Ein neuer Geist des Kapitalismus? Quantitative Analyse von Deutschschweizer Print-Stellenanzeigen (1955–2005) und ihre zeitdiagnostische Bedeutung

Julia Bannwart, Anna Laura Ludwig, Nora Moser & Robert Schäfer (2020)

Swiss Journal of Sociology. Online first, pp. 1-40. Open acess.

Zusammenfassung. Boltanski und Chiapello formulieren die These, dass sich der Geist des Kapitalismus im Verlauf des 20. Jahrhunderts gewandelt habe. Im Zentrum des neuen Geistes würden nicht mehr Fleiss, Disziplin und Ordentlichkeit stehen, sondern Passion, Authentizität oder Kreativität. Dieser Beitrag widmet sich der Frage, ob die Qualifikationsanforderungen in Deutschschweizer Stellenanzeigen auf die Existenz eines neuen Geistes schliessen lassen. Die Resultate verweisen auf ein Revival der disziplinbezogenen Qualifikationen und zeigen, dass passionsbezogene Qualifikationen nicht substituierend, sondern ergänzend nachgefragt werden.

A New Spirit of Capitalism? Quantitative Analysis of Swiss-German Print Job Advertisements (1955–2005) and Their Time Diagnostic Relevance

Abstract. Boltanski and Chiapello put forward the thesis that the spirit of capitalism has fundamentally changed in the course of the 20th century. According to them, diligence, discipline and orderliness are no longer at the core of the new spirit, but values such as passion, authenticity or creativity. Following this line of thought, this contribution analyzes whether the qualifications required in Swiss-German job advertisements suggest the existence of such a new spirit. The results point to a revival of discipline-related qualifications and show that passion-related qualifications are not demanded as their substitutes, but rather in addition.

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Surveillance under dispute: Conceptualising narrative legitimation politics

Christopher Smith Ochoa, Frank Gadinger & Taylan Yildiz (2020)

European Journal of International Security. Online first

Abstract. Current debates about surveillance demonstrate the complexity of political controversies whose uncertainty and moral ambiguities render normative consensus difficult to achieve. The question of how to study political controversies remains a challenge for IR scholars. Critical security studies scholars have begun to examine political controversies around surveillance by exploring changing security practices in the everyday. Yet, (de)legitimation practices have hitherto not been the focus of analysis. Following recent practice-oriented research, we develop a conceptual framework based on the notion of ‘narrative legitimation politics’. We first introduce the concept of ‘tests’ from Boltanski’s pragmatic sociology to categorise the discursive context and different moral reference points (truth, reality, existence). Second, we combine pragmatic sociology with narrative analysis to enable the study of dominant justificatory practices. Third, we develop the framework through a practice-oriented exploration of the Snowden controversy with a focus on the US and Germany. We identify distinct justificatory practices in each test format linked to narrative devices (for example, plots, roles, metaphors) whose fluid, contested dynamics have the potential to effect change. The framework is particularly relevant for IR scholars interested in legitimacy issues, the normativity of practices, and the power of narratives.

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Disasterland

An Ethnography of the International Disaster Community

Sandrine Revet (2010)

Cham: Palgrave Macmillan/Springer.

This book analyses the making of the international world of ‘natural’ disasters by its professionals. Through a long-term ethnographic study of this arena, the author unveils the various elements that are necessary for the construction of an international world: a collective narrative, a shared language, and standardized practices. The book analyses the two main framings that these professionals use to situate themselves with regards to a disaster: preparedness and resilience, arguing that the making of the world of ‘natural’ disasters reveals how heterogeneous, conflicting, and sometimes competing elements are put together.

Extract. « This book does not focus on how disaster victim populations explain and seek meaning in the upheaval they have experienced. It instead trains its attention on “natural” disaster professionals and the way in which they analyze, interpret, and understand these events. It also seeks to show what these people mobilize to deal with disasters or diminish their impacts. In this regard, it draws on pragmatic sociology (Boltanski and Thévenot 1995) and its concepts of “regimes of action” or “regimes of engagement” (Thévenot 2006), to examine the relationship between the apparatuses utilized by these professionals faced with brutal events they are expected to mitigate and the explanatory frameworks, or their way of attributing causes to such events. » (p. 8)

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Money: Instrument of Exchange or Social Institution of Value?

