Conventions, Health and Society

Philippe Batifoulier & Rainer Diaz-Bone (eds.)(2021)

Historical Social Research, 46(1).

Special Issue – Conventions, Health and Society – Convention Theory as an Institutionalist Approach to the Political Economy of Health

  • Philippe Batifoulier & Rainer Diaz-Bone: Perspectives on the Economics and Sociology of Health. Contributions from the Institutionalist Approach of Economics of Convention – An Introduction. [Abstract]
  • Philippe Batifoulier, Jean-Paul Domin & Amandine Rauly: Erosion of Solidarity in France and Welfare Conventions: The New Role of Complementary Health Insurance. [Abstract]
  • Philippe Batifoulier, Louise Braddock, Victor Duchesne, Ariane Ghirardello & John Latsis: Targeting “Lifestyle” Conditions. What Justifications for Treatment? [Abstract]
  • Nicolas Da Silva: The Industrialization of “Liberal Medicine” in France. A Labor Quality Conventions Approach. [Abstract]
  • Peter Streckeisen: Medicine and Economic Knowledge: The Relevance of Career in the Study of Transformations in the Healthcare System. [Abstract]
  • Tine Hanrieder & Eloisa Montt Maray: Digitalizing Community Health Work: A Struggle over the Values of Global Health Policy. [Abstract]
  • Eva Nadai, Anna Gonon, Robin Hübscher & Anna John: The Social Organization of Work Incapacity. Incapacities in the Swiss Social Insurance System and in the Workplace. [Abstract]
  • Anne Vatter & Walter Bartl: Justifying Physical Activity (Dis-)Engagements: Fitness Centers and the Latent Expectations of (Former) Members. [Abstract]
  • Johannes Achatz, Stefan Selke & Nele Wulf: Adjusting Reality. The Contingency Dilemma in the Context of Popularised Practices of Digital Self-Tracking of Health Data. [Abstract]
  • Valeska Cappel: The Plurality of Daily Digital Health. The Emergence of a New Form of Health Coordination. [Abstract]
  • Eryk Noji, Karolin Kappler & Uwe Vormbusch: Situating Conventions of Health: Transformations, Inaccuracies, and the Limits of Measuring in the Field of Self-Tracking. [Abstract]
  • Rainer Diaz-Bone: Economics of Convention Meets Canguilhem. [Abstract]

Link to HSR

Official statistics: Language for public discourse

Walter Radermacher (2021)

Report “Data 6 Policy Blog”, part 1 (3 March 2021) and 2 (5 March)

Extract. “Statistical information, in the sense of the ‘Économie des Conventions’, are artefacts that are designed and produced. The same rules apply to such informational products as to other products: their design must be suitable to provide factual answers to users’ questions; they must be produced with good quality; educated clientele with a sense for quality is a prerequisite. The public infrastructure that provides society, politics and the economy with elementary facts is official statistics.”

Link to Part 1 Link to Part 2

The justification of a music city: Handbooks, intermediaries and value disputes in a global policy assemblage

Toby Bennett (2020)

City, Culture and Society, 22, pp. 1-8.

Abstract. The intermediary work of persuasion and justification is an important but often hidden aspect of urban cultural policy. Rather than the frictionless flow and ‘transfer’ of knowledge, the global assemblage of creative economy policy – especially novel, oppositional or more ‘just’ visions of creative cities – is an accomplishment. One such vision is the call to develop a hybrid cultural-industrial policy that would attend to the internal processes and dynamics of culture as a production system. Drawing from the pragmatic sociology of justification and critique, the paper focuses on the ‘Music City’ construct as a live example of this vision, and the best-practice ‘handbook’ as key justification device. Handbooks are used by intermediaries to spread ideas, signal expertise, convince and ‘educate’ those that might fund them, coordinate heterogeneous stakeholders, and to enthuse and achieve legitimacy among a broader public. In so doing, they present a repertoire of arguments, rooted in competing value formations, that respond to doubts and disputes with potentials for compromise and appeals to a ‘common good’. Analysing the justificatory ‘grammar’ of a new Music City discourse suggests avenues for further research exploring how justification work takes place in situated contexts of urban cultural practice.

