Transformation durch Bildungsdigitalisierung? Zur Governance der digitalen Schulwelt

Transformation through Educational Digitization? On the Governance of the Digital School World

Mario Steinberg (2021)

SWS Rundschau, 61(4), pp. 431-451

Digitalisierung hat spätestens mit der COVID-19-Pandemie in den Schulen Einzug gehalten. Doch bereits vor den pandemiebedingten Schulschließungen waren Bildungsinstitutionen Gegenstand zahlreicher Digitalisierungsformen. Der vorliegende Beitrag analysiert aus einer akteur*innenzentrierten Perspektive, wie Akteur*innen auf verschiedenen Ebenen den Umgang mit Digitalisierung rechtfertigen, den Wert des Digitalen für ihre Lebenspraxis beurteilen und damit an der Umsetzung von Digitalisierungsreformen mitwirken. Exemplarisch dargestellt werden Rechtfertigungspraxen von Lehrpersonen, Schulleiter*innen und „innovativen“ Lehrpersonen, die unter dem Begriff des „Educators“ zusammengefasst werden. Die Analyse erfolgt unter Zuhilfenahme der Soziologie der Konventionen. Der Beitrag diskutiert, wie sich institutionelle Beziehungen und Praktiken im Governance-Regime der Digitalisierung konstituieren und welche Akteur*innen die digitale Transformation auf der Ebene der  Akteur*innen wie beeinflussen.

Abstract. Digitalization and digitization have found their ways into schools at the latest with the COVID-19 pandemic. But even before the pandemic-related school closures, educational institutions were the subject of numerous digitization reforms. The article analyses from an actor-centred perspective how actors at different levels of the education system justify the use of digitization, assess the value of the digital for their life practices and thus participate in the implementation of digitization reforms. Exemplary justification practicies of teachers, head teachers and „innovative“ teachers, who can be summarized under the term „educreator“, are being reviewed. The analysis is carried out with the support of the sociology of conventions. The article discusses how institutional relations and practices are constituted in the governance regime of digitization, and more particularly, which actors influence the digital transformation at the actor level and how.

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The Quantification of Bodies in Health: Multidisciplinary Perspectives

Btihaj Ajana, Joaquim Braga & Simone Guidi (2021)

Bingley: Emerald Publishers.

Extract from the Introduction (p. 1-12): “But often, consciously or unconsciously, one tends to be ‘oriented’ towards particular norms or conventions that are not wholly self-generated but originating from external sources and standardised measures – for instance, the recommendation to eat five vegetables or fruits a day and walk 10,000 steps per day which became the baseline for healthy active lifestyle. A similar argument could be made vis-à-vis the design of self-tracking devices and apps, which is mostly decided by technology companies themselves who introduce and embed new standards and categories which determine what is measured and why (Cappel, 2021, p. 240). As Diaz-Bone (2021, p. 305) postulates: ‘The categories (and algorithms) have been implemented by technology companies and the resulting categories and data are in many cases neither controlled nor understood by users or adopted to their health practices and their health situation. The underlying measurement conventions are invisible for users and in case the data is transferred to the provider of the app, there is also an informational asymmetry in data analysis and its economical exploitation.’ Herein lies one of the challenges and limits of contemporary forms of digital body quantification and self-tracking. Despite the promise of individual autonomy and agency, users are still bound by the design choices of product developers, by existing norms around health and by the market forces of data capitalism.” (p. 6)

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Frames of reference in managing employment from the perspective of economics of conventions

Julia Brandl (2022)

Industrial Relations. Online first

Abstract. In their contribution to this symposium, John W. Budd, Dionne Pohler, and Wei Huang provided directions for understanding how conflicts and human resource (HR) practices are influenced by framing processes. The current literature on frames in the field of human resources and industrial relations tends to view individual actors as representatives of theories on employment relationship, and it focuses on the formal side of HR practices. These features limit scholars’ scope and ability to address the agency of the actors involved in framing processes, particularly employees. Therefore, this article develops an analytical perspective based on the economics of conventions to help realize the promise of Budd, Pohler, and Huang’s work for a deeper understanding of the co-construction of frames and changes in HR practices in work organizations.