André Orléan (2020)

In: P. Alary, J. Blanc, L. Desmedt & B. Théret (eds.), Institutionalist Theories of Money. An Anthology of the French School. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan/Springer, pp. 239-264.

Extract. “It is striking that many sociologists observe that their discipline has failed  to establish an adequate intellectual framework for the systematic analysis of money. […] How is such a deficiency of sociological thought to be explained— that is, the absence of a general conception of money which would be ‘coherent’ and ‘systematic’? Let us begin by dismissing the notion that this discipline should have intentionally removed this object from its field of study because it was ‘insufficiently sociological’. This proposition is quite simply absurd. To be convinced of its absurdity, one need only read the important work of some contemporary sociologists. If there is such a deficiency, it relates to sociology in general. The existence of notable exceptions leaves no doubt as to the relevance and originality of the sociological perspective in monetary matters.” (239/240)

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Introduction à la sociologie pragmatique française

Conférence de Florence Padovani. Conference 8 December 2020, Bejing, China. Conference report.

Le 8 décembre 2020, Florence Padovani, directrice du CFC, a donné une conférence à l’Université normale de Pékin (BNU) pour une classe d’étudiants en master de sociologie sur le thème de la sociologie pragmatique française. Cette conférence fait suite aux échanges organisés en mai 2019 à BNU par le CFC et l’Ecole de sociologie de BNU. Le CFC avait alors accueilli les sociologues Laurent Thévenot, Romuald Normand, Marc Breviglieri et Camille Salgues pour présenter leurs travaux.

On December 8, 2020, Florence Padovani, director of the CFC, gave a lecture at the Beijing Normal University (BNU) for a class of master’s students in sociology on the theme of French pragmatic sociology. This conference follows the exchanges organized in May 2019 at BNU by the CFC and the School of Sociology of BNU. The CFC had then welcomed sociologists Laurent Thévenot, Romuald Normand, Marc Breviglieri and Camille Salgues to present their work.

The Contest for Materiality. What Counts as CSR?

Dirk Raith (2020):

Preprint on Researchgate

Abstract. Materiality” in reporting is about what counts. In non-financial reporting, it has become a key principle lately. Reporting in that field is still largely voluntary, and the materiality principle is supposed to balance the perils and promises of such an approach. While its need, as a principle, is therefore usually agreed upon, its actual meaning remains to be contested. The article exemplifies these claims based on an indepth analysis of the recent European Union’s Directive 2014/95/EU on non-financial reporting, including its history and conflicting interpretations. Indeed, true to the EU’s 2011 “new definition of CSR”, the 2014 directive contains two different takes on materiality: one focusing on risks, shareholders and the business case, the other one focusing on impacts, stakeholders and the social case for CSR. The paper links these two views to those typically expressed in the GRI Standards for sustainability reporting and the IIRC’s <IR> Framework for integrated reporting, respectively. Fundamentally, it is to convey that the contest for materiality is actually a contest by proxy for CSR – for a “new spirit of capitalism” that’s either increasingly financialized or else more deeply embedded in the moral fabric of society. The paper makes an effort to highlight that theoretical and ethical dimension and to trigger a much-needed critical debate on the issue.