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“Living Ghosts” and how to “Cook” Them: Homo Sacer as a “Sociodicy of (Im)purity” among the Miao of Guizhou, China

Yan Liu & Chris K. K. Tan (2020)

Asian Studies Review 44(3), pp. 459-473

Abstract. Agamben (1998) famously resurrected the homo sacer figure from obscurity in ancient Roman law. Originally conceived as a heuristic device, this “sacred man” concept has been applied largely in studies of refugees and prisoners. This article makes use of the concept in the more traditionally anthropological arenas of kinship and marriage. Some Miao in China’s Guizhou province have been branded as “living ghosts”, because their ancestors allegedly betrayed their village to pillaging rebels. We argue that this branding might have reflected not so much the betrayal, but rather longstanding socioeconomic and political tensions between the Miao and neighbouring ethnic groups. As such, we regard the living ghosts’ origin story more as a social justification of ontological (un)cleanliness that we call “sociodicy of (im)purity”. Lastly, the ghosts’ collective wealth and political influence prevent their complete descent into Agambenian bare life, so this article enriches our understanding of how the homo sacer concept operates empirically.

Extract. “In using the term sociodicy, we do not seek to establish a coherent conception of order that presupposes a relatively stable system of meaning. Rather, we look at how Blue Lily villagers morally account for the impure personhood they imposed on living ghosts in the past, and the taboo they establish against “clean” people socialising with these ghosts in the present. To achieve this goal, we partly follow Boltanski’s sociology of critique (Boltanski & Thévenot, 2006), which differs from Bourdieusian critical sociology in that it considers social actors as fully capable of both recognising the interests at stake behind an argument, and tracing underlying causal mechanisms for social behaviour. The ways in which justifications are proposed form a central focus in this sociology of critique. Before justifications can become relevant, there must first be both disputes (i.e. disagreements over the definition of the situation), and equivalence (i.e. comparisons and measurements of things and people on the basis of some criterion). This latter notion of “test” (épreuve) rests at the heart of Boltanski’s theory. It “concerns the selection process governing the differential distribution of persons between positions of unequal value, and the more or less just character of this distribution” (Boltanski & Chiapello, 2005, p. 32).” (p. 462)

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Is mathematical modelling an instrument of knowledge co-production?

Elisa Vecchione & Zaid Chalabi (2021)

Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, Online first.

Abstract. We interrogate mathematical modelling as an instrument of knowledge co-production by concentrating on the classical probabilistic operationalization of decision-making under uncertainty used for informing climate change mitigation options. We construct our co-productive assessment framework by first retrieving criticisms targeted at expected utility theory in relation to its epistemic and ethical limits in dealing with ‘true’ uncertainty. We then reflect on how ethical values should operate in relation to uncertainty in order to live up to the co-production ideal and specifically, to the principle of Responsible Research and Innovation. We thus undertake the perspective of a general modeller and test our reflections by imagining the classical probabilistic space of calculation as a space of negotiation between probabilities, ideas, values and beliefs. We thus propose an alternative ‘public’ space of calculation in which the conditions for co-production are set up on a pragmatic and moral account of rational expectations.

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Urban Food Strategy in the Making: Context, Conventions and Contestations

Mattia Andreola, Angelica Pianegonda, Sara Favargiotti & Francesca Forno (2021)

Agriculture, 11(2), 177. Open access

Abstract. Contemporary food systems face several paradoxes regarding equity and sustainability. Considering food production—an issue that simultaneously affects both the supply (production) and demand (consumption) sides—several cities have begun to implement new strategies, called Urban Food Policies. These approaches aim to address the various challenges presented by food system failures, while also involving the existing network of grassroot initiatives. For this reason, these have established Food Policy Councils, arenas where institutions can engage with supply chain actors and food activists, deciding through the processes of participatory democracy their Urban Food Strategies. This article investigates the evolution of a new Urban Food Strategy in a middle-sized Italian town, Trento. Despite a growing number of case studies discussing the promises and problematic aspects of UFS, empirical research and analysis tend to overlook the role of the context in which these processes are embedded and how the system of political, economic, cultural, and environmental opportunities weigh upon the success of these policies. The paper draws upon a multi-method qualitative approach combining in-depth interviews, document analysis, and direct observations of the construction process of an Urban Food Strategy for the city of Trento.

