, demonstrates the close connection between boundary-building and boundary-blurring. A study on Dutch marketing agents reveals that the same actors who promote new classifications have difficulties in implementing these differentiations in their own performances. The example of self-categorizations in the British ethical fashion industry shows that the relevance of classifications is connected to reputation and power. And, analyses into the US-credit market discuss the off-label of classifications and its adverse societal consequences.

Online open access to the articles

Click on “Table of Contents & Abstracts”, then you can download the full articles via the repository SSOAR.

Public branding audit. A pathway to brand accountability

Sabrina Gabl, Verena E. Wieser & Andrea Hemetsberger (2016)

In Ozcaglar-Toulouse, Nil/Rinallo, Diego/Belk, Russel W. (eds.)(2016): Consumer Culture Theory. Bingley (UK): Emerald Group, pp. 147-167.

Purpose. We stress the public demand for accountability of global brands and the rise in normative public brand evaluations in online networks. To gain an empirical and theoretical understanding of these phenomena, we introduce the notion of public brand auditing, which refers to public agents collectively contrasting brands against a multiplicity of shared understandings of what is worthy and good.
Methodology/approach. Convention theory serves as a theoretical lens to conceptualize public brand auditing, since it provides a normative framework of orders of worth based on which the appropriateness of actions are judged. Empirically, we conduct a netnographic study and illustrate public auditing strategies with online discussions about Google on the Slashdot platform.
Findings. We find that public brand auditing comprises two major auditing strategies: drawing leeways of acceptable brand conduct and allocating responsibilities.
Research implications. Approaching public forms of normative brand judgments from a convention theory perspective allows researchers to better understand how the public holds brands accountable and evaluates brand conduct against higher-order principles.
Practical implications. The concept of public brand auditing helps managers to understand and approach the normative basis of both positive and negative brand judgments.
Social implications. We urge brands to monitor public demand for accountability and emphasize the importance of the civic, market, and industrial orders of worth in guiding brand conduct.
Originality/value. This paper offers a conceptualization of and a framework for investigating public brand auditing phenomena.

Link to emeralinsight

Une approche conventionnaliste du marché du travail fondée sur le recrutement des entreprises, par Guillemette de Larquier

HDR soutenue le 12 décembre 2016 sous la direction de Nadine Levratto

Ce mémoire propose de renouveler la compréhension du fonctionnement du marché du travail, en le faisant reposer sur les logiques de recrutement des entreprises. Par ailleurs, le choix est fait d’adopter une lecture « conventionnaliste » d’une hypothèse « conventionnelle » en économie du travail : les appariements entre travailleurs et entreprises sont risqués et se révèlent hétérogènes, l’Économie des conventions soulevant alors le problème de la définition de la qualité de ces appariements. Le mémoire comprend deux parties de deux chapitres. La première partie – le pouvoir de valorisation de l’entreprise – est consacrée à l’opération, interne aux entreprises, d’attribution d’une valeur aux personnes, c’est-à-dire à l’évaluation des candidats qu’elles sélectionnent ou des salariés en place qu’elles rémunèrent. L’évaluation lors du recrutement est analysée dans le chapitre 2, alors que le chapitre 1 présente la cohérence des conventions d’évaluation présentes dans une entreprise qui coordonne « ses » trois marchés : marchés des produits, des capitaux et du travail. La deuxième partie – les investissements de forme de la fonction d’appariement –met en avant les activités de mise en relation qui se réalisent sur le marché du travail. Les intermédiaires et les canaux qui « mettent en forme » le marché (en définissant ses règles, ses frontières et le format de l’information) sont présentés dans le chapitre 3. Le chapitre 4 propose enfin une typologie de dynamiques d’appariement en partant du recours des entreprises aux canaux qu’elles mobilisent pour s’adresser à leur marché externe, ce qui implique l’appui sur certains investissements de forme plutôt que d’autres.

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Jury :
Olivier Favereau, Professeur émérite, Université Paris Nanterre
Jérôme Gautié, Professeur, Université de Paris 1, rapporteur
Florence Jany-Catrice, Professeur, Université de Lille 1, rapporteur
François Legendre, Professeur, Université Paris-Est-Créteil, président
Nadine Levratto, Directeur de recherche, CNRS, Université Paris Nanterre, référente

A conventionalist approach of the labour market based on firms’ recruitment

This thesis proposes to renew the understanding of the functioning of the labour market, with the hypothesis that this functionning relies on the logic of firms’ recruitment. Moreover, the choice was made to adopt a « conventionalist » approach of a « conventional » hypothesis in labour economics: the matches between workers and firms are risky and heterogeneous, and the French school of Economics of conventions raises the issue of the definition of the quality of these matches. The thesis has two parts, each one with two chapters. The first part – the power of valuation of firms – is dedicated to the operation, internal to firms, assigning a value to people, that is to say the assessment of applicants they select and of employees they pay. The assessment during recruitment and selection is discussed in Chapter 2, while Chapter 1 presents the consistency of the conventions of valuation present in a firm which is coordinating « its » three markets: product, capital and labour markets. The second part – the “investments in forms” of the matching function – emphasizes the matchmaking activities that take place in the labour market. Intermediaries and channels that « shape » the market (by setting its rules, boundaries and format of information) are presented in Chapter 3. Finally, Chapter 4 proposes a typology of matching dynamics based on the channels that the firms use to address their external market, which implies the support on specific “investments in form” rather than on others.

 

Does the formalization of practices enhance equal hiring opportunities? An analysis of a French nation-wide employer survey

Guillemette de Larquier & Emmanuelle Marchal (2016)

Socio-Economic Review, vol. 14, n° 3, p. 567-589

Abstract. This article addresses the formalization of hiring processes and its impact on the type of the employee hired. Using the French Offre d’emploi et recrutement (OFER) survey on the hiring practices of 3584 firms in 2005, we investigate how firms organize the selection of job applicants and analyse the outcome of this selection with regard to the profiles of successful applicants. The data analysis reveals four types of screening processes: an informal process (streamlined) and three formalized processes (writtenbased, testing and professionalized). The use of a type of screening process depends on the constraints and resources of the firm and on the expected type of match. Finally, logit regressions show that personal and professional networks tend to penalize women and formal testing screening processes seem to favour unemployed or inactive people, whereas the formalized screening processes are likely to penalize individuals without diplomas.

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Handling paradoxical tensions through conventions: The case of performance appraisal

Arjan Kozica and Julia Brandl (2015)

German Journal of Research in Human Resource Management 29(1), pp. 49-68.

Abstract. In this paper, we investigate how conventions enable organisational actors to cope with paradoxical tensions in performance appraisal systems. Building on a case study of a performance appraisal system reform in a public sector organisation, we analyse how this organisation enableds superiors to take into account both accountability and professional logic. When new appraisal rules required superiors to rank their employees according to their qualifications but also to show collegiate solidarity, superiors negotiated an organisation-wide understanding of the rules that enabled them to address both logics simultaneously. The study underlines the importance of collective understandings for individual responses to paradoxical tensions and reveals how performance appraisal systems can be operated according to different logics.