Archives de catégorie : Publications

Des critiques populaires aux critiques populistes

Julien Charles (2018)

CriDIS Working Papers n°73

Cette étude prend pour point de départ les critiques émises par les ouvriers à l’égard de leur management au sein d’une usine du groupe Caterpillar. Elle s’intéresse aux types de communauté qui soutiennent différentes modalités d’expression du doute, en portant attention à leur articulation aux discours syndicaux.
Capitalisant sur cette analyse, l’auteur propose quelques comparaisons avec les critiques formulées par les plusieurs mouvements populistes (en Finlande, en Italie et aux Etats-Unis). Cette confrontation permet d’ouvrir des pistes de réflexion autour de la provocation comme forme commune aux critiques populaires et populistes, imposant par là un décalage important avec les analyses classiques du populisme en termes de comportements électoraux ou corpus idéologiques.

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Alternative-substitute business models and the provision of local infrastructure: Alterity as a solution to financialization and public-sector failure

John R. Bryson, Rachel A. Mulhall, Meng Song, Becky P.Y. Loo, Richard J. Dawson & Christopher D.F. Rogers (2018)

Geoforum, Vol. 95, p. 25-34

Abstract. Everyday living is supported by an array of services provided by a complex local infrastructure nexus that is financed and funded by the public, private and third sectors. The on-going debate on the financialization of infrastructure has neglected to explore the provision of local infrastructure in places experiencing infrastructural exclusion. This paper seeks to contribute toward filling this gap by exploring local infrastructure in the UK that has been provided by blending non-capitalist with capitalist activities. In other words, the provision of local infrastructure using an ‘alternative’ approach that attempts to address infrastructure exclusion by filling gaps in the provision of local infrastructure. The question is: how is infrastructure provided when it does not meet either a value for money calculation undertaken by the state or does not meet the investment criteria required by capital markets? This paper is the first to develop a dialogue between three unrelated literatures – financialization, business models and alterity – by developing a conceptual framework for exploring local infrastructure that is provided by alternative-substitute business models. The paper explores this approach through the analysis of two alternative infrastructure projects – Broadband 4 the Rural North and Malvern’s heritage gas lamps.

Keywords : Local infrastructure; Alterity; Business models; Alternatives; Non-monetized inputs; Financialization; Finance; Funding; Broadband; Street lighting

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L’industrialisation de la médecine libérale : une approche par l’Économie des conventions

Nicolas Da Silva (2018)

Management & Avenir Santé, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 13-30.

Résumé. Cet article propose d’analyser l’industrialisation de la médecine libérale à partir du cadre théorique de l’économie des conventions. L’industrialisation du secteur se donne à voir à travers les réformes visant à réguler les pratiques médicales autour du respect de standards quantifiés de qualité des soins. Tout se passe comme si le soin était un produit homogène facilement réplicable d’un patient à un autre, indépendamment de leurs singularités. Plutôt que de considérer ce mouvement comme une « rationalisation », nous montrons qu’il s’agit d’une modification de la convention de qualité des soins médicaux – d’une convention inspirée/domestique à une convention industrielle. Également légitimes, la délibération ou le compromis entre ces deux conventions devraient faire l’objet d’un débat politique, ce qui n’est pas le cas. Pis, dans le contexte actuel, il est fort probable que l’industrialisation des soins, qui est une réponse à des critiques légitimes de la convention inspirée/domestique, devienne un accélérateur de la marchandisation des soins – celle-ci étant néfaste tant pour les malades que pour les professionnels.

Introduction
1 – Le paradigme de l’Économie des conventions et les conventions de qualité
2 – De la sociologie des professions à la convention de qualité des soins inspirée/domestique
3 – La convention de qualité des soins industrielle
4 – Convention de qualité des soins inspirée/domestique versus industrielle
5 – L’industrialisation, accélérateur de la marchandisation des soins de ville ?
Conclusion

 

Abstract. The aim of this article is to analyze the industrialization of physician private practice from the French convention theory framework. This industrialization can be illustrated by recent reforms seeking to regulate medical practice around the respect of quantified and standardized norms of quality of health care. Everything happens as if health care was a homogenous product easily reproducible from one patient to another – irrespective to their singularities. Rather than considering it to be a “rationalization”, we show that it is a modification of the health care convention of quality – from inspired/domestic convention to industrial convention. Equally legitimate, deliberation or compromise between theses conventions should be the subject of a political debate, which is not the case. Worst, in the actual context, it is likely that industrialization, which is a response to legitimates critics, become an accelerator of commodification – harmful for patients and for physicians.

