Formation et dynamiques d’une catégorie de marché alternatif : une approche sociogénétique et ethnographique des musiques indépendantes

Boris Collet (2020)

Thèse en sciences de gestion, soutenue le 3 décembre 2020 à l’université de Rouen Normandie

Jury:
M. Éric RÉMY, Professeur / Université Toulouse III, Codirecteur de thèse
M. Renaud GARCIA-BARDIDIA, Professeur / Université de Rouen Normandie, Codirecteur de thèse
M. Philippe ROBERT-DEMONTROND, Professeur / Université de Rennes I, Rapporteur
Mme Dominique ROUX, Professeure / Université de Reims, Rapportrice
M. Baptiste CLERET, Maître de Conférences / Université de Rouen Normandie, Examinateur
Mme Delphine DION, Professeure / ESSEC Business School, Examinatrice
Mme Nil ÖZÇAĞLAR-TOULOUSE, Professeure / Université de Lille, Examinatrice
M. Joonas ROKKA, Professeur / EM Lyon Business School, Examinateur

Résumé. Au cours des dernières décennies, la notion d’indépendance s’est imposée dans un grand nombre de secteurs des industries culturelles et créatives. Dans cette thèse, nous nous intéressons à l’émergence de la catégorie indépendante au sein du marché musical et à ses dynamiques avec la catégorie dominante en mobilisant les apports théorico-méthodologiques de la sociologie pragmatique dans l’articulation de trois concepts interreliés – marché(s), intermédiation et valeurs. À cet effet, nous avons mené une ethnographie multi-située de quatre ans au contact des acteurs de la scène musicale afin de mettre au jour les principes sous-jacents, c’est-à-dire les fondements axiologiques, qui caractérisent l’indépendance en tant que catégorie culturelle, économique et artistique. En parallèle, nous avons procédé à une analyse sociohistorique afin de comprendre l’émergence et le développement de cette catégorie de marché et d’en établir une périodisation. Nos analyses permettent d’établir que l’indépendance est le lieu de tensions entre plusieurs représentations et d’affrontements idéologiques. De plus, elles confirment le rôle des intermédiaires et de leurs dispositifs dans la catégorisation des marchés et la valorisation des biens. En situant cette recherche au croisement des théories culturelles de la consommation (CCT) et du macromarketing, nous concluons en discutant de la marchandisation de la culture et des formes alternatives de marketization. Nous exposons également les implications pour les acteurs du marché et les institutions dans la mise en place de stratégies commerciales et de politiques culturelles en faisant valoir les spécificités de l’indépendance en tant que mode de production et de consommation alternatif. Cette recherche ouvre ainsi la voie à l’étude des perspectives éthiques de la consommation culturelle.

Extrait. “L’approche conventionnaliste des marchés dont nous nous inspirons fait le lien entre valeurs et marchés en s’intéressant à la variété de modes de coordination (Eymard-Duvernay, 2006). En parallèle, d’autres auteurs de ce courant mettent en avant le rôle des intermédiaires et des dispositifs dans la formation des marchés (e.g., Bessy et Chauvin, 2014 ; Chiapello et Godefroy, 2017 ; Karpik, 2007). En effet, les intermédiaires sont des acteurs centraux de la formation de catégories de marché (Durand et Thornton, 2018 ; Khaire, 2017b). L’intermédiation contribue ainsi à la fois à la création de nouveaux marchés et à définir de nouvelles conventions d’évaluation. L’objectif de cette recherche est donc de mieux comprendre la catégorie indépendante, ses conventions, les cadres d’évaluation qui la sous-tendent et le rôle joué par les différents acteurs et dispositifs du marché dans sa genèse, sa diffusion et sa stabilisation (Bessy et Chauvin, 2013). À ce titre, il est question de mettre au jour les principes axiologiques de l’indépendance à partir des apports théoriques et méthodologiques de la sociologie compréhensive et pragmatique des valeurs (Boltanski et Thévenot, 1991 ; Heinich, 2017a).”