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Familiar strangers – managing engagements in public-private partnerships in education

Mathilde Hjerrild Carlsen (2021)

Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, pp. 1-14.

Abstract. Various forms of public-private collaborative organizations have been emerging in the education sector, a development that has made managing public-private partnerships an unavoidable imperative for school managers today. Addressing interactions between the partnership manager of and partners in a public-private innovation partnership, this article explores the attachments public and private actors establish in the framework of such partnerships. While formal structures often bind partnerships together, open innovation partnerships have a more fluid organization in which the participants have to establish the ground for their common work. Specifically, the article presents a study of a Danish partnership project aimed at developing a new secondary school. Drawing on the sociology of engagements, the article sketches out the differing forms of mutual engagements at stake between the actors involved and the challenges they face. As the partnership studied lacked formal agreements, the manager’s and partners’ locally performed acts of proximity became a means of binding the partnership together. In these acts, a mutual explorative engagement intertwined with a familiar engagement, thus creating a distinct attachment of familiar strangers between the public and private actors – an attachment through which ideas on education and common educational visions could traverse the public and private sectors.

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The Place of Greening: Comparing Civic Engagement Scenes of Urban Natures across Danish Cities

Anders Blok, Amanda K. Juvik, Anna Helene Kvist Møller, Jonas Skjold Raaschou-Pedersen & Jakob Laage-Thomsen (2022)

City & Community. Online first

Abstract. As elsewhere in Europe, cities in Denmark have witnessed a surge in civic urban nature engagement, such as place- and practice-based initiatives (e.g., public-access community gardens, organic food collectives, and grazing associations that enhance biodiversity). While this expansion of urban green communities, as we call them, is widely noted in the literature, less attention has been paid to the comparative variability of their local civic expression. In this article, we use digital methods to map out the group styles, the spatial intergroup networks, and the cultural-political value landscapes of 130 urban green communities across the four largest cities in Denmark. To compare results, we develop the concept of “civic engagement scenes” as a way of responding to recent developments in cultural and political sociology. Overall, we show how this notion allows for interpreting civic greening groups: they are neither neighborhood-based endeavors nor hubs of social movement mobilization, but rather geographies of co-engagement that span cities while also forge new senses and practices of place.

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International Large-Scale Assessments and Education System Reform. On the Power of Numbers

Melanie Ehren (2021)

In: Nilsen, Trude/Stancel-PiątakJan, Agnes/Gustafsson, Eric (eds.), International Handbook of Comparative Large-Scale Studies in Education. Perspectives, Methods and Findings. Springer Living Edition. Online

Abstract. International large-scale assessments, such as PISA and TIMSS, have had a profound effect on educational policy and school accountability. In an open letter to the OECD in 2014, a large number of academics expressed their concerns over the continuous cycle of global testing and how it negatively affects student’s well-being and impoverishes classrooms, as it inevitably involves more and longer batteries of multiple-choice testing, more scripted “vendor”-made lessons, and less autonomy for teachers. Others have pointed to the ways in which international large-scale assessments have opened up education systems and built country’s assessment capacities. This chapter reviews the ways in which international standardized assessments permeate national policy and school-level decision-making, drawing on the sociology of numbers to understand the appeal of standardization and benchmarking. The OECD initiative “PISA for Schools” is described and how it potentially extends the influence of international assessments on the classroom. An alternative project within the OECD (the “Strategic Education Governance” project) is presented and how the approach of case studies and learning seminars allows countries to learn more holistically about how to hold schools accountable and improve education. Openness, situational awareness, and a consideration for the complexity of successful reform are presented as necessary “habits of mind” to successfully improve learning outcomes. The final conclusion reflects on the limitations and potential usage of international large-scale assessments for effective education reform.