Lien vers Cairn / Link to Cairn.info

Book review of « Schlüsselwerke der Wirtschaftssoziologie »

Andrea Mennicken (2018)

Economic Sociology – The European Electronic Newsletter 19(3), pp. 51-53

Review of Klaus Kraemer and Florian Brugger (eds) (2017): Schlüsselwerke der Wirtschaftssoziologie. Wiesbaden: Springer VS.

Excerpt: « In the past forty years or so, economic sociology has flourished as a field of study in its own right. Stimulated by the birth of “the new economic sociology” in the United States in the 1980s, the rise of the “economy of conventions” approach in France, and various returns to classical German economic sociological approaches (Marx, Weber, Sombart, Simmel), economic sociology has matured into a vibrant, internationally established sub-discipline with its own sections, study programmes, journals, and newsletters […]. The handbook also contains essays on the French regulation school (Boyer and Saillard), Bourdieu’s study of the social structure of the economy, Boltanski and Chiapello’s “New Spirit of Capitalism,” and overviews of key works from the “economy of conventions” research programme (Storper and Salais, Boltanski and Thévenot, Orléans, Eymard-Duvernay). »

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Neo-structural economic sociology beyond embeddedness – Relational infrastructures and social processes in markets and market institutions

ORIO Network: Julien Brailly, Catherine Comet, Sébastien Delarre, Fabien Eloire, Guillaume Favre, Emmanuel Lazega, Lise Mounier, Jaime Montes-Lihn, Mohamed Oubenal, Elise Penalva-Icher, Alvaro Pina-Stranger (2018)

Economic Sociology – The European Electronic Newsletter, 19(3)

Introduction. In contemporary economies, a majority of individuals, organizations, and institutions participating in economic production, exchange, and consumption are thrust into open forms of competition imposed by contemporary capitalisms; in other words, neoliberal public authorities and global companies shaping the contexts and lives of smaller, less powerful actors. To dominate and/or survive, all have strong incentives to play complex games of cooperation among competitors. Along with capital, labor, and natural resources, cooperation among competitors is seen here as a “fourth factor of production.” The research program focusing on this phenomenon combines White’s (1981, 2001) perspective on production markets extended to the “Economie des Conventions” (Favereau, 1994, 2002) with a theory of collegiality as collective action among rival peers (Lazega, 2001), thus bringing together structure, culture, and agency (individual and collective) in a new way. In order to accomplish this, we define markets as both bureaucratic and collegial (Lazega and Mounier, 2002), and socio-economic relationships both as channels for heterogeneous resources and as symbolic commitments that have to build their credibility. These commitments are equivalent to a promise, an obligation, or a convention introducing time into the exchange of resources. They rely on social control and conflict resolution to make such commitments credible. […]

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Food safety, agro industries, and China’s international trade: A standard-based approach

Louis Augustin-Jean & Lei Xie (2018)

China information, Online first

Abstract. Economic sociology views markets as organizations characterized by power relations. In this framework, competition is not only for price or quality, but also for market structures, including norms and standards. Food standards, therefore, are not only public goods or tools to protect domestic markets, but they also aim to redesign the rules of the market and provide a competitive advantage to firms and national industries: they are part of the politicization of science. This article argues that China is participating in this form of competition. Since its WTO membership, it has gradually learnt the rules of globalization and has implemented many global standards to benefit from international trade. In recent years, however, it has assumed a more proactive role in reframing international standards of agro-food markets in general and food safety in particular, despite existing problems in its domestic food markets. Three case studies – milk imports; the diplomatic and trade competition for the implementation of a ractopamine (an additive in pig and cattle feed) standard; and the current negotiations for new international standards for cotton – show how China is using different strategies and methods to redesign the shape of international trade.