Formation and dynamics of an alternative market category: a sociogenetic and ethnographic approach to independent music

PhD thesis. Rouen: University of Rouen

Abstract. Over the past few decades, the notion of independent has become established in many sectors of the cultural and creative industries. In this thesis, we examine the emergence of the independent category within the music market and its dynamics with the dominant category by mobilizing the theoretical-methodological contributions of pragmatic sociology in the articulation of three interrelated concepts – market(s), intermediation and values. To this end, we conducted a four-year multi-site ethnography in contact with actors of the music scene in order to uncover the underlying principles, i.e., the axiological foundations, that characterize independence as a cultural, economic, and artistic category. At the same time, we carried out a socio-historical analysis in order to understand the emergence and development of this market category and to establish its periodization. Our analyses allow us to establish that independence is the site of tensions between several representations and ideological confrontations. Moreover, they confirm the role of intermediaries and their devices in the categorization of markets and the valuation of goods. By situating this research at the crossroads of cultural theories of consumption (CCT) and macromarketing, we conclude by discussing the commodification of culture and alternative forms of marketization. We also outline the implications for market actors and institutions in the implementation of commercial strategies and cultural policies, highlighting the specificities of independence as an alternative mode of production and consumption. This research paves the way for the study of the ethical perspectives of cultural consumption. »

Extract. “The convention theorist approach to markets from which we draw inspiration links values and markets by looking at the variety of modes of coordination (Eymard-Duvernay, 2006). At the same time, other authors of this trend highlight the role of intermediaries and mechanisms in the formation of markets (e.g., Bessy and Chauvin, 2014; Chiapello and Godefroy, 2017; Karpik, 2007). Indeed, intermediaries are central actors in the formation of market categories (Durand and Thornton, 2018; Khaire, 2017b). Intermediation thus contributes both to the creation of new markets and to the definition of new evaluation conventions. The objective of this research is therefore to better understand the independent category, its conventions, the evaluation frameworks that underlie it and the role played by the different actors and devices in the market in its genesis, diffusion and stabilization (Bessy and Chauvin, 2013). As such, the axiological principles of independence are to be brought to light based on the theoretical and methodological contributions of the comprehensive and pragmatic sociology of values (Boltanski and Thévenot, 1991; Heinich, 2017a).”

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Collective Firms between Collective and Company

Nina Pohler (2020)

PhD thesis. Berlin: Humboldt Universität

Disputation on 04.12. 2020

Jury:
Prof. Dr. Christian Kassung
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr. Sabine Kunst
Prof. Dr. Karin Lohr
Prof. Eeva Luhtakallio

This thesis wants to understand how alternative firms deal with the complexity of balancing different rationalities in their intraorganizational coordination, in the absence of formal hierarchies. In a comparative case study of three small, democratically governed collective firms, the relationship between coordination and morality is analyzed. The majority of research on collective firms focuses on democratic governance structures, which risks to underestimate the importance of coordination that is based on intimate knowledge and personal relations. This is especially important to understand collective firms, which are dependent on lateral accountability and cooperation between their members. Consequently, this work is informed by the work of Laurent Thévenot which allows to understand coordination based on different levels of generalization. The results of this thesis contribute to three different areas of research: First, contributions are made to the field of valuation studies, by further developing insights on the notion of the test. The thesis also points out the central role of legitimate principles of difference and equivalence for successful commensuration, and the tension between particularity and generalization in standardizing evaluation devices. Second, the study contributes insights for scholarship on coordination and morality in organizations. It demonstrates that considering coordination based on different degrees of generality yields important insights on intraorganizational coordination. Finally, this study contributes to scholarship on cooperatives and collectivist organizations. The often noted duality of collective firms is reframed as the need to balance and mediate different modes of coordination. The study develops a heuristic concept, the composite relation, which explains how collectives are held together despite their central tension between particular and collective goods.

