« Ma mort, mon choix » ; analyse de postes pro-choix à la lumière de la théorie des cités de Boltanski et Thévenot

Camille Gambi (2020)

Mémoire de Master (Criminologie), Université catholique de Louvain

Promoteurs : Bertrand Renard & Jean-François Cauchie

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Perspectives on Quality of Higher Education in the Context of Finnish Education Export

Henna Juusola (2020)

PhD thesis. Tampere: University of Tampere. Open access.

JURY
Responsible supervisor and Custos:
– Professor Dr. Jussi Kivistö, Tampere University Finland
Supervisors:
– Emeritus Professor Dr. Seppo Hölttä, Tampere University, Finland
– Dr. Terhi Nokkala, University of Jyväskylä, Finland
Pre-examiners
– Professor Dr. Harri Laihonen, University of Eastern Finland
– Professor Dr. Anna Kosmützky, Leibniz Universität Germany
Opponent
– Professor Dr. Harri Laihonen University of Eastern Finland

Abstract. The aim of this doctoral dissertation is to describe quality-related initiatives, characteristics and principles that are produced and maintained in the context of Finnish higher education export at the national, institutional and programme levels using triangulation of data, method and theory. As such, this study contributes to the analytical and empirical understanding of the multifaceted concept of quality in the context of Finnish education export. In this study, education export denotes the international and for-profit actions that cross national borders either through the mobility of individuals and groups or through the mobility of programmes and other educational services. Previously conducted research shows that ‘quality’ in the context of education export has been subject to several expectations, principles and regulations that have exerted intense pressure on higher education institutions to consider the project locations and needs of students and customers without abandoning international comparability. Thus, involvement in education export actions can oblige higher education institutions to reflect on their traditions and processes from multiple perspectives and foster institutional aims to attain legitimation in various regimes. This research consists of four sub-studies and a summary that stress the different perspectives of quality in the context of Finnish higher education export at the national (macro), institutional (meso) and programme (micro) levels. The data used in this research included national policy documents, institutional audit reports, interviews (students and staff members), personal notes from participant observation and data from the online questionnaire (teachers). National policy documents were analysed and interpreted using Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis (sub-study I). Institutional audit reports (sub-study II) and interviews (substudy III) were explored using convention theory and qualitative content analysis. Data from the online questionnaire were analysed by qualitative content analysis and interpreted from the perspective of Mezirow’s transformative learning (sub-study IV). Personal notes recorded during the participant observation (sub-studies III and IV) were used to explain the context of the exported programme (sub-studies III and IV) and to refocus the research questions. This doctoral dissertation’s findings suggest that quality is formulated within the complex network of political, social, contextual, geographical and situational dimensions. At the national level, quality embodies the responsibility and resources that justify education export; Finnish education’s national reputation is a shared myth that sustains the widely held perception of Finnish education as superior. At the institutional level, education export is still a relatively new and fragmented action, which benefits from its international reputation but continues to seek a more strategic direction. The results also suggest that education export implementation is embedded in the temporal and local dimensions as well as in interaction among the students, teachers and representatives from the provider and receiver institutions. Therefore, higher education institutions are expected to consider quality from multiple perspectives and to justify quality of education for different stakeholder groups. Moreover, for education export providers, supporting teachers’ engagement in education export action is essential, as maintaining education quality throughout the process of knowledge creation requires trust-based interaction among providers and receivers.

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Vers un processus d’innovation managériale durable : une lecture par la traduction et les compromis

Fanny Fox (2020)

PhD thesis. Liege: Université de Liège. 28 aoüt 2020. Open access.

Promoteur :  Professeur François PICHAULT (Université de Liège)
Membres du jury :
          Professeur Christian DEFÉLIX (Université Grenoble Alpes)
          Professeur Édouard DELRUELLE (Université de Liège)
          Professeur Mathieu DETCHESSAHAR (Université de Nantes)
          Professeur Frédéric SCHOENAERS (Université de Liège)

Résumé. L’innovation managériale, au cœur des débats contemporains, demeure opaque à certains égards, notamment en raison des définitions attachées à dire ce qu’elle n’est pas. Ainsi, elle se distingue de l’innovation technologique, ne concerne pas le core business et s’éloigne des modes de gestion hiérarchique classiques. Notre recherche entend dépasser ces écueils pour se concentrer sur le processus d’innovation managériale et, partant, faciliter son déploiement. Trois articles explorent cinq études de cas, tantôt issues de recherches classiques, tantôt issues de recherches-interventions. Premièrement, la démarche de libération dans un organisme public est analysée à l’aune de la sociologie de la traduction. Ce projet, largement médiatisé, vise à réaménager les espaces et le temps de travail et à instiller une culture de responsabilisation. Les pierres d’achoppement, contradictions et acquis du changement sont mis en évidence, depuis sa conception jusqu’au suivi de sa mise en œuvre. Deuxièmement, les conséquences pour l’innovation managériale d’un revirement stratégique sont interrogées. D’une part, la responsabilisation et la transformation managériale au sein d’une industrie chocolatière sont délaissées. D’autre part, les ambitions d’innovation sociale pour une usine du futur sont abandonnées par une entreprise aéronautique. Plusieurs sources de vulnérabilité de l’innovation managériale, liées au processus de traduction et à l’asymétrie du rapport de forces, sont mises en lumière. Troisièmement, la mise en péril de l’innovation managériale par l’évolution du contexte est étudiée. D’un côté, une structure associative cherche à préserver son fonctionnement autogestionnaire. De l’autre, un fournisseur d’énergie souhaite maintenir sa culture atypique originelle. À l’aide de la théorie des conventions, l’examen du contenu des innovations managériales démontre la nécessaire construction d’un compromis dont le maintien devient un enjeu crucial. Ces résultats sont ensuite intégrés au sein d’une modélisation dynamique du processus d’innovation managériale susceptible d’en favoriser la durabilité. In fine, l’ensemble ouvre la voie à une réflexion sur la soutenabilité du processus d’innovation managériale et à des recommandations managériales.