Extract. « 3 CSR – a “new spirit of capitalism”?
The theoretical framework I am going to apply to underpin my argument is based on Luc Boltanski’s and Ève Chiapello’s landmark book on The New Spirit of Capitalism (Boltanski & Chiapello, 2018 [1999]). I will briefly recap their theory, then follow Chiapello’s modifications to it that allowed her to accommodate more recent expressions of that spirit (including CSR) and to apply it to accounting and financialization in particular. Eventually, I shall argue that the contest for materiality – as a contest by proxy for CSR – is actually an indication of a new spirit of capitalism in the making. I did provide the historical background for that argument in the last chapter. I will provide supporting evidence for it in the ensuing chapters. So, what do Boltanski and Chiapello (hereinafter B&C) actually mean by the term “spirit of capitalism”? Formally, they do not depart much from Werner Sombart’s (1987 [1902]) and Max Weber’s (2002 [1904/05]) classical takes on the subject: By capitalism, they mean “an imperative to unlimited accumulation of capital by formally peaceful means” (Boltanski & Chiapello, 2018, p. 4), by its spirit “the ideology that justifies engagement in capitalism” (ibid., p. 8). They then also argue that capitalism needs such an ideology, apart from the material benefits it grants, to provide labourers and capitalists alike with “attractive, exciting life prospects, while supplying guarantees of security and moral reasons for people to do what they do.” (ibid., 25, also 16, 485f; cf. also 2005, p. 164) Yet, given that it cannot produce that spirit out of its own resources, they argue, capitalism also “needs its enemies, people whom it outrages and who are opposed to it, to find the moral supports it lacks and to incorporate mechanisms of justice whose relevance it would otherwise have no reason to acknowledge.” (idem, 2018, p. 27; also 2005, p. 163) So, what B&C describe here is a dialectical relationship between capitalism and its critique – yet not the way Karl Marx had initially conceived of it, in terms of a revolutionary sublation of capitalism into socialism, as a result of antagonistic (and eventually violent) class struggle (Marx, 1971 [1843/44]). Rather, they point to criticism’s functional role, as a “motor” (B&C, 2018, p. 27) or “principal operator of creation and transformation” (ibid., p. 489) of the spirit of capitalism that at the same time “legitimates and constrains the accumulation process” (ibid., p. 24ff) – with the effect of contributing to capitalism’s very resilience: “It is probably this surprising capacity for survival by absorbing part of the critique that has helped to disarm anti-capitalist forces.” (ibid., p. 27; cf. also 2006, p. 163) It all boils down to a “dialectical model of change … wherein capitalism transforms itself by integrating critique.” (idem, 2018, p. xvii)1 B&C, in their book, went to great lengths to reconstruct that process of normative change, for France, based on an in-depth study of management literature from the 1960s up until the 1990s. In that context, they constructed two ideal-types of criticism which they called the “social” and the “artistic” critique, both focusing on distinctive faults of capitalism, resp., and triggering distinctive changes in the capitalist spirit (cf. ibid., p. 38f). Also, they did tie in with an earlier approach developed by Boltanski and Laurent Thévenot (2006 [1991]) that had distinguished six “cities” in the sense of normative “conventions” or “supports” (B&C, 2018, p. 22f – “Cités” or “justificatory regimes” in B&C, 2005). Each of these “economies of worth”, as they are also referred to, is directed towards a particular expression of justice or the common good, including a particular “principle of evaluation” and corresponding “tests” in order to establish a person’s respective value or “greatness”, in that particular “city” (idem, 2018, p. 22ff). B&C’s later research did produce yet another “Seventh City”, the so-called “projective city” (ibid., p. 103ff – “Projects-Oriented Cité” in idem, 2006). » (p.5-6)

Link to ResearchGate

Sozial-ökologische Transformationskonflikte im ländlichen Raum. Eine explorative Fallstudie aus konventionssoziologischer Perspektive

Hauke Feddersen (2020)

CSS Working Paper Series No 2, Hamburg: University of Hamburg.

Zusammenfassung. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden sozial-ökologische Transformationsprozesse im ländlichen Raum anhand der Perspektive der Soziologie der Konventionen untersucht. Hierzu wurde eine qualitative Fallstudie basierend auf teilnarrativen Interviews, sowie Dokumenten aus und über eine kleine Gemeinde in Schleswig-Holstein durchgeführt, in welcher diverse Transformationsprojekte stattgefunden haben. Der Fokus der Arbeit liegt auf der Analyse der Rechtfertigungsmuster für den Bau zweier Bürger*innenwindgesellschaften, sowie der Planung einer solidarischen Landwirtschaft im Dorf. In dieser mikrosoziologischen Untersuchung werden somit potenzielle Konfliktlinien der Agrar- und der Energiewende offengelegt, indem die jeweiligen Deutungs- und Legitimationsmuster der betroffenen Akteure analysiert werden. Exemplarisch kann gezeigt werden, inwiefern historisch gewachsene Pfadabhängigkeiten, strukturelle Veränderungen und sich ändernde Ansprüche in der Landwirtschaft zu kulturellen und moralischen Konflikten um die „richtige“ Form der Bewirtschaftung des Bodes führen können. Zugleich wird deutlich, in welcher Weise eine aktive Beteiligung der lokalen Bevölkerung und der Anschluss an bestehende kulturelle Deutungsmuster zu einer Legitimierung von Windenergieanlagen beitragen kann.