Extract: “The Power of Numbers
The appeal of international large-scale assessments and their rankings is a topic that has been studied for a number of years. Various studies on “the sociology of quantification” (e.g., Espeland and Stevens, 1998, 2008; Espeland and Sauder, 2007; Frey et al., 2013) talk about the “power of numbers and rankings” and how these have legitimacy over more qualitative information. One of the groundworks in the field is Desrosières’ (1998) book The Politics of Large Numbers which questions the relationship between quantification and government and analyzes the processes of production and communication of numbers and numeric data in relation to the political power they unleash (Diaz-Bone and Didier, 2016). Subsequent studies, such as by Espeland and colleagues, further regarded the way societies produce their own categories and nomenclature, how numbers are used and change our understanding of diffuse qualities, and how quantitative information has become an increasingly dominant form of information to coordinate, evaluate, and value.” (p. 7)

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(Be-)rechenbare Zukunft: Digitale Selbstvermessung und ihre Bewertungsordnungen

Predictable future: digital self-measurement and its assessment orders

Karolin Eva Kappler & Eryk Noji (2022)

In: Eryk Noji, Uwe Vormbusch, Arndt Neumann & Uwe Steiner (eds.), Figurationen von Unsicherheit. Wiesbaden: Springer VS, pp. 161-190

Zusammenfassung. Der Beitrag untersucht, wie Nutzer*innen von Selbstvermessungsapplikationen zum Zwecke der Selbstinspektion und -arbeit diese in ihren Alltag integrieren, wie sie diese Integration praktisch rechtfertigen und so mit Sinn versehen. Wir tun dies empirisch mithilfe einer Heuristik, die sich an der Soziologie der Kritik und der Ökonomie der Konventionen orientiert. Gegenwartsdiagnostisch analysieren wir die Selbstvermessung als eine spezifische, durch Daten und Quantifizierung vermittelte Antwort auf normative und kognitive Unsicherheiten. Selbstvermessung repräsentiert insofern ein für die Gegenwart paradigmatisches Handlungsfeld, als die Ausdehnung des gesellschaftlichen Zahlengebrauchs die Voraussetzung und das Medium darstellt, systemisch stabilisierte Handlungszwänge (der ‚Steigerung‘ ebenso wie der ‚Entdeckung‘) mit dem modernen Leitmotiv individueller Sorge um sich zu verbinden.

Abstract. This paper investigates how users of self-measurement applications for the purpose of self-inspection and self-work integrate them into their everyday lives, how they practically justify this integration, and how they thus endow them with meaning. We do this empirically using heuristics inspired by the sociology of critique and the economics of convention. In terms of contemporary diagnosis, we analyze self-measurement as a specific response to normative and cognitive uncertainty mediated by data and quantification. Self-measurement represents a paradigmatic field of action for the present insofar as the expansion of society’s use of numbers provides the precondition and medium for linking systemically stabilized constraints on action (of ‘increase’ as well as ‘discovery’) with the modern leitmotif of individual concern for oneself.

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Des compétences aux qualités professionnelles. Les repères de la sélection des candidats à l’emploi et leur évaluation

From Skills to Professional Qualities
Job Selection Markers and their Evaluation

Guillemette de Larquier & Emmanuelle Marchal (2020)

Travail et emploi, 2020/4 – published 2022, no 163, pp. 5-43

Résumé. L’enquête Offre d’emploi et recrutement (Dares, 2016) permet d’analyser les déclarations spontanées des recruteurs pour préciser ce qui détermine la sélection des candidats à l’emploi: de un à trois critères sont cités avec une grande variété de formulations (N =18 788 occurrences). Une analyse de données met en évidence leur agencement d’après les niveaux de qualification. Trois registres de sélection, traduisant des attentes distinctes à l’égard de la main-d’œuvre, sont identifiés : les capacités à s’investir dans son travail, à évoluer dans l’entreprise et à interagir avec autrui. Selon la mobilisation séparée ou conjointe des registres, nous dégageons quatre classes de recrutement, décrites d’après les caractéristiques des entreprises, des emplois et des profils de candidats recrutés. Enfin, nous mettons en évidence les méthodes de recrutement et de sélection associées à ces différentes classes. Les résultats soulignent l’importance des contextes de recrutement dans le choix des qualités valorisées par les recruteurs, et mettent à mal l’idée d’une transversalité des compétences nécessaire à l’occupation des emplois.