Towards a sustainable managerial innovation process: a reading through translation and compromises

Abstract. Managerial innovation, at the heart of contemporary debates, remains opaque in certain respects, notably because of the definitions attached to saying what it is not. Thus, it differs from technological innovation, does not concern core business and is far removed from traditional hierarchical management methods. Our research aims to go beyond these pitfalls to focus on the process of managerial innovation and thus facilitate its deployment. Three articles explore five case studies, some of which are based on classic research, others on research-interventions. First, the process of liberation in a public organization is analyzed in the light of the sociology of translation. This project, which is widely publicized in the media, aims to redesign work spaces and time and to instil a culture of empowerment. The stumbling blocks, contradictions and achievements of change are highlighted, from its conception to the monitoring of its implementation. Secondly, the consequences for managerial innovation of a strategic turnaround are questioned. On the one hand, accountability and managerial transformation within a chocolate industry are neglected. On the other hand, social innovation ambitions for a factory of the future are abandoned by an aeronautics company. Several sources of vulnerability of managerial innovation, linked to the translation process and the asymmetry of the balance of power, are highlighted. Thirdly, the endangerment of managerial innovation by the evolution of the context is studied. On the one hand, an associative structure seeks to preserve its self-management functioning. On the other, an energy supplier wishes to maintain its original atypical culture. Using convention theory, the examination of the content of managerial innovations demonstrates the necessary construction of a compromise, the maintenance of which becomes a crucial issue. These results are then integrated into a dynamic modeling of the managerial innovation process likely to promote its sustainability. Ultimately, the whole process opens the way to a reflection on the sustainability of the managerial innovation process and to managerial recommendations.

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Die Soziologie der Konventionen. Beiträge zur Analyse von Wohlfahrtsmärkten im Wandel

Lisa Knoll (2019)

The sociology of conventions. Contributions to the Analysis of Changing Welfare Markets

Cumulative Habilitation in Sociology, University of Hamburg, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences

Lisa Knoll (2020): « Geldsoziologie. Eine Diskussion und kritische Reflexion aktueller Debatten » [« Sociology of money. A discussion and critical reflection of current debates »] Lecture given at University of Hamburg (22 June 2020) to finish the habilitation procedure.

Committee
Jürgen Beyer (University of Hamburg)
Rainer Diaz-Bone (University of Lucerne)
Anita Engels (University of Hamburg)
Stefanie Kley (University of Hamburg)
Katharina Manderscheid (University of Hamburg)
Sieghard Neckel (University of Hamburg)

SUMMARY.

This compendium of work provides a contribution to the understanding of welfare markets and their transformation. On the basis of research projects on welfare taxation, carbon markets, social impact bonds, energy performance contracting, and nudging, Lisa Knoll highlights how the governing regimes of welfare markets change alongside a paradox: on the one hand market theories deny the state as an intervening force and on the other hand the state is required to acertain just market structures. It seems that a great deal of political frustration stems from this paradox: promising the absence of the state on the one hand, but still producing a lot of bureacracy on the other (which is then associated with the “regulatory frenzy” of politicians, without any connection to liberal politics). The habilitation of Lisa Knoll illuminates this free market-paradox with the social science toolkit of the Convention School of Economics (Économie des conventions).

With its claim to overcome the state vs. market divide, its take on the omnipresence of critique, and the constant pragmatic adaptation of institutions and structures, the Convention School is well equipped to shed light onto the critical struggles that make welfare markets change their character over time. Lisa Knoll shows that important debates within welfare economics itself can be analyzed as a cycle of criticism over the question of how the state should and should not intervene. Economic debates do not appear as a monolithic bloc in Lisa Knolls work, but as an outcome of constant struggles over the question of justice. Market interventions, such as social impact bonds are deeply connected to state and governance structures and to something, Lisa Knoll and Eve Chiapello call “welfare conventions”. Lisa Knoll highlights in her work, how struggles over the welfare or justice question are deeply inscribed into the institutional repertoire of governance. When new welfare market instruments become institutionalized, they are confronted with an institutional legacy they need to transform and compromise. The process of implementation is thus far from obvious and full of critique from different sites. Together with Konstanze Senge, Lisa Knoll shows how the German brake on debt gets confronted by more entrepreneurial/ neoliberal styles of public sector accounting that are carried with instruments such as the energy performance contract.

Furthermore, Lisa Knoll illuminates the cycles of re- and depolitization within the process of market-making. The private, technical and natural aura of markets gives the particular institutional structures an apolitical pretense, which is constantly confronted by moments of critique and repolitication.[1] Lisa Knoll’s work is impregnated by thoughts of Laurent Thévenot on the regimes of engagement or Luc Boltanski on modes of action. She highlights the dynamic process of critique and critique avoidance in different parts of her work. The moments of de- and repolitization of markets often arise in moments of quantification, evidence-building and commensuration (the very moments of depolitization). Lisa Knoll, with reference to the work of Alain Desrosières, puts great emphasis on showing how the avoided struggles over justice reappear in moments of quantification/ commensuration (for example, the emission rights allocation in carbon markets, or the contract negotiations of social impact bonds and energy performance contracts). The Convention School of Economics particularily highlights the historical and political character of statistics and metrics. In the work of Lisa Knoll the disputes over these techniques play a pivotal role and she connects these questions to the subject of de- and repolitization of markets.

[1] In an interesting side-way, Lisa Knoll discusses how this is also true for the subject of gender. The maneuvers of naturalization can be observed as maneuvers of depolitization with different phenomena.

 

Rinderhaltung ohne Schlachtung als Agrar-Care-System. Fallbeispiele aus Europa und Indien.

Meyer-Glitza, Patrick (2019)

Cattle farming without slaughter as an agricultural care system. Case studies from Europe and India.

PhD thesis. Berlin: Humboldt Universität zu Berlin.

SUMMARY

“Over the recent years, vegetarianism and veganism have increasingly become a subject of public debate. However, even vegetarian nutrition, through consumption of milk products, leads to the slaughtering of dairy cows that are no longer productive or have been sorted out, and of their male offspring. Thus, vegetarians are indirectly co-responsible for the slaughtering of cattle. For lacto-vegetarians, cattle husbandry without slaughtering (here ‘CWS’, in German ‚ROS’) could be a solution to the dilemma of consuming milk products while not being willing, for ethical reasons, to kill animals. Based on this, the following questions arise: What would cattle husbandry without slaughtering look like in practice? What are the biographical motives behind such farming, and under which ethical aspects is it pursued? In the literary section of this treatise, historical and religious (hinduism) aspects of cattle farming have been outlined. The key issue of the literary section was how CWS is situated in the context of bioethical theories. Other aspects are the longevity of dairy cattle and farms with similarities to CWS and examples of CWS itself. The interviews with the animal owners and/or the heads of animal husbandry in a total of five cases have been carried out and reviewed using qualitative methods of interpretive social research (mostly Grounded Theory, but also biography research and detailed sequential analysis). The five example cases, representing a large part of the parent population at the time of the investigation, have been analyzed and described. In a case comparison, the five cases have been compared to each other in terms of their respective biographical developments, their ethics and their animal husbandry systems (‘system that works’) and also in terms of their conventions (‘économie des conventions’) […] The care-based approach, which is reflected especially in the sanctuary function of the farms, is combined with the agricultural system, resulting in the agri-care-system. The care convention, along with the convention of animal husbandry without slaughtering, put this CWS framework in a wider context. Dilemmas like castration of oxen, euthanasia, killing of wild animals and insects through cultivation of land and feeding of cats cannot be solved by CWS, but CWS can help to alleviate the ambivalence of human handling of domestic and farmed animals. .“ (p. 216/217)

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Hightech am Ende. Über das globale Recycling von Elektroschrott und die Entstehung neuer Werte

Laser, Stefan (2020)

PhD thesis. Wiesbaden: Springer VS.