Social-ecological transformation conflicts in rural areas. An exploratory case study from a conventional sociological perspective

Abstract. In this study, socio-ecological transformation processes in rural areas are examined from the perspective of the sociology of conventions. For this purpose, a qualitative case study based on semi-narrative interviews as well as documents from and about a small community in Schleswig-Holstein, where various transformation projects were carried out, was conducted. The focus of the work is on the analysis of the patterns of justification for the establishment of two citizens’ wind companies, as well as the planning of a solidarity-based agriculture in the village. In this micro-sociological study, potential lines of conflict of the agricultural and energy transformation are revealed by analysing the respective patterns of interpretation and legitimation of the actors concerned. As an example, it can be shown to what extent historically evolved path dependencies, structural changes and changing demands in agriculture can lead to cultural and moral conflicts about the « right » way to cultivate the land. At the same time, it becomes clear in which way an active participation of the local population and the connection to existing cultural patterns of interpretation can contribute to a legitimisation of wind energy plants.

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The social lives of numbers

Brian Silverstein (2020)

Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan/Springer.

Extract. “Indeed, anthropological and interdisciplinary attention to the cultural politics of statistics, numbers and counting practices is not new (Kula 1986; Lave 1988; Crump 1990), as we have seen, but such work has proliferated in recent years (Miller 2001; Guyer et al. 2010; Day et al. 2014; Rottenburg et al. 2015). A number of studies have drawn attention to the social and historical nature of statistical knowledge (Hacking 1991, 2006; Saetnan et al. 2011), as well as the epistemological and political stakes attendant upon statistics as central to claims of objectivity (MacKenzie 1981; Porter 1986). The focus of such work has tended to be on quantification as a mechanism of commensuration (Desrosières 2000; Espeland and Stevens 2008) […]” (p. 6]

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Global value chain governance. A multinational enterprise capabilities view

Anthony Goerzen & Ari Van Assche (2021)

In: Mellahi, Kamel/Meyer, Klaus/Narulah, Rajneesh/Surdu, Irina/Verbeke, Alain (eds.) Oxford handbook of international business relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, chapt. 21.

Introduction. “The question of global value chain (GVC) governance has gained widespread attention in recent years (Gereffi  Lee, 2016; Laplume, Petersen,  &  Pearce, 2016; Magnani,  &  Zucchella,  &  Strange, 2o19; Taglioni  Winkler, 2016). The multinational enterprises (MNEs) that lead GVCs have come under significant pressure from key stakeholders such as governments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), trade unions, and consumers to improve labor and environmental standards, particularly among their developing country supplier factories. Through both hierarchical and collaborative means, lead MNEs have taken various tentative steps to establish and maintain global standards along their GVC, including the participation in third-party certification arrangements, equity-oriented programs, and the promotion of internal corporate social responsibility (CSR) standards. Yet, to date, the evidence is mixed as to whether these measures have actually led to the envisioned economic and social upgrading that was intended (Locke, Amengual  &  Mangla, 2009; Lund-Thomsen  &  Lindgreen, 2014; Ruwanpura  Wrigley, 201). The mixed success of a lead MNE in diffusing higher standards throughout its GVC highlights the need to develop a better theoretical understanding of the factors that influence that firm’s ability to influence economic and social outcomes among its GVC partners. In this chapter, we tackle this question by discussing the key sources of dis­ agreement between lead firms and other GVC members. Further, we explain why lead firms have been limited in their ability to address these disagreements with their GVC partners. We then build on both dynamic capabilities theory (Teece, Pisano  &  Shuen,  1997; Teece, 2007) and convention theory (Diaz-Bone, Didry  &  Salais, 2015; Gibbon, Bair  &  Ponte, 2008; Ponte  Gibbon, 2005; Thévenot, 2015) to discuss how lead MNEs  can build routines that allow them to more effectively orchestrate social upgrading in GVCs. We explore this concept by focusing on the diffusion of CSR practices as one important way of understanding the nature of GVC governance.” (p. 421-422)

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The circular economy at the heart of French sustainable public policies: what are the consequences?