Extract. “As the economics of convention approach suggests, within collective action there is semantic uncertainty among actors in the phases of classification and quantification of concepts and phenomena, hence different conceptions spread among actors. For this reason, the reconciliation in a common judgement is made possible by the adoption of conventions and forms of mutual coordination [44,45]. In this regard, the study by Boltanski and Thévenot [44] identified six different conventions adopted by actors to eliminate uncertainty, guide their judgement, and make evaluation possible when the price does not incorporate sufficient information to estimate the quality of a product, as in the case of agri-food goods. Each of these forms of coordination identifies specific elements that can be assessed concerning the concept of quality. Standard consumers, those who normally purchase their goods in supermarkets or other large-scale retail outlets, may adopt the classic commercial convention which relies on price, or the industrial convention where the focus is on the existence and adherence to technical production standards. However, other conventions can guide the evaluation of a product and the consequent purchases: The convention of fame, where quality is related to the opinion of experts; the domestic convention, where uncertainty is resolved through the emphasis placed on the aspects of trust and the existence of long-term relationships; the convention of inspiration, determined by the passion and feelings of those involved in the production process; finally, the civic convention, which refers to the positive effects on local society and the environmental convention, which evaluates the positive effects on the environment. The latter is typical of critical consumers and those who use alternative supply chains.” (p. 7)

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Measuring the gender pay gap: the complexity of HR metrics

Clotilde Coron (2021)

Employee Relations, Online first

Abstract.
Purpose: The literature on HR metrics does not address the political issues that surround the definition and interpretation of these metrics. However, the need for agreement about HR metrics between different stakeholders is underlined by the framework of the sociology of quantification. This research aims to complement the literature on HR metrics by studying the process of defining and interpreting appropriate HR metrics, focusing on the example of the gender pay gap.
Design/methodology/approach: A case study with interviews and participant observation is conducted on a French company.
Findings: The results show that HR metrics are essential to prove the existence of inequalities. However, there are disagreements between management, unions and gender equality referents concerning appropriate HR metrics and their use.
Originality/value: Contrary to the literature on the subject, which remains predominantly positivist and normative, this article sheds light on the political issues surrounding the definition and use of HR metrics and shows the importance of involving a range of actors (managers, unions and employees) in the entire process.

Extract. “To better understand the nature of the conflicts that may arise around the measurement of the gender pay gap, this research utilizes the theoretical framework of the sociology of quantification (Desrosières, 2008a, b; Espeland and Stevens, 2008) and the notion of quantification convention (Chiapello and Walter, 2016; Diaz-Bone, 2016). This notion, which stems from the conventionalist approach, refers to the idea that the quantification of human phenomena is never a neutral reflection of reality but is the result of an agreement between different actors on how to measure a phenomenon (Espeland and Stevens, 1998). This agreement should cover, among other things, the following points: 1) the source of the data and calculation methods used, and 2) the ways of interpreting and using the results (Chiapello and Gilbert, 2013; Chiapello and Walter, 2016).” (p. 2)

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The problem of compensation and moral economies of climate change

Rebecca Elliott (2021)

Economic Sociology – European Electronic Newsletter, 22(2), pp. 30-33. Open Access.

Abstract. The climate crisis is here. Wildfires, running hotter and longer, burn homes to ash. Storms dump more water, faster, onto areas that have been paved over and built up, submerging private property and public infrastructure. Already-observed sea level rise has eaten away at coastal shorelines and generated “sunny-day” flooding from high tides, disrupting normal routines. So who pays for all this loss and damage, and how much?