ABSTRACT

Stefan Laser folgt den Spuren des Werts von Elektroschrott. Mithilfe ethnographischer Studien bespricht er ein umkämpftes Gesetz in Indien, verfolgt als Mitarbeiter eines deutschen Recycling-Weltmarktführers das Schreddern und Schmelzen alter Elektronikgeräte und untersucht eine Google-Innovation zur Neugestaltung von Smartphones. Im Zentrum des Buchs steht die aufwendige, kontroverse Entstehung neuer Werte. Der Autor identifiziert das Hightech-Recycling als dominante politische und ökonomische Kraft im Umgang mit Elektroschrott – eine einseitige Strategie, die andere verdrängt und nicht zur nachhaltigen Vermeidung von Müll beiträgt.

AUSZUG

“Ein wichtiges Stichwort in diesem Kontext ist die Soziologie der Kritik – an Stelle der kritischen Soziologie. Die Soziologie der Kritik will die kritischen Potenziale der Akteure erkunden, ihnen soll kein vorgefertigtes Narrativ übergestülpt werden (Boltanski und Chiapello 2006; Boltanski 2008; Bogusz 2010, S. 127-150; Vobruba 2017). Trotz allem kann hier die Kritik eine Option sein. Es ist ein Spiel aus Nähe und Distanz, auf das man sich einlassen muss (Bohmann et al. 2010). Wie bei den Stichworten der Kritik und Politik drohen auch mit Blick auf das Schlagwort der Ökonomie reduktionistische Kurzschlüsse. Die STS sehen es als problematisch an, das Ökonomische als „Ding“ mit stabilen Eigenschaften anzusehen – vor allem: mit Eigenschaften zu beschreiben, die man als gegeben und bekannt erachtet. Wichtige Bindestrichsoziologien, die hier anschlussfähig sind, sind die Wirtschaftssoziologie und insbesondere die Konventionenökonomie. Die Wirtschaftssoziologie (allgemein: Beckert und Deutschmann 2009; Granovetter und Swedberg 2011; Maurer 2017) fordert dazu auf, das Ökonomische konsequent empirisch und als Teil der Gesellschaft zu untersuchen. Die Wirtschaftswisseschaft wird in dieser Literatur als „untersozialisiert“ angesehen, die gängige Soziologie wiederum als „übersozialisiert“ beschrieben – erste würden vorwiegend auf Individuen und ihr Eigeninteresse schauen, letztere überbewerteten internalisierte Normen, sodass individuelle Entscheidungen als gänzlich irrelevant erschienen (Granovetter 2000, S. 205). In der Konventionenökonomie wird dann der Konvention eine heuristische Sonderfunktion zugewiesen. Konvention heißt dabei „zusammenkommen“ oder „eine Übereinkunft treffen“ (Salais 1989, S. 213; übersetzt und zit. nach Diaz-Bone 2015, S. 19). Im Kern ist die EC an der Konstruktion und Verbreitung von Wertigkeiten interessiert. Autorinnen in diesem Feld gehen davon aus, dass ökonomischer Austausch nur möglich ist, weil zuvor Übereinkünfte getroffen wurden – das heißt: Messungen durchgeführt und Qualitäten erfasst wurden. Bevor etwas ökonomisch „inwertgesetzt“ wird, muss es also evaluiert werden.” (p. 31)

High-tech at the end. About the global recycling of electronic waste and the creation of new values.

ABSTRACT

Stefan Laser follows the trail of the value of electronic waste. With the help of ethnographic studies, he discusses a contested law in India, follows the shredding and melting of old electronic equipment as an employee of a German recycling world leader, and examines a Google innovation for redesigning smartphones. At the heart of the book is the elaborate, controversial creation of new values. The author identifies high-tech recycling as the dominant political and economic force in the handling of electronic waste – a one-sided strategy that displaces others and does not contribute to the sustainable avoidance of waste.

EXCERPT

“An important keyword in this context is the sociology of critique – instead of critical sociology. The sociology of critique seeks to explore the critical potentials of the actors; no ready-made narrative should be imposed on them (Boltanski and Chiapello 2006; Boltanski 2008; Bogusz 2010, pp. 127-150; Vobruba 2017). Nevertheless, criticism can be an option here. It is a game of closeness and distance that must be played (Bohmann et al. 2010). As with the keywords of critique and politics, reductionist short-circuits also threaten the buzzword economy. The STS see it as problematic to view the economic as a « thing » with stable properties – above all: to describe it with properties that are considered common and familiar. Important hyphen sociologies that can be connected here are economic sociology and especially convention economy. Economic sociology (generally: Beckert and Deutschmann 2009; Granovetter and Swedberg 2011; Maurer 2017) calls for a consistent empirical investigation of the economic as part of society. In this literature, economic science is seen as « undersocialised », while common sociology is described as « oversocialised » – the former would look primarily at individuals and their self-interest, the latter overvalued internalised norms, so that individual decisions appeared to be completely irrelevant (Granovetter 2000, p. 205). In the convention economy the convention is then assigned a heuristic special function. Convention means « to come together » or « to reach an agreement » (Salais 1989, p. 213; translated and quoted according to Diaz-Bone 2015, p. 19). In essence, the EC is interested in the construction and dissemination of valences. Authors in this field assume that economic exchange is only possible because agreements have been made beforehand – that is, measurements have been taken and qualities have been recorded. So before something is economically « valued » it must be evaluated.” (p. 31)

Sampling in der Musikproduktion. Das Spannungsfeld zwischen Urheberrecht und Kreativität.

Fischer, Georg (2020)

Marburg: Büchner Verlag. PhD thesis. Open Access.