Nicolas Buclet (2020)

In: Miguel Brandão, David Lazarevic & Göran Finnveden (eds.), Handbook of the Circular Economy. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 307-314

Extract. “The whole analysis will rest on the analysis of conventions (Boltanski and Thévenot, 1991). This theory is based on the analysis of the speech of actors. It aims at understanding the values and principles underlying the intentions of actors and how they evolve through time. Conventions are understood as the shared interpersonal logics on how to coordinate and evaluate actions, individuals and objects (Diaz-Bone, 2011). Boltanski and Thévenot (1991) have identified six conventions: the inspired, domestic, fame, civic, market and the industrial; Lafaye and Thévenot (1993) have identified a green convention; and Boltanski and Chiapello (1999) a project-oriented convention. Of particular relevance to this chapter are the industrial and green conventions. The industrial convention relies on the principle of efficiency, productivity and capacity to ensure that operations respond usefully to needs; and the green convention relies on the principle of the contribution of good to the environment.” (p. 308)

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Social Justice in times of uncertainty

The Congress of the Swiss Sociological Association (SSA)

28-30 June 2021, Geneva/Switzerland.

Call for abstracts (for conference presentations).
There will be two paper sessions devoted to convention theory:

Engaging pluralist perspectives in civic interventions: neopragmatism and social research

Social inequalities and orders of justification in the health care system

We invite now paper proposals to the sessions.
To submit an abstract proposal (max 500 words, without references) to a paper session, please send to Rainer Diaz-Bone a word document with your abstract and contact details
(name, email, address and institutional affiliation).

Deadline for abstract submissions: 29th January 2021.

“Social Justice in Times of Uncertainty takes as a starting point the health pandemic that erupted in 2020, which led societies across the world to cope with disruptions in the provisioning of goods and services, means of livelihood, and fundamental freedom – not least, that of movement. The crisis also revealed global and local inequalities, translated into who has the right to live or not, and raised new questions around (in)justice in the contemporary world. In light of the turmoil experienced, as a globalized society and within our communities, this conference emphasizes the relevance of social and environmental justice in the making of a fair society, asking the question: in times of uncertainty, what does it mean to live a good life in a just society? For the first time, the Conference of the Swiss Sociological Association will be hosted in Geneva, through a partnership between the University of Geneva and the Haute Ecole de Travail Social de Genève (HETS GE/HES-SO), and with the participation of the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies.”

Keynote speaker:

– Amita Baviskar (University and Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi/India)
– Ota de Leonardis  (University of Milano-Bicocca/Italy)
– Michèle Lamont (Harvard University/USA)
– Peter Wagner (University of Barcelona/Spain)

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La concurrence-coopération des avocats et des conseils en propriété industrielle

Christian Bessy (2020)

Working Paper. Open Access.

Résumé. Ce texte propose d’analyser les relations de concurrence-coopération entre les avocats spécialisés et les conseils en propriété industrielle dans un « marché du droit du brevet » en expansion au cours de la période contemporaine et conduisant à transformer les formes d’inter professionnalité. Ces transformations sont reliées à l’évolution des modes d’exercice des deux professions, la croissance des cabinets, leur managérialisation et leur internationalisation. La première partie trace à grand traits l’histoire longue des relations entre les professionnels du brevet et évoque la première mondialisation de la propriété industrielle. Le texte analyse ensuite la seconde mondialisation avec l’émergence d’un système de brevet européen qui va mettre en concurrence ces intermédiaires du droit au niveau national et international. La mise en place future de la Juridiction Unique du Brevet ne va faire qu’accroître cette concurrence internationale, mais aussi le pouvoir des juges experts dans la définition du droit européen du brevet. La dernière partie propose donc une réflexion sur l’élaboration des normes juridiques internationales.