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Les arrangements du quotidien : comment les acteurs locaux reconfigurent les politiques publiques : Analyse de la mise en oeuvre d’un Programme de Réussite Educative

Laurie Sompayrac (2020)

PhD thesis. Université de Limoges

Thèse sous la direction de Dominique Gay-Sylvestre et Maryan Lemoine présentée et soutenue le 17 Novembre 2020

Jury:

M. Choukri Ben Ayed, Professor of Sociology, University of Limoges
M. Dominique Broussal, Professor of educational science, University of Toulouse
Mme Michèle Guigue, professor em. of educational science, University of Lille M. Sébastien Pesce, Professor of educational science, University of Orléans

Résumé. Les politiques publiques affichent des objectifs, pensent et produisent des injonctions qui ont pour but de cadrer l’action publique territorialisée. A l’étude nous avons cependant pu constater que ces développements ne se soucient pas toujours des capacités et des potentialités de compréhension, d’appropriation et de mise en œuvre, non seulement des objectifs, mais aussi des modalités pour traduire cette action publique sur le terrain. Les opérateurs font en effet face aux urgences de mettre en œuvre les injonctions dans des délais relativement courts, qui ne leur laissent que peu de temps pour comprendre les enjeux, problématiser et construire l’ingénierie la plus adéquate pour mettre en œuvre l’action publique territorialisée. A travers notre démarche méthodologique d’inspiration ethnographique, nous avons voulu observer comment les acteurs au quotidien ont alors à inventer, au-delà des cadres et des règlements préétablis, des pratiques et une mise en ordre de l’action publique territorialisée, essayant ce faisant de poursuivre ou de se rapprocher des objectifs fixés par les politiques publiques.Les analyses des interactions des individus, l’étude des documents qui circulent entre eux, les observations in situ ainsi que les entretiens ont permis de révéler comment les individus développent des « conventions » (Diaz-Bone & Thévenot, 2010) à la fois pratiques et langagières pour se comprendre et mener leurs activités et reconnaissent certaines « manières de faire » (de Certeau, 1900) comme étant les plus pertinentes pour résoudre les énigmes auxquelles ils sont confrontés. Même si les acteurs n’en ont pas conscience, l’ensemble de ces éléments, ancrés, actualisés et plus récents, forment ainsi une matrice (Kuhn, 1962) interprofessionnelle au sein de laquelle se développent les actions et se constituent des références communes qui influent fortement sur tout ce qui se joue et est produit au sein de et par ce système. Tout en agissant dans cette dimension matricielle, les acteurs continuent de l’alimenter en s’engageant dans des instances collectives. D’une part les individus y assoient la défense de leurs propres représentations et conceptions des injonctions et objectifs, d’autre part ils essaient de trouver ou de partager des moyens d’actions propres à assurer la mise en œuvre des moyens qui permettront de les atteindre ou de les approcher, oscillant dans ces modes de cheminement entre éthiques professionnelle, morale et même plus personnelle.

The daily arrangements : how local individuals reconfigure public policies : Analysis of the enforcement of an « Educative Success Programm »

Abstract. The public policies display targets, think about and elaborate injunctions which have a purpose to frame the public territorial activities. However our study shows how these intentions are not always aligned with the collective skills, the potentialities of comprehension, the capacities of appropriation and the possibilities of enforcement to reach the goals in the territories, not even the capacities to understand and perform the public activity. The workers are urged by the short delays imposed. They don’t have much time to understand the issues, to engage a problematization process and to build the most suitable engineering to enforce the public territorial activity. Through our ethnographic approach, we wanted to observe how the workers create some daily practices beyond the rules and the frames settled up for us, while they try to follow or get closer to the policies targets. By using the interactionnism analysis, the documents which circulate or not between the workers and their interviews, we were able to show how the individuals elaborate some practical and language agreements (Diaz-Bone & Thévenot, 2010) to understand each others, carry out particular activities and recognize some « ways of doing » (de Certeau, 1990) as the most relevant to solve their problems. Even if the individuals are not aware of it, all the elements, grounded, actualized and the most recent of them, belong to an interprofessionnal matrix. The activities and the mutual references expand in this matrix. These aspects influence the issues and the productions within and through this system. While acting on the matrix, the individuals nourish it by committing in the collective. On one hand the individuals are able to protect their own representations and conceptions of the policies injunctions and targets. On the other hand they try to find and share their own ways to act by their own to reach the targets. They are constantly swinging between moral, professionnal and personal ethics.