AUSZUG

“Die statische Konnotation, die im Wort »Konvention« mitschwingt, sollte nicht über Gebühr bemüht werden; genauso wie die mögliche Folgerung, dass Kooperationen und Konventionen Ausdruck von konflikt- oder reibungsfreien Aushandlungsprozessen voller Harmonie sind. Konventionen sind freilich dynamisch gedacht, sie können sich ändern und auf veränderte Umstände reagieren (Becker 2008: 59), gleichzeitig ihre stabilisierende Funktion aber beibehalten. Oftmals sind Konventionen Ergebnis langwieriger sozialer Verhandlungen, die von mit mehr oder weniger Macht ausgestatteten Akteuren zu eigenen Gunsten beeinflusst und installiert werden. Die Funktionen, die von Konventionen bereitgestellt werden, changieren zwischen loser Orientierung und zwingender Beachtung. Daraus folgert Becker, dass die Nicht-Beachtung bestimmter Konventionen nicht unbedingt das Misslingen eines Kunstwerks nach sich zieht, aber seine Herstellung deutlich umständlicher werden lässt: ‘Conventions make collective activity simpler and less costly in time, energy, and other resources; but they do not make unconventional work impossible, only more costly and difficult. Change can and does occur whenever someone devises a way to gather the greater resources required or reconceptualizes the work so it does not require what is not available.’ (Becker 2008: 35)” “Innerhalb der französischen Wirtschaftssoziologie hat sich seit den 1980er Jahren mit der »Economie des conventions« eine sozialwissenschaftliche Forschungsbewegung formiert, die den Begriff der Konvention ebenfalls als zentralen theoretischen Ausgangspunkt zur Analyse ökonomischer Institutionen behandelt. Ähnlich wie bei Becker werden Konventionen als kollektive interpretative Rahmen behandelt, die Koordinations- und Evaluationspraktiken ermöglichen. Für eine umfassende Einführung siehe Diaz-Bone (2015). (S. 90/Fußnote 24)

Sampling in music production. The tension between copyright and creativity

EXCERPT

“The static connotation that resonates in the word « convention », should not be unduly burdensome; just as the possible conclusion that cooperation and conventions are an expression of conflict- or friction-free negotiation processes full of harmony. Of course, conventions are dynamic, they can change and react to changing circumstances (Becker 2008: 59), while at the same time retaining their stabilizing function. Often, conventions are the result of protracted social negotiations, which are carried out by more or less powerful actors to their own advantage and installed. The functions that are provided by conventions change between loose orientation and compulsory attention. From this Becker concludes that the non-observance of certain conventions does not necessarily mean that a work of art will fail, but makes its production much more laborious: « Conventions make collective activity simpler and less costly in time, energy, and other resources; but they do not make unconventional work impossible, only more costly and difficult. Change can and does occur whenever someone devises a way to gather the greater resources required or reconceptualizes the work so it does not require what is not available. » (Becker 2008: 35) “Within French economic sociology, since the 1980s with the « Economie des conventions » a social science research movement which also sees the concept of convention as a central theoretical and practical Starting point for the analysis of economic institutions. Similarly as with Becker, conventions are used as collective interpretative frameworks that enable coordination and evaluation practices. For a comprehensive introduction see Diaz-Bone (2015).” (p. 90/Footnote 24)

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Ist eine gute Schule eine inklusive Schule? Entwicklung von Messinstrumenten durch Schulinspektionen

Piezunka, Anne (2020)

Stuttgart: Klinkhardt. PhD thesis. Open access

ABSTRACT

“Wie misst man die Qualität von Schule und was versteht man überhaupt unter einer « guten » Schule? Mit diesen Fragen setzen sich im Fall von Deutschland die bundeslandspezifischen Schulinspektionen auseinander. Sie evaluieren mithilfe von Befragungen und standardisierten Beobachtungen regelmäßig die Qualität von Einzelschulen. Im Rahmen der Arbeit wird untersucht, inwiefern Schulinspektionen unter einer guten Schule eine inklusive Schule verstehen und wie die dazugehörigen Messinstrumente entstanden sind. Da es an einer einheitlichen Definition von schulischer Inklusion fehlt, wird im Rahmen der Arbeit auch berücksichtigt, was die Schulinspektionen in den einzelnen Bundesländern darunter verstehen und wie sie die gesetzliche Vorgabe in ihren Messinstrumenten interpretiert haben. Hierbei wird auf Arbeiten aus der Inklusionsforschung (z.B. Prengel; Hinz) sowie auf Arbeiten aus der Bewertungssoziologie (z.B. Boltanski & Thévenot) zurückgegriffen. Des Weiteren wird mithilfe des organisationssoziologischen Sensemaking-Ansatzes (Weick; Spillane) analysiert, welche Rahmenbedingungen bei der Entwicklung der Messinstrumente eine Rolle spielten, z.B. bildungspolitische Konstellationen sowie persönliche Erfahrungen.

Diese Dissertation wurde 2019 mit dem Wissenschaftspreis der Sektion Sonderpädagogik der DGfE ausgezeichnet.”

Is a good school an inclusive school? Development of measuring instruments through school inspections

ABSTRACT

“How do you measure the quality of school and what do you actually understand by a « good » school? In the case of Germany, these questions are dealt with by the federal state school inspections. They regularly evaluate the quality of individual schools by means of surveys and standardized observation. The project investigates to what extent school inspections understand a good school to be an inclusive school and how the corresponding measuring instruments were developed. Since there is no uniform definition of school inclusion, the study also takes into account what school inspectorates in the individual German states understand by this and how they have interpreted the legal requirement in their measuring instruments. In this context, reference is made to work from inclusion research (e.g. Prengel; Hinz) as well as to work from the sociology of evaluation (e.g. Boltanski & Thévenot). In addition, the organizational-sociological sensemaking approach (Weick; Spillane) is used to analyze which framework conditions played a role in the development of the measuring instruments, e.g. educational policy constellations and personal experiences.

This dissertation was awarded the Science Prize of the Special Education Section of the DGfE in 2019″.

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Engaging with austerity: austerity management, discourse and the regimes of engagement

Sam Van Elk (2020)

PhD thesis, London: King’s College

Supervisors: Ewan Ferlie & Susan Trenholm

Abstract. Austerity is among contemporary public management’s defining features. Austerity management research traditionally focuses on the contents of budgetary changes and organisations’ broad strategies. While valuable, this high-level strategic lens comes at the expense of accounting for the austere situation’s turbulence and the grounded practices through which austerity is managed. Consequently, this thesis reconceptualises austerity management through Thévenot’s regimes of engagement (RE). This pragmatist lens better conceptualises actors’ situated dilemmas and consequent practices. Thévenot’s approach particularly suits austere environments, whose scarcity surfaces public organisations’ latent inter-goal conflicts: RE differentiates modes of action by the different goods people seek. To capture the national and organisational debate in whose context public managers operate, RE was combined with Critical Discourse Analysis. The resultant study focuses on a sector in which austerity management research is overdue: UK healthcare. It combines a case study of national policy with three organisational cases. Observations, interviews and documents are analysed discursively, processually and pragmatically. The resultant findings enable three theoretical contributions. The first emphasises the linguistic situating work we do to establish the nature of situations we encounter. It particularly emphasises its importance in shaping the national austerity situation. The second highlights an annual cycle of instability as organisations’ emphasis shifts between reporting acceptable financial plans and making those often highly optimistic numbers real. The third demonstrates that austerity destabilises the very coordination devices which people deploy to manage it. Together, these contributions conceptualise austerity management as a set of responses to a situation. It notes how austerity’s evaluative and situational instability undermine traditional ways of coordinating work despite uncertainty. This recasts austerity management as not only a set of financial choices but also a search for coordination. Such an approach is needed to do justice to the messy realities of austerity which public managers know so well.