Keywords: food safety, regulatory standards, international trade, politicization of science, economics of convention, agro-food products

Link to the review

Grammatiken, Regime, Ordnungen als Gegenstand der Organisationspädagogik

Inga Truschkat, Miriam Sitter, Luisa Peters   (2018)

In: Michael Göhlich, Andreas Schröer, Susanne Maria Weber  (eds.): Handbuch Organisationspädagogik. Wiesbaden: Springer VS, pp 455-466.

Abstract. The concepts of grammatics, regimes and orders found in organizational education serve as an explanation for the interrelationship between organizations and their environments. In this article three current theorems, the sociology of conventions (1), institutional logics (2) and critical organizational research (3) are presented and compared with their basic assumptions. Finally, they are discussed in their importance for organizational education.

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Numéro spécial de Statistique et société en mémoire d’Alain Desrosières

Statistique et société, Vol. 6 No 1 (2018)

Le numéro que nous vous présentons aujourd’hui est d’abord composé d’un dossier comprenant des textes écrits par les lauréats de la première édition du prix Alain Desrosières décerné en 2016. L’introduction écrite par Michel Armatte, président du groupe Histoire des probabilités de la statistique et de leurs usages de la SFdS, rappelle que le prix récompense de jeunes auteurs utilisant les travaux de Desrosières dans leurs propres enquêtes. Pour cette première occurrence, ont été distingués Jean Marie Pillon pour un travail portant sur la mise en place de Pôle emploi ; Axel Pohn-Weidinger pour son article sur la catégorie du logement surpeuplé et enfin Emilien Ruiz pour son histoire des décomptes de fonctionnaires en France.

Sommaire du dossier

Michel Armatte : Actualité de la sociologie de la quantification d’Alain Desrosières, p. 9-10

Jean-Marie Pillon : Approcher les données de gestion au moyen de la sociologie historique de la quantification, p. 11-15

Axel Pohn-Weidinger : Une statistique de l’intimité, p. 17-19

Emilien Ruiz : Légitimer par les nombres, à propos d’une autre fonction des outils quantitatifs, p. 21-25

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Politics of Engagement in an Age of Differing Voices

European Journal of Cultural and Political Sociology, Vol 5 No 1-2 (2018)

“This special issue on Politics of Engagement in an Age of Differing Voices is the result of a joint effort by the 16 authors whose texts create this selection, the authors of this introduction, and the three additional editors, Risto Alapuro, Markku Lonkila, and Tuomas Ylä-Anttila, who have greatly helped us in all the various steps that constructing such a publication requires. However, this compilation also has a prehistory that dates far further back and includes people who are not among the authors, but without whom this issue would not have seen the light of day. […] The title chosen to illustrate the overall theme of this special issue is Politics of Engagement in an Age of Differing Voices. With this title, we wanted to address a set of questions that are simultaneously empirical and theoretical. Human communities today struggle with old and new problems: disputes and dissonances over political projects, environmental crises, and even over everyday habits and routines are reaching unforeseen dimensions on multiple levels of social organisation. The resulting tendencies to radicalisation, polarisation, and tensions within and between nations and localities invite us to pose anew the question ‘how to build commonality’. In other words: how can we solve conflicts and adjust to different ways of relating to the world and to fellow humans in order to create and maintain mutual understanding? How can we build common ground while simultaneously acknowledging and reserving space for differing voices? These questions, we believe, open avenues for analysing key cultural trends in today’s societies, including processes of politicisation, participation, or marginalisation. Pragmatic sociology provides promising tools for addressing these issues both as empirical puzzles and as conceptual problems.” (Eeva Luhtakallio & Laurent Thévenot)

Contents

Eeva Luhtakallio & Laurent Thévenot: « Politics of engagement in an age of differing voices » Pages: 1-11