The competition-cooperation of lawyers and patent attorneys

Abstract. This text proposes to analyze the relations of competition-cooperation between specialized lawyers and industrial property attorneys in a « patent law market » that is expanding during the contemporary period and leading to the transformation of forms of inter-professionality. These transformations are related to the evolution of the ways in which the two professions are practiced, the growth of law firms, their managerialization and their internationalization. The first part outlines the long history of relations between patent professionals and evokes the first globalization of industrial property. The text then analyzes the second globalization with the emergence of a European patent system which will put these legal intermediaries in competition at the national and international level. The future implementation of the Single Patent Jurisdiction will only increase this international competition, but also the power of expert judges in the definition of European patent law. The last part therefore proposes a reflection on the elaboration of international legal standards.

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Retrouver la confiance avec… Épisode 1 : André Orléan, spécialiste de la monnaie

André Orléan (2020)

Interview 8 December 2020 on France Culture. Audio file online

« Philosophie, sociologie et science politique placent la confiance au fondement de notre société et de la démocratie. Pourtant, bien qu’elle fasse l’objet de grandes déclarations, la confiance demeure un champ encore peu exploré par la théorie économique. »

« Philosophy, sociology and political science place trust at the foundation of our society and democracy. Yet, despite being the subject of great declarations, trust remains a field still little explored by economic theory ».

Les arrangements du quotidien : comment les acteurs locaux reconfigurent les politiques publiques : Analyse de la mise en oeuvre d’un Programme de Réussite Educative

Laurie Sompayrac (2020)

PhD thesis. Université de Limoges

Thèse sous la direction de Dominique Gay-Sylvestre et Maryan Lemoine présentée et soutenue le 17 Novembre 2020

Jury:

M. Choukri Ben Ayed, Professor of Sociology, University of Limoges
M. Dominique Broussal, Professor of educational science, University of Toulouse
Mme Michèle Guigue, professor em. of educational science, University of Lille M. Sébastien Pesce, Professor of educational science, University of Orléans

Résumé. Les politiques publiques affichent des objectifs, pensent et produisent des injonctions qui ont pour but de cadrer l’action publique territorialisée. A l’étude nous avons cependant pu constater que ces développements ne se soucient pas toujours des capacités et des potentialités de compréhension, d’appropriation et de mise en œuvre, non seulement des objectifs, mais aussi des modalités pour traduire cette action publique sur le terrain. Les opérateurs font en effet face aux urgences de mettre en œuvre les injonctions dans des délais relativement courts, qui ne leur laissent que peu de temps pour comprendre les enjeux, problématiser et construire l’ingénierie la plus adéquate pour mettre en œuvre l’action publique territorialisée. A travers notre démarche méthodologique d’inspiration ethnographique, nous avons voulu observer comment les acteurs au quotidien ont alors à inventer, au-delà des cadres et des règlements préétablis, des pratiques et une mise en ordre de l’action publique territorialisée, essayant ce faisant de poursuivre ou de se rapprocher des objectifs fixés par les politiques publiques.Les analyses des interactions des individus, l’étude des documents qui circulent entre eux, les observations in situ ainsi que les entretiens ont permis de révéler comment les individus développent des « conventions » (Diaz-Bone & Thévenot, 2010) à la fois pratiques et langagières pour se comprendre et mener leurs activités et reconnaissent certaines « manières de faire » (de Certeau, 1900) comme étant les plus pertinentes pour résoudre les énigmes auxquelles ils sont confrontés. Même si les acteurs n’en ont pas conscience, l’ensemble de ces éléments, ancrés, actualisés et plus récents, forment ainsi une matrice (Kuhn, 1962) interprofessionnelle au sein de laquelle se développent les actions et se constituent des références communes qui influent fortement sur tout ce qui se joue et est produit au sein de et par ce système. Tout en agissant dans cette dimension matricielle, les acteurs continuent de l’alimenter en s’engageant dans des instances collectives. D’une part les individus y assoient la défense de leurs propres représentations et conceptions des injonctions et objectifs, d’autre part ils essaient de trouver ou de partager des moyens d’actions propres à assurer la mise en œuvre des moyens qui permettront de les atteindre ou de les approcher, oscillant dans ces modes de cheminement entre éthiques professionnelle, morale et même plus personnelle.