Les fondamentaux de la logistique durable. Pratiques, contraintes, performances

Thomas ZEROUAL

Habilitation à diriger les recherches en Sciences économiques soutenue à l’Université de Lille le lundi 2 mars 2020.

Le jury :
C. Blanquart, DR Université Gustave Eiffel ;  Présidente,
F. Gallouj, PR Université de Lille ; Garant,
A. Hamdouch, PR Université de Tours ; Rapporteur,
C. Tanguy, PR Agrosup Dijon ; Rapporteur,
M. Savy, PR Université Gustave Eiffel ; Rapporteur.

Extrait :

« L’économie des conventions explore la diversité des discours et des registres de justification des actions humaines. L’intérêt est de pouvoir représenter une pluralité d’objectifs pour chaque acteur dans le même temps. Cette grille de lecture semble adaptée à notre problématique. La logistique durable vise en effet plusieurs objectifs : A l’aide des quatre puis des six mondes, il sera possible d’affiner les catégories d’objectifs d’une part et d’identifier des indicateurs pour évaluer les résultats d’autre part. […]
Sur le modèle de l’économie des conventions, une première série de travaux distingue, à partir des caractéristiques de la production, quatre « logiques » différentes. A chaque « logique » de production est associée des « logiques » de circulation de biens, d’informations et de personnes. Dans ces travaux, la terminologie de Salais et Storper pour désigner les mondes (industriel, marchand, interpersonnel, immatériel) évolue pour identifier de manière plus explicite la nature de l’organisation logistique. Quatre logiques de production sont identifiées (industrielle, flexible, professionnelle et immatérielle) donnant lieu à une organisation logistique spécifique. Il n’existe donc pas qu’une seule logique de circulation issue d’une organisation logistique. Il existe des logiques de circulation qui impliquent des flux de transport. […]
Le tableau 45 ci-dessous reprend cette évaluation multicritères basée sur les registres de justification. L’intérêt du tableau est de permettre d’intégrer l’ensemble des valeurs défendues par les différents acteurs au sein d’une chaîne logistique. Tous les objectifs peuvent ainsi être visualisés ainsi que leurs effets immédiats et médiats. Il devient également possible de comprendre au sein d’une chaîne quel type d’objectifs est plus valorisé que tel autre. » (p. 126-127)

The fundamentals of sustainable logistics. Practices, constraints, performance

Translation of the excerpt:

« The economics of convention explores the diversity of discourses and registers of justification for human actions. The interest is to be able to represent a plurality of objectives for each actor at the same time. This reading grid seems adapted to our problematic. Indeed, sustainable logistics has several objectives: With the help of the four and then the six worlds, it will be possible to refine the categories of objectives on the one hand and to identify indicators to evaluate the results on the other hand. […]
Based on the model of the economics of convention, a first series of works distinguishes, on the basis of the characteristics of production, four different « logics ». Each « logic » of production is associated with « logics » of circulation of goods, information and people. In these works, the terminology used by Salais and Storper to designate the worlds (industrial, commercial, interpersonal, immaterial) evolves to identify more explicitly the nature of logistical organization. Four production logics are identified (industrial, flexible, professional and immaterial) giving rise to a specific logistics organization. There is therefore not only one circulation logic resulting from a logistics organisation. There are circulation logics that involve transport flows. […]
Table 45 below shows this multi-criteria assessment based on the justification records. The interest of the table is to allow the integration of all the values defended by the different actors within a supply chain. All the objectives can thus be visualised as well as their immediate and media effects. It also becomes possible to understand within a chain which type of objectives is more valued than another. »
(p. 126-127)

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Lebensführung im Alter(n)swandel. Impulse für eine interdisziplinäre Sozialstrukturanalyse des höheren Alters.

Bolze, Max (2020)

Wiesbaden: Springer VS.

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG

“Max Bolze entwickelt an der Schnittstelle zwischen Alter(n)s- und Lebensstilforschung ein interdisziplinäres Forschungsprogramm, das er als Sozialstrukturanalyse des höheren Alters charakterisiert. Den Kern bildet ein handlungstheoretisch fundiertes Mehrebenenmodell zur Analyse von Lebensführungen. Mit diesem gelingt es, die sozialwissenschaftliche Diskussion um eine soziale und kulturelle Differenzierung des Alter(n)s theoretisch-konzeptionell präziser zu erfassen und empirisch zugänglich zu machen. Hierfür werden methodologische und empirische Zugänge gelegt, über die durch Methodenintegration eine Verbesserung der in der Lebensstilforschung häufig problematisierten Typenbildung erreicht werden kann.”

AUSZUG

“Aus meiner Sicht ist die Angewandte Gerontologie als Forschungsfeld, das zur Verbesserung der Lebensqualität älterer Menschen beiträgt, grundsätzlich begrüßenswert. Die Modifikation des Alterns sollte jedoch erkennbarer von der wertfreien Beschreibung und Erklärung dessen, was alte Menschen tun, getrennt werden. Die verwendeten Konzepte und die ihnen unterliegenden Konventionen sollten bei allen Betrachtungsweisen stets observiert und in ihren Produktionsbedingungen und Auswirkungen kritisch hinterfragt werden. […] Hier bietet die aus Frankreich stammende Wissenschaftsbewegung der ‚Economie des conventions‘ spannende Ansatzpunkte. Aus einer pragmatischen Perspektive wird insbesondere der Blick auf die Konventionen (im Sinne von Weltsichten, Normativitäten, Koordinationslogiken) gerichtet, die bei der Herstellung und Organisation von Wissen, Handlungen und Prozessen eine Rolle spielen (Boltanski und Thévenot 2007). In jüngerer Zeit gewinnt die Economie des conventions auch im deutschsprachigen Raum an Bedeutung (Diaz-Bone 2018a). Eine Verknüpfung zur Alter(n)sforschung steht noch aus.” (S. 23/Fußnote 12)

Lifestyle in a changing age. Impulses for an interdisciplinary social structure analysis of old age/aging

ABSTRACT

“Max Bolze is developing an interdisciplinary research program at the interface between age(s) and lifestyle research, which he characterizes as a social structure analysis of old age. The core is a multi-level model based on action theory for the analysis of lifestyles. This model makes it possible to grasp the social science discussion on social and cultural differentiation of age/aging more precisely in theoretical and conceptual terms and to make it empirically accessible. For this purpose, methodological and empirical approaches are being developed, which, through the integration of methods, can lead to an improvement in the type formation that is often problematic in lifestyle research.”