Extrait: “En économie des conventions (Larquier, 2016), on considère que la compétence des travailleurs n’est pas une donnée naturelle qu’il s’agit juste de communiquer à un employeur potentiel (via des canaux de recrutement efficaces) ou de révéler (grâce à des méthodes de sélection fiables et non biaisées) ; le recrutement est « un processus de construction des compétences, et non un processus de révélation de celles-ci » (Marchal, 2015, p. 15). Ce qu’est un bon candidat relève d’un jugement fondé sur des conventions de compétences plurielles en fonction des emplois, des entreprises, des professions, des activités, etc.” (p. 6)

Abstract. The Offre d’emploi et recrutement Survey (Dares, 2016) analyses the spontaneous declarations of recruiters to specify what determines the selection of job candidates: from 1 to 3 criteria are cited with a wide variety of formulations (N=18,788 occurrences). Data analysis highlights their dispersion according to qualification levels. Three selection registers, reflecting different expectations about the workforce, are identified: the abilities to involve oneself in one’s work, to evolve within the firm and to interact with others. According to the separate or joint mobilization of these registers, we identify four recruitment classes, described according to characteristics of firms, jobs and the profiles of recruited candidates. Finally, we highlight the recruitment and selection methods associated with these different classes. The results underline the importance of recruitment contexts in the choice of qualities valued by recruiters, and undermine the idea of the transversal nature of the skills required to be employed.

Excerpt: “In economics of convention (Larquier, 2016), workers’ competence is not considered a natural given that it is just a matter of communicating to a potential employer (via efficient recruitment channels) or revealing (through reliable and unbiased selection methods); recruitment is “a process of constructing competences, not a process of revealing them” (Marchal, 2015, p. 15). What a good candidate is is a judgment based on plural conventions of competencies according to jobs, companies, professions, activities, etc.” (p. 6)

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Koordination und Kompromiss in föderalen Bildungssystemen. Umkämpfte Institutionalisierung eines neuen Zugangswegs in die Lehrpersonenbildung

Coordination and compromise in federal education systems.
Embattled institutionalization of a new access route into teacher education

Sandra Hafner (2022)

Wiesbaden: Springer VS. Open access.

Über das Buch. In vielen Ländern bereitet traditionell das Gymnasium auf die Lehramtsausbildung vor. Diese multimethodische Open Access Studie befasst sich mit der umkämpften Institutionalisierung eines zweiten, alternativen Zugangswegs (Fachmittelschule) in die Lehrpersonenbildung in der Schweiz. Mit der Analyse von Kritik, Konflikt und Kompromiss werden Prozesse der Harmonisierung von Bildung bei gleichzeitiger Bewahrung von regionalen Eigenheiten untersucht. Die Studie leistet damit einen Beitrag zur Erklärung von bildungspolitischer Handlungskoordination in föderalen Bildungssystemen.
Ebenso nimmt die Studie die Fachmittelschule und das Gymnasium vergleichend als schulische Dispositive in den Blick. Anhand von Fallstudien wird gezeigt, wie die beteiligten schulischen Akteur*innen diese Dispositive konstruieren und (de-)valorisieren, und wie daraus unterschiedliche Sozialisationsumgebungen für Jugendliche entstehen. Auf dieser Grundlage lässt sich die unterschiedliche Bedeutung der beiden Schultypen für die Lehrpersonenbildung erklären. Damit wirft die Studie eine neuen, konventionensoziologischen Blick auf Schulkultur(en) als Wertigkeitsdispositive und ermöglicht eine institutionelle Perspektive auf die Formung von Berufs- und Studienwahlmotiven.”