Extract. “Part of that project is to establish credible chains of attribution, directly connecting specific, observed, quantified loss and damage first to climate change and then to emissions from the rich world. We might follow these policy developments, and the calculations therein, as a way to gain insight into how differently positioned actors marshal and mix economic styles of reasoning with other forms of expertise, as well as diverse logics of worth (Boltanski and Thévenot 2006) in order to justify or refuse projects of global redistribution for climate change’s effects.” (p. 32)

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It’s worth the trouble. On valuation studies and climate change

Thomas Frisch, Stefan Laser, Sandra Matthäus & Cornelia Schendzielorz (2021)

Economic Sociology – European Electronic Newsletter, 22(2), pp- 10-14. Open Access.

Abstract. This article introduces the field of valuation studies and illustrates the theoretical and methodological potential it offers for analyzing climate change. Valuation studies (VS) is still an emerging, yet fertile research field that explores valuation practices and value orders as critical sites of social (trans-)formation (Lamont 2012). Valuation here can be defined as “any social practice where the value or values of something is established, assessed, negotiated, provoked, maintained, constructed and/or contested” (Doganova et al. 2014, 87). In the last decade, VS has consolidated as an interdisciplinary field of study that critically reflects the plurality of valuation practices.

Extract. “This article introduces the field of valuation studies and illustrates the theoretical and methodological potential it offers for analyzing climate change. Valuation studies (VS) is still an emerging, yet fertile research field that explores valuation practices and value orders as critical sites of social (trans-)formation (Lamont 2012). Valuation here can be defined as “any social practice where the value or values of something is established, assessed, negotiated, provoked, maintained, constructed and/or contested” (Doganova et al. 2014, 87). In the last decade, VS has consolidated as an interdisciplinary field of study that critically reflects the plurality of valuation practices. The field shares many features with economic sociology and brings together several researchers with such a disciplinary background. However, the status of economic valuation practices – in particular its relation to competing value orders, economies of worth and practices as, for example, civic order of worth and practices (Boltanski and Thévenot 2006) – is a controversial point of discussion in the field.” (p. 10)

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Konturen einer Moralsoziologie der Migrationsgesellschaft

Towards a Moral Sociology of Migration

Boris Nieswand (2021)

Zeitschrift für Migrationsforschung, 1(1), pp. 75-95. Open access.

Zusammenfassung. Der Artikel entwickelt in einem ersten Schritt ein Begriffsrepertoire zur Analyse der moralischen Dimension migrationsgesellschaftlicher Diskurse. In diesem Kontext wird argumentiert, dass in sozialwissenschaftlichem Wissen enthaltene moralische Bewertungen sich graduell, aber nicht fundamental von anderen Formen der Moralisierung unterscheiden. In einem zweiten Schritt wird der Diskurs des Integrationismus innerhalb eines moralsoziologischen Rahmens analysiert. Als moralisch-politische Rechtfertigungsordnung entfaltet der Integrationismus seine Wirkung insbesondere dadurch, dass er die Grenzen zwischen Alltagsleben, Politik und Sozialwissenschaften überspannt. In der Analyse integrationistischer Diskurse und Praktiken in Baden-Württemberg zeigen sich vor allem vier Merkmale. Der Integrationismus (a) legitimiert Personalisierungen und Essentialisierungen von moralischen Urteilen über Migrant*innen, (b) schreibt einerseits Machtunterschiede zwischen Eingesessenen und Zugewanderten fest und fordert sie andererseits heraus, (c) vermittelt zwischen konkreten Ereignissen und allgemeinen moralischen Schlussfolgerungen und (d) erlaubt im Kontext migrationspolitischer Debatten ein Changieren zwischen Rationalisierung und Emotionalisierung.