EXTRACT

“In my view, applied gerontology is fundamentally welcome as a field of research that contributes to improving the quality of life of older people. However, the modification of ageing should be more clearly separated from the value-free description and explanation of what older people do. The concepts used and the conventions that underlie them should always be observed and their production conditions and effects critically questioned in all approaches. […] Here the French-born scientific movement of the ‘Economie des conventions’ offers exciting starting points. From a pragmatic perspective, it focuses in particular on the conventions (in the sense of world views, normativities, coordination logics) that play a role in the production and organization of knowledge, actions and processes (Boltanski and Thévenot 2007). More recently, the Economie des conventions has also gained importance in the German-speaking world (Diaz-Bone 2018a). A link to research on ageing/research on age is still pending.” (p. 23/footnote 12)

Unternehmerische Ernährungskommunikation und -verantwortung. Eine konstruktivistische Betrachtung im Kontext von Nachhaltigkeit

Bartelmeß, Tina (2020)

Wiesbaden: Springer VS

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG

“Tina Bartelmeß untersucht Ernährungskommunikation von Unternehmen der Lebensmittelwirtschaft aus einer sozialkonstruktivistischen Perspektive. Anhand einer empirischen Studie zeigt sie neue Rollen und Funktionen der Ernährungskommunikation vor dem Hintergrund der Ziele einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung des Ernährungssystems auf. Dabei beleuchtet die Autorin insbesondere das Verhältnis zwischen unternehmerischer Verantwortungswahrnehmung und Kommunikation in Bezug auf Nachhaltigkeit. Sie untermauert die Notwendigkeit einer kommunikativen Wende in der Ernährungskommunikationsforschung.”

AUSZUG

“Die Integration institutioneller Denkweisen ermöglicht es, die Kernfunktionen der Un- ternehmenskommunikation besser zu verstehen und den Einfluss der institutionellen Umwelt auf Unternehmen im Rahmen ihrer Nachhaltigkeits- und Verantwortungsausle- gung zu betonen (Sandhu, 2009, S. 72f.). Insbesondere die Metatheorie institutioneller Logiken bietet Ankerpunkte, die eine Orientierung bei der rekonstruktiven Analyse der Nachhaltigkeitsinterpretationen bietet. Es fehlen jedoch noch konkrete empirisch-theo-retische Diskussionen, welche die Verbindung zwischen institutionellen Ordnungen bzw. Logiken und Handeln näher beschreiben und erklären können. Ähnliche Ansätze verfolgt die Soziologie der Konventionen (Diaz-Bone, 2014, 2018a, 2018b), die in wei-teren Analysen möglicherweise als nützlicher Theorierahmen dienen kann und darüber hinaus konkrete rekonstruktive Analysekonzepte, wie bspw. ‚semantische Marker‘ für höherliegende Koordinationsstrukturen, bietet.” (S. 329-330)

Corporate nutrition communication and responsibility. A constructivist approach in the context of sustainability.

ABSTRACT

“Tina Bartelmeß examines food communication by companies in the food industry from a social constructivist perspective. On the basis of an empirical study, she shows new roles and functions of food communication against the background of the goals of sustainable development of the food system. In doing so, the author illuminates in particular the relationship between corporate responsibility and communication with regard to sustainability. She substantiates the necessity of a communicative turnaround in nutrition communication research.”

EXTRACT

« The integration of institutional ways of thinking makes it possible to better understand the core functions of corporate communication and to emphasize the influence of the institutional environment on companies in the context of their interpretation of sustainability and responsibility (Sandhu, 2009, p. 72f.). In particular, the meta-theory of institutional logics offers anchor points that provide orientation for the reconstructive analysis of sustainability interpretations. However, concrete empirical-theoretical discussions are still lacking which could describe and explain the connection between institutional orders or logics and action in more detail. The sociology of conventions (Diaz-Bone, 2014, 2018a, 2018b) pursues similar approaches, which may serve as a useful theoretical framework in further analyses and also offers concrete reconstructive analysis concepts, such as ‘semantic markers’ for higher-level coordination structures.” (S. 329-330)

Reconquérir la ville après un épisode psychotique : pratiques, espaces et temporalités

Codeluppi, Zoé (2019)

PhD thesis. Neuchâtel: University of Neuchâtel

SUMMARY

“The aim of this research is to investigate the role of the urban environment in the recovery process of psychosis. I look at the practices, spaces and temporalities of reconquering the city. I focus particularly on young people having recently experienced a first psychotic episode in the city of Lausanne, Switzerland. This analysis examines recovery from an ecological perspective that considers the city in its systemic dimension as a set of interactions between living beings, and spatially and temporally located milieus. I look at the way the constantly wavering temporal dynamics of psychosis affect people’s practices. I show how these temporal dynamics imply various levels of involvement with the urban environment, which translates into the use of specific material, social, sensory and affective resources. First, my analysis outlines the process of reclaiming urban space while recovering. I highlight the great range and diversity of spaces mobilized by young people in their daily trajectories, which include institutional care spaces such as hospitals, community care centers or outpatient clinics, as well as more informal care settings such as parks or coffee shops. Second, I draw on the concept of « intensity of engagement » developed by Laurent Thévenot (2006), in order to point out how participants are constantly adjusting their involvement with the material, social, emotional and sensory resources of the environment, according to the frequency and intensity of symptoms. I argue that the temporal recovery dynamics of psychosis involve a short and a long cycle, implying an alternation of practices between withdrawal and reconquest of the urban space. Third, I develop a broader analysis that touches upon the strategies and tactics developed by people living with a diagnosis of psychosis when facing stressful situations in the city. In my concluding discussion, I show how the knowledge of practices, temporalities and spatialities of the recovery process provides a new line of thought for care professionals and urban planners, in order to rethink the livability of our cities and the quality of life of their inhabitants. More generally, this work is part of an interdisciplinary research project between psychiatry and human geography, funded by the Swiss National Research Foundation (SNSF), which aims to better understand the role of the urban environment in the emergence of psychosis. This analysis has been conducted with patients of an early intervention program for psychotic disorders called TIPP (Traitement et intervention précoce dans les troubles psychotiques) belonging to the Vaud University Hospital Centre (CHUV). My work is based on an ethnography conducted in a community care service with participants involved in the TIPP program, as well as on go-alongs, interviews and focus groups with another group of patients from the same program.”

Keywords: human geography, psychiatry, psychosis, recovery, urban ecology, urban milieu, practices, public space, level of involvement, resources, temporalities, experience-based approach, ethnography, Lausanne.