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Die Ökonomie der Konventionen und der Aufbau Ost – Ein qualitativ-empirischer Vergleich des ost- und westdeutschen Maschinen- und Anlagenbaus

Martin Kirschbaum (2020)

PhD thesis. Potsdam: University of Potsdam

Zusammenfassung. Ein wesentlicher Grund für den fortdauernden wirtschaftlichen Rückstand Ostdeutschlands, im Vergleich zu Westdeutschland, liegt am geringeren Gewicht technologieintensiver Branchen und, damit zusammenhängend, an fehlenden regionalen Wachstumszentren („Clustern“). Die Économie des conventions (EC), ein wirtschaftswissenschaftliches und wirtschaftssoziologisches Paradigma, das in Frankreich in den 80er Jahren entstanden ist, ermöglicht die Analyse von Unternehmen und Märkten und wurde für die vorliegende Dissertation verwendet, um unterschiedliche „Qualitätskonventionen“ in einer vergleichenden Analyse in der west- und ostdeutschen Maschinenbaubranche zu identifizieren. Anhand von Studien des Instituts für Wirtschaftsforschung in Halle (IWH), der Baden-Württembergischen Landesregierung und des Verbandes des Deutschen Maschinen- und Anlagenbaus e. V. (VDMA) wurde das Feld auf fünf ostdeutsche und acht baden-württembergische Raumordungsregionen eingegrenzt und ein qualitativer Stichprobenplan entwickelt. Empirisch wurden 21 leitfadengestützte Experteninterviews mit Geschäftsführern der Maschinen- und Anlagenbaubranche durchgeführt, die mit der Qualitativen Inhaltsanalyse methodisch ausgewertet und dann mit Bezug zur EC zu Idealtypen verdichtet wurden. Im Ost-West-Vergleich zeigte sich, dass für ostdeutsche Unternehmen eine Entwicklung hin zum Systemanbieter, die Projekte koordinieren (Netzwerkkonvention), um damit auf (internationalen) Märkten höhere Preise durchzusetzen (Marktkonvention), am vielversprechendsten ist. Damit einher geht der Aufbau und die Aufrechterhaltung von Netzwerken (Netzwerkkonvention), die Herausforderung besteht aber darin, auch mit Wettbewerbern (Marktkonvention) vertrauensvoll zusammen zu arbeiten. Des Weiteren zeigte sich, dass bei öffentlich geförderten Verbundprojekten („Clusterpolitik“) die Marktkonvention ebenfalls nicht dominant sein darf bzw. sie zumindest Kompromisse mit anderen Konventionen eingehen muss, damit diese Netzwerke nicht nach Ende der Förderperiode auseinander fallen. Diese Befunde decken sich mit Arbeiten aus der Wirtschaftsgeographie und verwandter Fächer, bei denen gezeigt wurde, dass erst ein Gebilde aus spezifischen regionale Institutionen technologisches Lernen ermöglicht bzw. dass insbesondere die gleichzeitige Ausprägung von Konkurrenz- und Kooperationsprinzipien („Coopetition“) auf der gleichen Wertschöpfungsstufe, es Unternehmen ermöglicht, neue wettbewerbsfähige Produkte auf den Markt zu bringen. Eine theoretisch fundierte Clusterpolitik sollte daher nicht nur Vernetzungsaktivitäten (Netzwerkkonvention), sondern auch den Wettbewerb (Marktkonvention) im Cluster mit fördern. Im Fazit wurden dann die Instrumente, die in der Literatur genannt werden, um vorhandene Clusterstrukturen weiter zu entwickeln, mit der rekonstruierten Typologie der Qualitätskonventionen verknüpft.