Abstract. The article proposes an analytical framework for studying and theorizing the moral dimension of representations of migrants and migrations. It is argued that social science knowledge contains moral ideas that differ gradually but not fundamentally from other forms of moralization. In a further step, the article develops the notion of integrationism and analyses it within the proposed analytical framework. As a moral-political order of justification, integrationism unfolds its efficacy by spanning the boundaries between everyday life, politics and the social sciences. The empirical analysis of integrationism in Baden-Württemberg demonstrates that it (a) practically legitimizes personalizations and essentializations of moral judgements about migrants, (b) allows both for reinforcing power imbalances between residents and migrant newcomers and for challenging them, (c) provides an interpretative device for the generalization of moral conclusions drawn from specific events, and (d) oscillates between rationalization and emotionalization.

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Futures in Practice: Regimes of Engagement and Teleoaffectivity

Daniel Welch, Giuliana Mandich & Margit Keller (2020)

Cultural Sociology, 14(4), pp. 438-457

Abstract. The article triangulates Schatzki’s practice theory (2002) and Thévenot’s (2001) ‘regimes of engagement’ with the nascent field of ‘social futures’ or future-oriented cultural sociology (e.g. Coleman and Tutton 2017; Mische 2009). We present a reading of Thévenot’s regimes of engagement that is ontologically compatible with Schatzki’s account of social practices and argue that practices are more or less enmeshed in distinct regimes of engagement. We aver that while people engage reality through distinct regimes of engagement they do so, to follow Schatzki, primarily in the context of social practices. We then articulate this account with Giuliana Mandich’s (2019) work on the different modes of engagement with the future, or forms of reflexive projectivity, that are expressed through Thévenot’s regimes: that of practical anticipation for the regime of the familiar; of probability for the regime of the plan; of possibility for the regime of justification; and of discovery for the regime of exploration. This synthesis enables a practice theoretical account of the different modes through which actors engage with the future that is, we suggest, analytically superior to both Thévenot’s and Schatzki’s tendency towards a mono-dimensional view of agents’ projectivity towards the future. We illustrate the synthesis of practices, regimes of engagement and modes of projectivity chiefly through a study of domestic laundry practice conducted by Southerton and Mylan (2018). We suggest this theoretical development may be productively applied to practice theoretical work informing understanding of issues such as sustainable consumption, mobility and energy use, as well as social change more broadly.

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Towards a seamful ethics of Covid-19 contact tracing apps?

Andrew S. Hoffman, Bart Jacobs, Bernard van Gastel, Hanna Schraffenberger, Tamar Sharon & Berber Pas (2020)

Ethics and Information Technology, Online first

Abstrcat. In the early months of 2020, the deadly Covid-19 disease spread rapidly around the world. In response, national and regional governments implemented a range of emergency lockdown measures, curtailing citizens’ movements and greatly limiting economic activity. More recently, as restrictions begin to be loosened or lifted entirely, the use of so-called contact tracing apps has figured prominently in many jurisdictions’ plans to reopen society. Critics have questioned the utility of such technologies on a number of fronts, both practical and ethical. However, little has been said about the ways in which the normative design choices of app developers, and the products that result therefrom, might contribute to ethical reflection and wider political debate. Drawing from scholarship in critical design and human–computer interaction, this paper examines the development of a QR code-based tracking app called Zwaai (‘Wave’ in Dutch), where its designers explicitly positioned the app as an alternative to the predominant Bluetooth and GPS-based approaches. Through analyzing these designers’ choices, this paper argues that QR code infrastructures can work to surface a set of ethical–political seams, two of which are discussed here—responsibilization and networked (im)permanence—that more ‘seamless’ protocols like Bluetooth actively aim to bypass, and which may go otherwise unnoticed by existing ethical frameworks.