RÉSUMÉ

“Cette recherche porte sur rôle de l’environnement urbain dans le processus de rétablissement de la psychose. Elle explore les pratiques, les espaces et les temporalités du processus de reconquête de la ville chez des jeunes personnes ayant vécu un premier épisode psychotique dans la ville de Lausanne, en Suisse. Cette analyse examine le rétablissement dans une perspective écologique qui considère la ville dans sa dimension systémique, comme un ensemble d’interactions entre les êtres vivants et les milieux spatialement et temporellement situés. Je propose d’analyser la façon dont le rythme des troubles agit sur les pratiques et sur les formes d’engagement avec l’environnement urbain et la manière dont cela se traduit par la mobilisation de ressources matérielles, sociales, sensorielles et affectives particulières. Dans un premier temps, mon analyse retrace le processus progressif de reconquête de l’espace urbain au cours du rétablissement. Je mets en évidence la grande variété et diversité d’espaces mobilisés par les jeunes personnes dans leurs trajectoires quotidiennes qui incluent tant des espaces institutionnels de soins comme les hôpitaux ou les centres de consultation que des espaces de soins plus informels comme des parcs urbains ou des cafés. Dans un deuxième temps, à l’aide du concept “d’intensité d’engagement” développé par Laurent Thévenot (2006), j’examine la façon dont les personnes modulent leur engagement avec les ressources matérielles, sociales, affectives et sensorielles de l’environnement, en fonction du rythme d’apparition et de l’intensité des troubles. Mon analyse montre l’alternance entre les pratiques spatiales de retrait et d’engagement avec l’environnement en fonction de cycles de manifestation des troubles courts ou longs. Dans un troisième temps, je développe une réflexion plus générale qui porte sur les stratégies et les tactiques développées par les personnes vivant avec un diagnostic de psychose lors de situations de stress en milieu urbain. Je m’intéresse tout particulièrement aux techniques de “mise en confort” de l’environnement qui sont employées dans les pratiques quotidiennes de rétablissement. Enfin, en guise de conclusion, mon analyse développe quelques pistes de réflexion destinées à la fois aux professionnels de la santé mentale et aux spécialistes de l’aménagement urbain, permettant de repenser l’habitabilité de nos villes et d’améliorer la qualité de vie de ses habitants. Plus largement, ce travail s’inscrit dans un projet de recherche interdisciplinaire entre la psychiatrie et la géographie humaine, financé par le Fonds national suisse de recherche (FNS), et vise à mieux comprendre le rôle de l’environnement urbain dans l’émergence des troubles de la psychose. Cette analyse a été menée avec des jeunes patients appartenant au programme de traitement et d’intervention précoce dans les troubles psychotiques (TIPP) du centre hospitalier universitaire vaudois (CHUV). Ce travail se base sur une ethnographie menée dans une institution thérapeutique lausannoise avec des personnes appartenant au programme TIPP, ainsi que sur des “go-alongs”, des entretiens et des “focus groups” avec un autre groupe de patients de ce même programme.”

Mots-clés: géographie humaine, psychiatrie, psychose, rétablissement, écologie urbaine, milieu urbain, pratiques, espace public, intensité d’engagement, ressources, temporalités, approche basée sur l’expérience, ethnographie, Lausanne.  Directeur de thèse: Prof. O. Söderström (UNINE)

Jury: Prof. Philippe Conus (CHUV), Prof. Laurent Matthey (UNIGE)

Defense 18 December 2019

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Transformer la psychiatrie pour démocratiser la société. L’héritage de Franco Basaglia dans deux services de psychiatrie de communauté, en France et en Italie.

Matera, Giovanni (2019)

PhD thesis

Jury
M. Laurent Thévenot (Directrice de thèse), EHESS
M. Marc Bréviglieri, Haute Ecole spécialisée de Genève
M. Marco Cremaschi, IEP Paris
Mme Eliane Rothier Bautzer, Université Paris Descartes
Mme Livia Velpry, Université Paris 8 Vincennes Saint-Denis
M. Tommaso Vitale, IEP Paris

Résumé
Participer à la démocratisation de la société à travers la lutte contre la ségrégation des personnes souffrant d’un trouble mental a constitué le but d’un groupe composé de psychiatres et d’autres intellectuels qui a animé dans les années 1970, autour de Franco Basaglia, le débat sur les services alternatifs de psychiatrie. Visant à réformer les législations en vigueur, ces professionnels ont organisé dans différents pays des services de psychiatrie territoriale privilégiant l’intégration sociale des malades comme condition d’une prise en charge ne menaçant pas leurs droits. Tandis que la désinstitutionnalisation s’imposait progressivement, le mouvement contestait la reproduction des logiques asilaires dans des services territoriaux centrés sur l’hôpital psychiatrique. La création de nouveaux services remplaçant les services hospitaliers s’est accompagnée de la mise en place d’un savoir critique prenant appui sur les sciences sociales pour mettre en cause ces services, rendre la critique durable de façon à en tirer avantage pour les réadapter sans cesse. La critique de l’hôpital psychiatrique et du contrôle social a stimulé la création de nouveaux services que, au début des années 2000, l’Organisation Mondiale de la Santé a désignés comme « services communautaires ».  Notre analyse rassemble sous l’appellation de « psychiatrie communautaire » des expériences menées en Italie et France à partir d’initiatives locales que nous comparons. Dans les deux sites, les malades sont accompagnés à leur domicile par des institutions et des services communautaires qui, se fondant sur la critique de l’asile et du contrôle social, ont remplacé les services coordonnés à partir de l’hôpital psychiatrique. Nous avons questionné le rapport entre le travail quotidien des éducateurs et le dispositif central de leur travail, le logement des personnes prises en charge.    Notre travail ethnographique reconstitue le travail de prise en charge qui est guidé par des principes non cohérents avec la prise en charge des patients par une communauté territoriale. Orientés par le projet de démocratiser la société à travers la réforme de la psychiatrie, les deux services sont amenés à construire des compromis qui, dans une tout autre orientation, participent à un gouvernement par l’objectif et tendent à réorienter le travail d’assistance vers un plan exclusivement médical ou marchand. Comment le projet de démocratisation, toujours présent dans les deux sites, peut-il se maintenir dans cette nouvelle configuration et profiter de la portée créative de la critique.