Marie Leth Meilvang, Hjalmar Bang Carlsen & Anders Blok: « Methods of engagement: On civic participation formats as composition devices in urban planning » Pages: 12-41

Veikko Eranti: « Engagements, grammars, and the public: From the liberal grammar to individual interests » Pages: 42-65

Jarkko Salminen: « The spatial logics of justification – the case of a dispute over a car-free street in Tampere, Finland » Pages: 66-89

Itamar Y. Shachar, Lesley Hustinx, Lonneke Roza & Lucas C. P. M. Meijs: « A new spirit across sectors: Constructing a common justification for corporate volunteering » Pages: 90-115

Taina Meriluoto: « Neutral experts or passionate participants? Renegotiating expertise and the right to act in Finnish participatory social policy » Pages: 116-139

Qamar Ali & Julia Brandl: « How complex domination enables selection: Academic hiring conventions in a Pakistani university » Pages: 140-164

Adam Gajdoš & Ivana Rapošová: « Juggling grammars, translating common-place: Justifying an anti-liberal referendum to a liberal public » Pages: 165-193

Victor Albert & Maria Davidenko: « Justification work: The homeless workers’ movement and the pragmatic sociology of dissent in Brazil’s crisis » Pages: 194-217

Link to the review

Regional Innovation Transitions

Michael Storper (2018)

In: Johannes Glückler, Roy Suddaby & Regina Lenz (eds.): Knowledge and Institutions. Cham: Springer, pp. 197-225.

Abstract. As an economy undergoes structural change, the focus of innovation changes to different technologies and different industries. Innovation is uneven over time and over places, leading to a tendency for incomes to diverge between innovative places and less innovative places, and to selectivity or turbulence in the pattern of employment and income change from one period to the next. This is the problem of the “innovation transitions” of regional economies. The author carries out a detailed comparative study of two regions—Greater Los Angeles and the San Francisco Bay Area—from 1970 forward, exploring why one region was more successful in its innovation transition than the other. He argues that the staples of urban and regional economics and economic geography offer only partial explanations, and that the divergent outcomes observed are better accounted for by different institutional factors that he labels the “relational infrastructure” of the two regions.

Keywords: Regional economic development, San Francisco Bay Area, Silicon Valley, Los Angeles, innovation, networks of innovators, networks of leaders, regional economic divergence, economic specialization

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Digital platforms and the new spirit of capitalism: A study into the digital game industry

Luiz Ojima Sakuda (2018)

Abstract. Digitization and an enhanced creative component change industry dynamics. One of the most visible recent phenomena is the strengthening of multilateral platforms in traditional industries, a process known as “uberization.” Based on the Theory of Conventions (TC), this text aims to understand the logic of values related to platforms, highlighting how these adhere to the Convention of Projects, characterized by permanently encouraging activities, maximizing flexibility and mobility. The author surveyed the digital game industry, at once digital and creative, in three countries (Brazil, South Korea, and Finland). Resorting to mixed methods, this analysis illustrates how platforms follow the project logic, typical of the new spirit of capitalism. This article discusses contradictory potentialities and research needs of the economy of culture and other industries: precarization of labor and increased platform power coexist with the commercial viability of niche producers and cultural resistance; the transparency of assessments and algorithms increase predictability for suppliers and customers and can, at the same time, raise higher barriers for new players.

This chapter is based on the PhD thesis “Plataformas como novo tipo de governança de cadeias globais de valor: estudo na indústria de jogos digitais” (Platforms as a new type of global value chain governance: study into the digital gaming industry), directed by Afonso Fleury and defended in 2016 in the framework of the graduate study program in Production Engineering of the Escola Politécnica, University of São Paulo.