Extract. “Justifying and critiquing seamless design: Bluetooth and GPS protocols
One of the most striking features of Covid-19 contact tracing apps during the first few months of 2020 has been the emphasis placed on the use of GPS and Bluetooth technologies as the go-to infrastructures for automating the work of contact tracing. National and state governments in China, Iceland, India, Korea, and the United States were counted among the first movers in the development of contact-tracing software, all of which sought to use automated GPS tracking that leverages geolocation data of mobile phones to monitor the spread of Covid-19 and to identify ‘hot spots’ of the virus (Servick 2020). Meanwhile, Australia’s COVIDSafe app—first launched in late April 2020—aimed to collect ‘anonymous IDs’ from the smartphones of app users who have been within transmitting distance of each other for at least 15 min, requiring that users keep their Bluetooth signal activated at all times (Kang and Haskell-Dowlad 2020). Also in April 2020, the United Kingdom’s National Health Service launched its own pilot Bluetooth tracing app with an overall similar set of functionalities as the former: app users exchange ‘anonymous’ keycodes via Bluetooth signal and if an individual tests positive, they use the app to ping a centralized database with confirmation of diagnosis, whereupon the individual user’s ID is matched with all other IDs who had been in transmitting distance of the case, and notification is then sent to ‘others judged to be at high risk of contagion’ (Kelion 2020a, b). Apps using Bluetooth-based protocols have also been developed for use in countries as diverse as Singapore, France, Hungary, and Malaysia, while several others, including Qatar, Turkey, and Norway, have apps that combine GPS and Bluetooth protocols (O’Neill et al. 2020).Justifications for the use of GPS and/or Bluetooth technologies in contact tracing apps are largely couched in a vernacular of technological efficiency (e.g. Boltanski and Thévenot 2006), which is said to work in two directions.” (p. 3)

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The worth of art education: Students’ justifications of a contestable educational choice

Henrik Fürst & Erik Nylander (2020)

Acta Sociologia, 63(4), pp. 422-435

Abstract. How is art education valued in society? In Swedish public discourse the value of educational trajectories is often equated with their usefulness for employability. With competitive winner-takes-all labour markets for artists, art education is largely perceived as a worthless credential and form of education. But what kinds of worth does art education have among students themselves? This article draws on the approach of pragmatic sociology and individual and group interviews with 62 Swedish folk high school participants within the arts, to understand the meanings participants assign to post-compulsory education within the aesthetic realm. The students’ accounts belong to three broad themes, where art education is described as: (a) being a ‘stepping stone’ to becoming an artist, (b) allowing them to have ‘unique’ experiences while being in a particular state of creativity or (c) offering them a chance to regain health and general well-being after a difficult period. These results are discussed in relation to the relative institutional autonomy the folk high school possesses in the Swedish education system, as well as the possibilities of challenging the hegemonic ideas of ‘learning for earning’ that largely reject non-instrumental regimes of self-discovery and artistic creativity.

Extract. “Hence, this article asks: how do folk high school participants in art education justify their educational choice, bearing in mind that it is a contestable educational decision?
To answer this question, we draw upon pragmatic sociology in order to understand the ‘grammars’ the participants mobilize to justify their educational choices (Boltanski, 2011; Boltanski and Chiapello, 2005). In doing so we take seriously ‘the critical capacities developed by actors in situations of everyday life’ and the uncertainties facing students engaging in post-compulsory education within the aesthetic realm (Boltanski, 2011: 43). […] In the field of education, school choice is a conventional topic that has been widely addressed by sociologists, particularly those inspired by the works of Pierre Bourdieu and his colleagues (Bourdieu and Passeron, 1977; Palme, 2008). More recently, scholars have also been inspired by contemporary branches of French sociology in order to address how educational actors coordinate their actions in situations underpinned by uncertainty. Van Zanten (2019), for example, studied the interplay between institutional arrangements, family strategies and market devices in order to outline how the conservative regime of higher education policy in France is currently transformed by neoliberal influences. Educational scholars have also started to derive valuable insights from pragmatic sociology, for instance by focusing on the problems of governance (Graß and Alke, 2019; Hedtke et al., 2017) and the negotiation of different justificatory regimes related to policy (Leeman, 2014; 2018). One of the merits of this line of research is that it illustrates the consequences of justifications in policy and administration for students ‘on the ground’. Our own approach differs to some extent from previous studies inspired by pragmatic sociology by basing the analysis firmly on the valuation of educational choices as expressed by students themselves.” (p. 421/424)

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Normes de qualification et conventions de professionnalisation. De la mesure de la relation formation-emploi à l’observation des relations formation-emploi-travail

Christophe Guitton & Mickaële Molinari (2021)

In: Céreq Echanges, 16, pp. 695-712. Open access.