The daily arrangements : how local individuals reconfigure public policies : Analysis of the enforcement of an « Educative Success Programm »

Abstract. The public policies display targets, think about and elaborate injunctions which have a purpose to frame the public territorial activities. However our study shows how these intentions are not always aligned with the collective skills, the potentialities of comprehension, the capacities of appropriation and the possibilities of enforcement to reach the goals in the territories, not even the capacities to understand and perform the public activity. The workers are urged by the short delays imposed. They don’t have much time to understand the issues, to engage a problematization process and to build the most suitable engineering to enforce the public territorial activity. Through our ethnographic approach, we wanted to observe how the workers create some daily practices beyond the rules and the frames settled up for us, while they try to follow or get closer to the policies targets. By using the interactionnism analysis, the documents which circulate or not between the workers and their interviews, we were able to show how the individuals elaborate some practical and language agreements (Diaz-Bone & Thévenot, 2010) to understand each others, carry out particular activities and recognize some « ways of doing » (de Certeau, 1990) as the most relevant to solve their problems. Even if the individuals are not aware of it, all the elements, grounded, actualized and the most recent of them, belong to an interprofessionnal matrix. The activities and the mutual references expand in this matrix. These aspects influence the issues and the productions within and through this system. While acting on the matrix, the individuals nourish it by committing in the collective. On one hand the individuals are able to protect their own representations and conceptions of the policies injunctions and targets. On the other hand they try to find and share their own ways to act by their own to reach the targets. They are constantly swinging between moral, professionnal and personal ethics.

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Crítica de la crítica a la sociología crítica a partir de Luc Boltanski

Emiliano Gambarotta (2020)

Cinta moebio 69, pp. 285-298. Open Access

Resumen. El  artículo  se  inscribe  en  una  discusión  acerca  del  modo  en  que  la  sociología  problematiza  a  la   cultura, específicamente, se interroga por el modus operandi para un abordaje crítico de la misma.  Para   ello,   se   enfoca   en   la   propuesta   elaborada   por   Luc   Boltanski,   en   tanto   él   hace   del  cuestionamiento a la “sociología crítica” una instancia central de su estudio de la cultura, sin por  ello  abandonar  la  pretensión  crítica.  Con  vistas  a  analizar  estas  cuestiones,  se  dedica  la  primera   sección a la caracterización d e la sociología pragmática de la crítica de Boltanski. La segunda sección  sostiene  que  él  propone  un  potente  modus  operandi  para  la  descripción  sociológica  de  la   normatividad  de  los  actores,  pero  que  no  resuelve  los  problemas  que  posibilitarían  el  abordaje  crítico de dicha normatividad. Punto que se profundiza a partir de la discusión de su investigación  sobre  el  “espíritu  del  capitalismo”.  Finalmente,  las  conclusiones  plantean  un  sendero  por  el  cual   avanzar hacia esa sociología crítica, con eje en la repro blematización de las nociones de ideología y  utopía.

Critique of the critique to critical sociology from Luc Boltanski

Abstract. The article is inserted in a discussion about the way in which sociology problematizes culture, specifically, the paper analyses the modus operandi for a critical approach to the culture. For this, it focuses on the Luc Boltanski’s proposal, because he makes the discussion on the “critical sociology” a central instance of his cultural study without abandoning the critical claim. With the goal of analysing these questions, the first section is dedicated to characterizing Boltanski’s pragmatic sociology of critique. The second section argues that he proposes a powerful modus operandi for the sociological description of the actors’ normativity, but that it does not solve the problems that would allow the critical research of that normativity. Topic that is developed through the discussion of his research on the “spirit of capitalism”. Finally, the conclusions propose a path through which to advance towards this critical sociology, centred on the notions of ideology and utopia.

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