About the book. In many countries, the Gymnasium traditionally prepares students for teacher education. This multi-method open access study addresses the contested institutionalization of a second, alternative entry route (Fachmittelschule) into teacher education in Switzerland. By analyzing critique, conflict, and compromise, the study examines processes of harmonizing education while preserving regional characteristics. The study thus contributes to the explanation of education policy action coordination in federal education systems.
The study also takes a comparative look at the Fachmittelschule and the Gymnasium as school dispositives. Case studies are used to show how the school actors involved construct and (de-)valorize these dispositives, and how this results in different socialization environments for young people. On this basis, the different importance of the two types of schools for teacher education can be explained. Thus, the study casts a new gaze from sociology of conventions on school culture(s) as dispositives of value and enables an institutional perspective on the shaping of career and study choice motives.

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NFT-Gemälde und Songrechte: Das neue Geschäft mit der alten Kunst.

Der Verkauf ikonischer Meisterwerke als NFTs geht Hand in Hand mit dem Milliardengeschäft der Songrechte in der Musikindustrie

NFT paintings and song rights: the new business with old art.
The sale of iconic masterpieces as NFTs goes hand in hand with the billion-dollar business of son-g rights in the music industry

Stefan Weiss (2022)

Der Standard 11 März 2022

Auszug: “Zusammengenommen sind NFT- und Songrechtehandel die aktuellsten Belege für eine neue Form des Kulturkapitalismus, die die Soziologen Luc Boltanski und Arnaud Esquerre in ihrem 2018 erschienenen Buch Bereicherung (Suhrkamp) mit Blick auf die analoge Welt beschrieben: eine Ökonomie, die “sich nicht in erster Linie auf die Produktion von neuen Objekten, sondern vor allem auf die Aufwertung bereits vorhandener Objekte” stützt.”

Excerpt: “Taken together, NFT and song rights trades are the most recent evidence of a new form of cultural capitalism described by sociologists Luc Boltanski and Arnaud Esquerre in their 2018 book Bereicherung (Suhrkamp), which looks at the analog world: an economy that “relies not primarily on the production of new objects, but primarily on the valorization of existing objects.”

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La gouvernance de l’entreprise de demain sera partageé!

The governance of the company of tomorrow will be shared!

Benoît Halgand, Frédérique Lellouche & Pierre Victoria (2022)

Paris: Fondation Jean Jaurès

À la suite du rapprochement entre Veolia et Suez, quel rôle pour les administrateurs salariés ? Quels enseignements pour la gouvernance de l’entreprise ? Benoît Halgand, collaborateur de la CFDT, Frédérique Lellouche, secrétaire confédérale de la CFDT en charge de la RSE et de la gouvernance, et Pierre Victoria, expert associé à la Fondation et ancien directeur du développement durable de Veolia, évoquent dans cette note en partenariat avec la CFDT ce que devrait être la gouvernance dans les entreprises futures.

Extrait: “On peut se demander s’il faut des administrateurs référents sur la question écologique, ou plus largement des représentants des différentes parties prenantes au sein du conseil d’administration. Comme l’explique Olivier Favereau, économiste, ‘supposer que l’on puisse aller vers l’entreprise à mission sans modifier la gouvernance interne de l’entreprise, c’est absolument ingérable’. Cependant, il faut distinguer les parties constituantes de l’entreprise – que sont les actionnaires et les salariés – et les parties prenantes. Les premières ont pris des risques, en investissant leur capital ou leur temps de travail dans le projet collectif qu’est l’entreprise, et doivent donc être intégrées pleinement à sa gouvernance.
En revanche, les questions de développement durable doivent être pleinement intégrées dans les réflexions stratégiques du conseil et les administrateurs salariés doivent y être particulièrement vigilants. À l’heure où les salariés sont de plus en plus volontaires pour être acteurs de la transition écologique, leurs représentants doivent être pleinement intégrés à la gouvernance pour en être les porte-voix. C’est l’avis d’Olivier Favereau qui ajoute : ‘l n’y aura pas de transition écologique sans passer à la codétermination. Les intérêts financiers doivent avoir un contrepoids fort dans la gouvernance de l’entreprise et les personnes qui ont le plus intérêt à ce qu’une entreprise ne saccage pas son environnement sont les salariés. » Ils doivent pour ce faire, mais c’est aussi le cas de l’ensemble du conseil d’administration, être formés aux enjeux de la transition écologique et solidaire.’” (p. 14)

Following the merger between Veolia and Suez, what role for employee directors? What lessons can be learned for corporate governance? Benoît Halgand, a CFDT employee, Frédérique Lellouche, CFDT Confederal Secretary in charge of CSR and governance, and Pierre Victoria, an expert associated with the Foundation and former Director of Sustainable Development at Veolia, discuss in this note in partnership with the CFDT what governance should be in future companies.