The economics of conventions and reconstruction of eastern Germany. A qualitative, empirical comparison of eastern German and western German mechanical engineering

Abstract. A main reason for eastern Germany’s persistent economic lag in comparison to western Germany lies in the lower importance of technology-intensive industries and the associated lack of regional growth centres (or clusters). The Économie des conventions (EC) – an economic and sociological paradigm developed in France in the 1980s – enables the analysis of companies and markets and has been applied to this dissertation, in order to identify the different “quality conventions” as part of a comparative analysis of the mechanical engineering sector in western and eastern Germany. Based on studies by the Institute for Economic Research in Halle (Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung – IWH), the State Government of Baden-Württemberg and the Association of German Mechanical Engineering (Verband des Deutschen Maschinen- und Anlagenbaus e. V. – VDMA), the field was limited to five eastern German spatial planning regions and eight in Baden-Württemberg and a qualitative sampling scheme developed. A total of 21 structured expert interviews with managing directors in the mechanical engineering sector were empirically conducted, methodically evaluated by way of qualitative content analysis and then condensed into ideal types with reference to the EC. The comparison between the east and west shows that for eastern German companies, a trend towards system providers that coordinate projects (network convention) in order to thereby assert higher prices on (international) markets (market convention) is most promising. This involves the development and maintenance of networks (network convention), however the challenge lies in trustingly cooperating with competitors (market convention). Moreover, it was found that the market convention for publicly subsidised joint projects (cluster policy) may likewise not be permitted to dominate or it must at least accept compromises with other conventions to prevent these networks from falling apart after the end of the funding period. These findings coincide with work in economic geography and related fields, where it has been shown that only an entity comprising specific regional institutions enables technological learning, or rather that the concurrent expression of competition and cooperation principles (“coopetition”) at the same value creation level enables companies to launch new competitive products onto the market. A sound theoretical cluster policy should therefore not only promote networking activities (network convention) but also competition (market convention) in the cluster. In summary, the instruments named in the literature for further developing existing cluster structures are then combined with the reconstructed typology of the quality conventions.

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« Ma mort, mon choix » ; analyse de postes pro-choix à la lumière de la théorie des cités de Boltanski et Thévenot

Camille Gambi (2020)

Mémoire de Master (Criminologie), Université catholique de Louvain

Promoteurs : Bertrand Renard & Jean-François Cauchie

Lien vers la thèse téléchargeable

Perspectives on Quality of Higher Education in the Context of Finnish Education Export

Henna Juusola (2020)

PhD thesis. Tampere: University of Tampere. Open access.

JURY
Responsible supervisor and Custos:
– Professor Dr. Jussi Kivistö, Tampere University Finland
Supervisors:
– Emeritus Professor Dr. Seppo Hölttä, Tampere University, Finland
– Dr. Terhi Nokkala, University of Jyväskylä, Finland
Pre-examiners
– Professor Dr. Harri Laihonen, University of Eastern Finland
– Professor Dr. Anna Kosmützky, Leibniz Universität Germany
Opponent
– Professor Dr. Harri Laihonen University of Eastern Finland