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Economics of Convention and its Perspective on Knowledge and Institutions

Rainer Diaz-Bone (2018)

In: Glückler, Johannes/Suddaby, Roy/Lenz, Regina (eds.): Knowledge and Institutions. Cham: Springer, pp. 69-88

Abstract. The chapter introduces a French approach, economics of convention, which is an institutional way of integrating pragmatist and structuralist concepts for the analysis of economic production, distribution, and consumption. The author presents its two core models: the system of quality conventions and the worlds of production. Both systematize logics of coordination and valuation. Other concepts such as form investment and global value chains are discussed. Economics of convention criticizes the externalist perspective on institutions as transaction-cost theory does. From the standpoint of economics of convention, the meaning of institutions is incomplete, and competent actors mobilize conventions to handle institutions in situations. The approach’s situationalist perspective brings in an internalist concept of institutions. Economics of convention can thereby combine the analysis of institutions with the analysis of empirical normativity that conventions represent. Conventions can be regarded as the deeper structures of economic knowledge. Finally, the article presents ongoing trends and perspectives of economics of convention.

Keywords: Economics of convention, quality conventions, worlds of production, global value chains, form investment, economic discourses and knowledge, market analysis

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Saberes de origen: experiencias de México y centroamérica

Pablo Pérez Akaki, Alma Amalia González Cabañas, Wilson Picado Umaña (Coordinadores) (2018)

UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL AUTÓNOMA DE MÉXICO / FACULTAD DE ESTUDIOS SUPERIORES ACATLÁN

« Según North (1990), las instituciones son las reglas del juego, aquellas convenciones y organizaciones que permiten, ordenan y regulan las relaciones económicas entre los actores sociales. De acuerdo con la teoría de las convenciones, existen diversos tipos de éstas y expresan el tipo de relaciones sociales predominantes entre los actores en una sociedad. Eymard-Duvernay (1989), Salais y Storper (1991), Boltanski y Thévenot (1991) construyeron, a partir de las convenciones, una clasificación de las relaciones económicas, a las que llamaron mundos ideales, los cuales se definen a partir del conjunto de convenciones dominantes. Recientemente, estudios sobre las convenciones dominantes en las relaciones económicas permiten caracterizar a las diferentes cadenas de comercialización de bienes y servicios que se mercadean por el mundo (Gibbon y Ponte, 2005; Ponte y Sturgeon, 2014). Esta caracterización permite igualmente entender los roles que tienen los diferentes actores en estos encadenamientos; por ejemplo, el rol del sector público frente a las iniciativas de desarrollo local, concretamente, la puesta en marcha de las Denominaciones de Origen. » (Pablo Pérez Akaki, CAPÍTULO 2, Denominaciones de Origen e instituciones: análisis de las experiencias mexicanas, p. 41)

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L’évaluation d’impact territorial en pratique Réflexion sur les représentations conventionnelles des logiques d’action publique

Maurice Baslé (2018)

Revue d’économie régionale et urbaine,  No 2. pp. 489-508.

Résumé. L’évaluation d’impact territorial des programmes participe de l’évaluation de l’effectivité des politiques et des programmes publics sur un périmètre territorial à la fois géographique et institutionnel. Elle est donc une activité ambitieuse de connaissance au service de l’action publique à finalité territoriale, avant, pendant et après l’action. L’activité évaluative peut faire appel à des démarches de production de contrefactuel. Elle peut se contenter de faire appel à des représentations conventionnelles des logiques d’action publique. Seules ces dernières font l’objet ici d’une analyse approfondie en termes de faisabilité et de fiabilité. Les conventions de logiques d’action, lorsqu’elles sont partagées entre les acteurs de l’évaluation d’impact, sont au cœur des cahiers des charges et servent d’ossature aux termes de références des évaluations : elles sont le langage partagé par les acteurs publics et les évaluateurs. L’article se réfère à la seule pratique de ces représentations dans les usages des évaluateurs : l’accent est porté sur les conventions simples de représentations « de chaînes d’impact » mais aussi, dans le cas de politiques complexes, sur les représentations de « réseaux de valeur et d’impact ». Puisqu’il s’agit de conventions, les questions de faisabilité et de fiabilité des résultats des évaluations se posent immédiatement : elles sont traitées ici avec un esprit de praticien. Il est montré qu’un indicateur de confiance dans les résultats donne souvent du flou aux résultats évaluatifs mais ceci peut augmenter l’acceptabilité des résultats évaluatifs d’impact territorial, ce qui, au surplus, peut favoriser l’utilisation des résultats des évaluations.