Excerpt: “One might ask whether there is a need for directors with a focus on ecological issues, or more broadly, for representatives of the various stakeholders on the board of directors. As economist Olivier Favereau explains, ‘assuming that we can move towards a company with a mission without changing the internal governance of the company is absolutely unmanageable’. However, a distinction must be made between the constituent parts of the company – shareholders and employees – and the stakeholders. The former have taken risks, by investing their capital or their working time in the collective project that is the company, and must therefore be fully integrated into its governance.
On the other hand, sustainable development issues must be fully integrated into the Board’s strategic thinking, and employee directors must be particularly vigilant. At a time when employees are increasingly willing to take part in the ecological transition, their representatives must be fully integrated into governance in order to be its spokespersons. This is the opinion of Olivier Favereau, who adds: ‘There will be no ecological transition without moving to co-determination. Financial interests must have a strong counterweight in corporate governance, and the people who have the greatest interest in a company not trashing its environment are the employees. In order to do this, but this is also the case for the entire board of directors, they must be trained in the challenges of the ecological and solidarity transition.’” (p. 14)

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The Multiple Citizen and School as a Compromising Device of Citizenships

Reinhold Hedtke (2022)

AB 9 Social Science Education, Working Papers No. 13
Bielefeld: University of Bielefeld.

Contents
Introduction
1 Économie des conventions and the concept of situation
2 The conditions of citizenship education and the multiple citizen
3 The school as a compromising device
4 Methodological situationalism and interlinked situations
5 International comparison as inter-situational comparison
Conclusion

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Datenintermediäre als Fairness-Akteure in der Datenökonomie

Data intermediaries as fairness actors in the data economy

Markus Uhlmann, Jonathan Kropf & Jörn Lamla (2022)

Vortrag 15 der Reihe „Zu treuen Händen“ / Lecture 15 of the series “In Faithful Hands”
Düsseldorf: Verbraucherzentrale NRW.

Abstract. Herausforderungen der Datenökonomie werden zunehmend unter Gesichtspunkten der Fairness diskutiert. Zentral ist dabei die Einsicht, dass neben Problemen der missbräuchlichen Verwendung personenbezogener Daten verstärkt Fragen nach der gerechten Verteilung datenökonomischer Erlöse oder der Manipulation und Diskriminierung durch Algorithmen relevant werden. Dabei kann die Frage der Fairness als Frage der fairen Vermittlung verschiedener Werte verstanden werden, bei der auch Trade-offs und Grenzen von Modellen der Wertvermittlung reflektiert werden müssen. Datentreu-händer verstehen wir in diesem Zusammenhang als Instanzen, die genau diese Ver-mittlung leisten wollen und sich insofern als „Fairness-Akteure“ positionieren.
Zur Konzeptualisierung datenökonomischer Fairness unterscheiden wir drei Ebenen: Erstens wird sondiert, inwiefern sich unterschiedliche Werte in eine übergreifende ökonomische Sprache der Preise übersetzen und darin fair verrechnen lassen (Verrechnung). Zweitens wird ausgelotet, inwiefern durch ökonomische Gestaltungsmacht mit technischen Mitteln eine faire Koexistenz verschiedener Wertordnungen realisiert wer-den kann (Design). Drittens wird geprüft, inwiefern durch Prozesse der Konfliktmediation seitens der Datenintermediäre eine Kultur der Fairness befördert werden kann, die eine Aushandlung von Wertkonflikten durch Beteiligte und Betroffene ermöglicht (Kultivierung). Im Artikel wird diese Perspektive auf datenökonomische Fairness, die wir im interdisziplinären BMBF-Verbundprojekt „Faire digitale Dienste: Ko-Valuation in der Gestaltung datenökonomischer Geschäftsmodelle (FAIRDIENSTE)“ ausloten, exemplarisch auf Ansätze und Projekte der Datentreuhänderschaft bezogen. Inwiefern können Datenintermediäre als Fairness-Akteure in der Datenökonomie auftreten und wirken? Welche Fairnesskonzepte zeigen sich in ihren Lösungsmodellen und wie sind diese mit Blick auf Aspekte einer fairen Wertvermittlung und der zugehörigen (theoretischen) Diskussion über Fairness in der Datenökonomie einzuschätzen?