Abstract. The aim of this doctoral dissertation is to describe quality-related initiatives, characteristics and principles that are produced and maintained in the context of Finnish higher education export at the national, institutional and programme levels using triangulation of data, method and theory. As such, this study contributes to the analytical and empirical understanding of the multifaceted concept of quality in the context of Finnish education export. In this study, education export denotes the international and for-profit actions that cross national borders either through the mobility of individuals and groups or through the mobility of programmes and other educational services. Previously conducted research shows that ‘quality’ in the context of education export has been subject to several expectations, principles and regulations that have exerted intense pressure on higher education institutions to consider the project locations and needs of students and customers without abandoning international comparability. Thus, involvement in education export actions can oblige higher education institutions to reflect on their traditions and processes from multiple perspectives and foster institutional aims to attain legitimation in various regimes. This research consists of four sub-studies and a summary that stress the different perspectives of quality in the context of Finnish higher education export at the national (macro), institutional (meso) and programme (micro) levels. The data used in this research included national policy documents, institutional audit reports, interviews (students and staff members), personal notes from participant observation and data from the online questionnaire (teachers). National policy documents were analysed and interpreted using Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis (sub-study I). Institutional audit reports (sub-study II) and interviews (substudy III) were explored using convention theory and qualitative content analysis. Data from the online questionnaire were analysed by qualitative content analysis and interpreted from the perspective of Mezirow’s transformative learning (sub-study IV). Personal notes recorded during the participant observation (sub-studies III and IV) were used to explain the context of the exported programme (sub-studies III and IV) and to refocus the research questions. This doctoral dissertation’s findings suggest that quality is formulated within the complex network of political, social, contextual, geographical and situational dimensions. At the national level, quality embodies the responsibility and resources that justify education export; Finnish education’s national reputation is a shared myth that sustains the widely held perception of Finnish education as superior. At the institutional level, education export is still a relatively new and fragmented action, which benefits from its international reputation but continues to seek a more strategic direction. The results also suggest that education export implementation is embedded in the temporal and local dimensions as well as in interaction among the students, teachers and representatives from the provider and receiver institutions. Therefore, higher education institutions are expected to consider quality from multiple perspectives and to justify quality of education for different stakeholder groups. Moreover, for education export providers, supporting teachers’ engagement in education export action is essential, as maintaining education quality throughout the process of knowledge creation requires trust-based interaction among providers and receivers.

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Vers un processus d’innovation managériale durable : une lecture par la traduction et les compromis

Fanny Fox (2020)

PhD thesis. Liege: Université de Liège. 28 aoüt 2020. Open access.

Promoteur :  Professeur François PICHAULT (Université de Liège)
Membres du jury :
          Professeur Christian DEFÉLIX (Université Grenoble Alpes)
          Professeur Édouard DELRUELLE (Université de Liège)
          Professeur Mathieu DETCHESSAHAR (Université de Nantes)
          Professeur Frédéric SCHOENAERS (Université de Liège)

Résumé. L’innovation managériale, au cœur des débats contemporains, demeure opaque à certains égards, notamment en raison des définitions attachées à dire ce qu’elle n’est pas. Ainsi, elle se distingue de l’innovation technologique, ne concerne pas le core business et s’éloigne des modes de gestion hiérarchique classiques. Notre recherche entend dépasser ces écueils pour se concentrer sur le processus d’innovation managériale et, partant, faciliter son déploiement. Trois articles explorent cinq études de cas, tantôt issues de recherches classiques, tantôt issues de recherches-interventions. Premièrement, la démarche de libération dans un organisme public est analysée à l’aune de la sociologie de la traduction. Ce projet, largement médiatisé, vise à réaménager les espaces et le temps de travail et à instiller une culture de responsabilisation. Les pierres d’achoppement, contradictions et acquis du changement sont mis en évidence, depuis sa conception jusqu’au suivi de sa mise en œuvre. Deuxièmement, les conséquences pour l’innovation managériale d’un revirement stratégique sont interrogées. D’une part, la responsabilisation et la transformation managériale au sein d’une industrie chocolatière sont délaissées. D’autre part, les ambitions d’innovation sociale pour une usine du futur sont abandonnées par une entreprise aéronautique. Plusieurs sources de vulnérabilité de l’innovation managériale, liées au processus de traduction et à l’asymétrie du rapport de forces, sont mises en lumière. Troisièmement, la mise en péril de l’innovation managériale par l’évolution du contexte est étudiée. D’un côté, une structure associative cherche à préserver son fonctionnement autogestionnaire. De l’autre, un fournisseur d’énergie souhaite maintenir sa culture atypique originelle. À l’aide de la théorie des conventions, l’examen du contenu des innovations managériales démontre la nécessaire construction d’un compromis dont le maintien devient un enjeu crucial. Ces résultats sont ensuite intégrés au sein d’une modélisation dynamique du processus d’innovation managériale susceptible d’en favoriser la durabilité. In fine, l’ensemble ouvre la voie à une réflexion sur la soutenabilité du processus d’innovation managériale et à des recommandations managériales.