ABSTRACT
Participating in the democratization of society through the fight against the segregation of people with mental disorders was the goal of a group of psychiatrists and other intellectuals who led the debate on alternative psychiatric services in the 1970s, around Franco Basaglia. Aiming at reforming existing legislation, these professionals have organized territorial psychiatric services in various countries, focusing on the social integration of patients as a condition for care that does not threaten their rights. While deinstitutionalization was gradually becoming necessary, the movement contested the reproduction of asilarian logic in territorial services centred on the psychiatric hospital. The creation of new services replacing hospital services has been accompanied by the development of critical knowledge based on the social sciences to challenge these services, to make criticism sustainable so as to take advantage of it to constantly readapt them. Criticism of the psychiatric hospital and social control has stimulated the creation of new services that, in the early 2000s, the World Health Organization designated as « community services ».  Our analysis brings together under the name of « community psychiatry » experiments conducted in Italy and France based on local initiatives that we are comparing. In both sites, patients are accompanied home by community institutions and services which, based on criticism of asylum and social control, have replaced the coordinated services from the psychiatric hospital. We questioned the relationship between the daily work of educators and the central feature of their work, the housing of the people they care for.    Our ethnographic work reconstructs the care work that is guided by principles that are not consistent with the care of patients by a territorial community. Guided by the project to democratize society through the reform of psychiatry, the two services are led to build compromises which, in a completely different direction, participate in a government by the objective and tend to redirect the assistance work towards an exclusively medical or commercial plan. How can the democratization project, still present in both sites, be maintained in this new configuration and benefit from the creative reach of criticism.

Construction d’une demande de justice écologique Le cas des semences non-industrielles

Corentin Hecquet (2019)

Dissertation présentée en vue de l’obtention du grade de Docteur en Sciences
Université de Liège – Faculté des Sciences – Département des Sciences et Gestion de l’Environnement

Jury :
Frank ADAMS, Lycée Technique Agricole Ettelbruck et artisan semencier
Dr. Gilles ALLAIRE, INRA Toulouse
Dr. Christophe BONNEUIL, CNRS – Centre Alexandre Koyré
Dr. Véronique CHABLE, INRA Centre Bretagne-Normandie
Dr. Brendan COOLSAET, Université de Lille
Dr. Dorothée DENAYER, Université de Liège
Dr. Katya ISAGUIRRE-TORRES, Universidade Federal do Paraná
Dr. Nathalie SEMAL, Université de Liège – Présidente
Dr. Pierre M. STASSART, Université de Liège – Promoteur

En matière de semences végétales, le cadre réglementaire européen général, également étendu à d’autres pays, dont le Brésil, impose une norme de standardisation DHS « Distinction Homogénéité Stabilité » pour l’inscription au catalogue autorisant la mise sur le marché. Peu de praticiens de la « biodiversité cultivée » y enregistrent leurs variétés, malgré l’instauration d’un régime dérogatoire. A partir de quatre cas d’étude, BioNatur (Brésil), Semailles (Belgique), Kokopelli (France), et Kaol Kozh (Bretagne – France), je montre que ces praticiens développent des stratégies variées voire parfois opposées – ambiguïté, essaimage, désobéissance, contournement – qui visent à tenir un double mouvement de mise en circulation de leur semence et de mise en visibilité de leurs revendications face à l’injustice que génère la DHS. Derrière ce travail de publicisation hétérogène, j’identifie la construction d’une demande de justice écologique. Partant des composantes de la justice écologique que la littérature identifie : de distribution, reconnaissance, participation, je propose à travers mon travail empirique, au regard de la notion de public, d’ ajouter la dimension d’expérimentation. Par manque d’ouverture à la participation, les différentes stratégies ne déverrouillent pas le système semencier conventionnel, par contre je soutiens qu’elles l’effritent.
Mots-clés : biodiversité cultivée, justice écologique, public, agroécologie, semences, verrouillage

Construction of a demand for ecological justice – The case of non-industrial seeds

Via the « Distinction Uniformity Stability – DUS » criteria, the legislative framework of the European Union (extended to other countries including Brazil) imposes a norm of standardization for the registration of plant varieties in the catalogue allowing to put them on the market. Only a few practionners of crop biodiversity register their crop varieties despite the existing derogation system. Starting from a set of 4 case studies – BioNatur (Brazil), Semailles (Belgium), Kokopelli (France) and Kaol Kozh (France – Brittany), I demonstrate that these crop diversity farmers develop numerous, even contradictory strategies – ambiguity, spreading, disobedience, circumventing- to enable the circulation of their seeds, but at the same time, to make visible their claims in order to face the unjust system generated by DUS. Behind these heterogeneous strategies, I identify a claim for ecological justice. Through the dimensions of distribution, recognition and participation, I propose an empirical study with a specific attention on the notion of public and I add the experimentation dimension of ecological justice. At it is hard for practionners to participate at the debate about DUS, the different strategies aren’t unlocking the conventional seed system, nevertheless I support that they are crumbing it away (effritement).
Keywords: crop biodiversity, ecological justice, public, agro-ecology, seeds, lock-in.

Extraits : « Dans cette première section, je montre comment le système semencier conventionnel s’est verrouillé. Mon argument consiste à dire que le système semencier conventionnel est un « investissement de formes » provenant de sept verrous qui par conséquent exclut les semences ne correspondant pas aux normes réglementaires officielles. L’« investissement de forme » constitue une équivalence en vue de coordonner les actions individuelles par un cadre commun, une convention permettant la mise en relation (Orléan 1994 :16). Les conventions s’auto-référencent, car le choix de suivre ou pas l’accord repose sur l’espoir que les autres respecteront également l’accord (Boyer et Orléan 1994 :220). La notion d’investissement de forme s’entend comme l’élaboration d’une convention qui vise à économiser du temps et des investissements, en se transformant en rouage, en processus. Ces formes de coordination tentent de « résister aux efforts de déformation » (Thévenot 1986 :4). […]
Les mises à l’épreuve permettent de qualifier tous les dispositifs socio-techniques mobilisés pour construire un produit. Eymard-Duvernay (2002 : 269) insiste sur le rôle des équivalences comme le « ressort de la coordination ». «Il faut rapporter la qualité à l’épreuve de qualification, c’est-à-dire aux moments critiques dans lesquels les repères de qualité sont mis à l’épreuve et suscitent des débats sur leur pertinence. Il n’est pas de définition substantielle de la qualité en dehors de la perspective d’une épreuve de qualification. » (Thévenot 1995 : 39). La question de la construction sociale d’une qualité – la bonne semence dans ce cas – renvoie donc à la construction de cette mise à l’épreuve pour la mise en circulation de semences végétales. Quelles mises à l’épreuve contribuent à élaborer un verrouillage ? Au fur et à mesure, sept verrous que constituent les interdépendances fortes produisent le verrouillage systémique de la mise en circulation des semences : lignée pure, test de germination, catalogue, DHS, notion de variété, hybride F1, COV. Pour rendre compte de cette trajectoire, je m’appuie sur le développement et l’évolution de la qualification semencière française (Bonneuil et Thomas 2009) car ce pays, premier exportateur mondial de semences avec 1,6 milliard d’euros pour 2016/2017 (GNIS 2018), influence le marché européen et mondial. « 

p.14-15 / 16-17

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