Mots clés : causalité, chaînes logiques de valeur publique, évaluation d’impact, réseaux de valeur publique

Territorial impact Evaluation in practice. Discussion on conventional representations of impact chains and impact networks

Abstract. The territorial impact assessment of programs is part of the evaluation of the effectiveness of public policies and programs in a geographical and institutional territorial perimeter. It is therefore an ambitious activity of knowledge at the service of public action for territorial purposes, before, during and after the action. The evaluation activity may involve counterfactual production processes. It can be satisfied with conventional representations of the logic of public action. Only the latter are analyzed here in depth in terms of feasibility and reliability. The conventions of logics of action, when shared between the actors of impact assessment, are at the heart of the specifications and serve as a framework for the terms of reference of evaluations: they are the language shared by public actors and evaluators. The article refers to the practice of these representations in evaluators’ practices only: the emphasis is on simple conventions of “impact chain” representations, but also, in the case of complex policies, on representations of “value and impact networks”. Since these are conventions, questions of feasibility and reliability of evaluation results arise immediately: they are dealt with here in a practitioner’s spirit. It is shown that a confidence indicator in the results often confuses the evaluation results, but this may increase the acceptability of the territorial impact evaluation results, which, in addition, may encourage the use of evaluation results.

Keywords: causality, impact assessment, logical chains of public value, networks of public value.

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Fighting Human Smuggling or Criminalizing Refugees? Regimes of Justification in and around R v Appulonappa

David Moffette & Nevena Aksin (2018)

Canadian Journal of Law and Society / La Revue Canadienne Droit et Société, 33(1), pp. 21-39.

Abstract. Following the arrival of the MV Ocean Lady in 2009, four men were charged with human smuggling under s. 117 of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act for having helped Sri Lankan asylum seekers reach Canada. Section 117 made it a criminal offence to aid and abet the unauthorized entry of asylum seekers, including when this was done for humanitarian reasons, to help family members, or as a matter of mutual aid. The case made its way to the Supreme Court and, in 2015, the court ruled in R v Appulonappa that s. 117 was too broad, potentially criminalizing humanitarian workers and family members who help transport asylum seekers, and should be interpreted in a strict manner. This article draws from pragmatic sociology to study the regimes of justification mobilized by various actors involved in, and around, R v Appulonappa between 2009 and 2015. It focuses on two sites of contestation that crystalized around divergent conceptions of fairness and safety, discussing how competing regimes of justification were used to advance stakeholder’s positions.

Keywords: Appulonappa, Bill C-31, Canada, criminalization, refugees, regimes of justification.

Résumé. À la suite de l’arrivée, en 2009, du navire MV Ocean Lady, quatre hommes furent accusés de trafic de personnes, en vertu de l’article 117 de la Loi sur l’immigration et la protection des réfugiés, pour avoir aidé des demandeurs d’asile sri-lankais à entrer illégalement au Canada. Selon l’article 117, le fait d’inciter, d’aider ou d’encourager l’entrée non autorisée de demandeurs d’asile constituait un acte criminel, même lorsque celui-ci était réalisé à des fins humanitaires dans le but d’aider des membres de la famille ou de fournir une aide mutuelle. En 2015, la présente affaire s’est rendue en Cour suprême du Canada où cette dernière a statué, dans l’arrêt R. c. Appulonappa, que la portée de l’article 117 était excessive dans la mesure où son libellé était susceptible de criminaliser des travailleurs humanitaires et les proches parents d’un demandeur d’asile, et que, par conséquent, il devait être interprété de façon plus étroite. Ancrée dans la sociologie pragmatique, l’article se penche sur les stratégies de justification mobilisées par les divers acteurs de l’affaire R. c. Appulonappa entre 2009 et 2015. Il porte notamment sur deux espaces de contestation qui se sont formés autour de conceptions divergentes de l’équité et de la sécurité. L’article illustre les façons dont ces stratégies opposées furent utilisées pour faire valoir les intérêts des parties intéressées.

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