Auszug: “III. FAIRNESS IN DER DATENÖKONOMIE: ÖKONOMIE DER KONVENTIONEN UND ANSÄTZE DER KO-VALUATION
Die für die Frage datenökonomischer Fairness zentrale Auseinandersetzung mit unter-schiedlichen Gerechtigkeitsvorstellungen und ihrer Vermittlung spielt insbesondere in Über die Rechtfertigung von Luc Boltanski und Laurent Thévenot (2007) eine Schlüs-selrolle. Ausgangspunkt sind hier sogenannte „kritische Momente“ (Boltanski und Thévenot 2011, 43), in denen Akteur:innen Probleme in der Koordination ihres gemein-samen Handelns identifizieren und Kritik üben.” (S. 6)

Abstract. The challenges of the data economy are increasingly being discussed from the point of view of fairness. The central insight here is that, in addition to problems of misuse of personal data, questions about the fair distribution of data-economic proceeds or manipulation and discrimination by algorithms are becoming increasingly relevant. In this context, the question of fairness can be understood as a question of the fair mediation of different values, in which trade-offs and limits of models of value mediation must also be reflected. In this context, we understand data fiduciaries as entities that want to provide exactly this mediation and thus position themselves as “fairness actors”.
To conceptualize data-economic fairness, we distinguish three levels: First, we explore the extent to which different values can be translated into an overarching economic language of prices and fairly accounted for therein (accounting). Second, we explore the extent to which economic design power can realize a fair coexistence of different value systems by technical means (design). Third, we examine the extent to which a culture of fairness can be promoted through processes of conflict mediation on the part of data intermediaries, enabling the negotiation of value conflicts by those involved and those affected (cultivation). In the article, this perspective on data-economic fairness, which we are exploring in the interdisciplinary BMBF joint project “Fair digital services: co-evaluation in the design of data-economic business models (FAIRDIENSTE)”, is related to data trusteeship approaches and projects as an example. To what extent can data intermediaries act and function as fairness actors in the data economy? Which fairness concepts are revealed in their solution models and how are these to be assessed with regard to aspects of fair value mediation and the related (theoretical) discussion about fairness in the data economy?

Extract: “III. FAIRNESS IN DATA ECONOMICS: ECONOMICS OF CONVENTIONS AND APPROACHES TO CO-EVALUATION
The discussion of different notions of fairness and their mediation, which is central to the question of data economic fairness, plays a key role in particular in On Justification by Luc Boltanski and Laurent Thévenot (2007). The starting point here are so-called “critical moments” (Boltanski and Thévenot 2011, 43), in which actors identify problems in the coordination of their collective action and criticize them.” (p. 6)

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Voluntary health insurance markets in France: Economic rationales and legal mechanisms

Philippe Batifoulier & Anne-Sophie Ginon (2022)

HAL archive (preprint). Open access.

Abstract. In France, there are two types of health insurance: compulsory public health insurance and voluntary private health insurance which is organized as a market. This paper deals with private health insurance. We define the market place (position and scope) according to two criteria. On the one hand, the standardization or differentiation strategies of the insurance companies, which structure competition through quality and innovation. Secondly, the type of pooling (or mutualisation) at work in insurance contracts, distinguishing between commercial pooling and solidarity-based pooling. We draw up a typology of four “ideal-type” market configurations: residual market, educated market, polarized market and autonomous market.

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