Extrait. « L’analyse des politiques de gestion des ressources humaines des entreprises dans le cadre du programme EPIE a mis en évidence ce que l’on peut définir, en référence à l’économie des conventions (Dupuy, Eymard-Duvernay, Favereau, Salais & Thévenot, 1989), comme des « conventions de professionnalisation » plus ou moins formalisées. Ces conventions font référence aux configurations organisationnelles et gestionnaires mises en oeuvre par les entreprises pour gérer l’emploi en situation d’incertitude et alimenter les emplois disponibles avec une main d’oeuvre aussi formée et compétente que possible. » (p. 708)

Qualification standards and professionalization conventions. From measuring the training-employment relationship to observing the training-employment relationship

Extract. « The analysis of companies’ human resource management policies within the framework of the EPIE program has highlighted what can be defined, with reference to the economics of conventions (Dupuy, Eymard-Duvernay, Favereau, Salais & Thévenot, 1989), as more or less formalized « professionalization conventions ». These conventions refer to the organizational and managerial configurations implemented by companies to manage employment in a situation of uncertainty and to supply available jobs with a workforce that is as trained and competent as possible » (p. 708)

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Au guichet du rectorat. La construction du « marché secondaire » des enseignant·es contractuel·les dans l’académie de Lyon

Caroline Bertron & Hélène Buisson-Fenet (2021)

In: Céreq Echanges, 16, pp. 403-414. Open access.

Extrait. « La coordination des trois acteurs-recruteurs que sont les inspecteurs pédagogiques, les gestionnaires académiques et les chefs d’établissement donne ainsi à voir la place variable de la qualification en tant que « convention de qualité », comme un registre d’évaluation parmi d’autres de l’activité. Si l’on transpose en effet la grille d’analyse conventionnaliste (Eymard-Duvernay et Marchal, 1997), l’absence de réussite au concours jette le doute sur l’évidence de la norme du travail enseignant et accroît la marge de manoeuvre des intermédiaires, puisque l’appariement ne se résume alors pas à une opération routinière de mise en correspondance. L’activité des recruteurs est ainsi prise en tension entre deux modalités: lorsqu’il se place dans un régime de planification des compétences, l’inspecteur pédagogique opère en toute autonomie pour considérer que les compétences sont stables, mesurables et entrent dans des formats pré-établis. Positionné dans un régime de négociation des compétences, le gestionnaire admet qu’elles sont relativement imprévisibles car associées davantage aux contextes d’apprentissages et aux situations d’enseignement : elles apparaissent alors (en partie) comme un résultat de l’appariement et non seulement comme son préalable. » (p. 412)

At the rectorship counter. The construction of the « secondary market » for contract teachers in the Lyon academy

Extract. « The coordination of the three actors-recruiters that are the pedagogical inspectors, the academic managers and the headmasters thus shows the variable place of the qualification as a « quality agreement », as a register of evaluation among others of the activity. If we transpose the conventionalist analytical grid (Eymard-Duvernay and Marchal, 1997), the lack of success in the competitive examination casts doubt on the evidence of the standard of teaching work and increases the room for manoeuvre of intermediaries, since matching is not just a routine operation. The activity of recruiters is thus caught in tension between two modalities: when placed in a competency planning regime, the pedagogical inspector operates in complete autonomy to consider that competencies are stable, measurable and fit into pre-established formats. Positioned in a skills negotiation regime, the manager admits that they are relatively unpredictable because they are associated more with learning contexts and teaching situations: they then appear (in part) as a result of the matching and not just as a prerequisite for it. » (p. 412)

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