Towards a sustainable managerial innovation process: a reading through translation and compromises

Abstract. Managerial innovation, at the heart of contemporary debates, remains opaque in certain respects, notably because of the definitions attached to saying what it is not. Thus, it differs from technological innovation, does not concern core business and is far removed from traditional hierarchical management methods. Our research aims to go beyond these pitfalls to focus on the process of managerial innovation and thus facilitate its deployment. Three articles explore five case studies, some of which are based on classic research, others on research-interventions. First, the process of liberation in a public organization is analyzed in the light of the sociology of translation. This project, which is widely publicized in the media, aims to redesign work spaces and time and to instil a culture of empowerment. The stumbling blocks, contradictions and achievements of change are highlighted, from its conception to the monitoring of its implementation. Secondly, the consequences for managerial innovation of a strategic turnaround are questioned. On the one hand, accountability and managerial transformation within a chocolate industry are neglected. On the other hand, social innovation ambitions for a factory of the future are abandoned by an aeronautics company. Several sources of vulnerability of managerial innovation, linked to the translation process and the asymmetry of the balance of power, are highlighted. Thirdly, the endangerment of managerial innovation by the evolution of the context is studied. On the one hand, an associative structure seeks to preserve its self-management functioning. On the other, an energy supplier wishes to maintain its original atypical culture. Using convention theory, the examination of the content of managerial innovations demonstrates the necessary construction of a compromise, the maintenance of which becomes a crucial issue. These results are then integrated into a dynamic modeling of the managerial innovation process likely to promote its sustainability. Ultimately, the whole process opens the way to a reflection on the sustainability of the managerial innovation process and to managerial recommendations.

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Die Soziologie der Konventionen. Beiträge zur Analyse von Wohlfahrtsmärkten im Wandel

Lisa Knoll (2019)

The sociology of conventions. Contributions to the Analysis of Changing Welfare Markets

Cumulative Habilitation in Sociology, University of Hamburg, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences

Lisa Knoll (2020): « Geldsoziologie. Eine Diskussion und kritische Reflexion aktueller Debatten » [« Sociology of money. A discussion and critical reflection of current debates »] Lecture given at University of Hamburg (22 June 2020) to finish the habilitation procedure.

Committee
Jürgen Beyer (University of Hamburg)
Rainer Diaz-Bone (University of Lucerne)
Anita Engels (University of Hamburg)
Stefanie Kley (University of Hamburg)
Katharina Manderscheid (University of Hamburg)
Sieghard Neckel (University of Hamburg)

SUMMARY.

This compendium of work provides a contribution to the understanding of welfare markets and their transformation. On the basis of research projects on welfare taxation, carbon markets, social impact bonds, energy performance contracting, and nudging, Lisa Knoll highlights how the governing regimes of welfare markets change alongside a paradox: on the one hand market theories deny the state as an intervening force and on the other hand the state is required to acertain just market structures. It seems that a great deal of political frustration stems from this paradox: promising the absence of the state on the one hand, but still producing a lot of bureacracy on the other (which is then associated with the “regulatory frenzy” of politicians, without any connection to liberal politics). The habilitation of Lisa Knoll illuminates this free market-paradox with the social science toolkit of the Convention School of Economics (Économie des conventions).

With its claim to overcome the state vs. market divide, its take on the omnipresence of critique, and the constant pragmatic adaptation of institutions and structures, the Convention School is well equipped to shed light onto the critical struggles that make welfare markets change their character over time. Lisa Knoll shows that important debates within welfare economics itself can be analyzed as a cycle of criticism over the question of how the state should and should not intervene. Economic debates do not appear as a monolithic bloc in Lisa Knolls work, but as an outcome of constant struggles over the question of justice. Market interventions, such as social impact bonds are deeply connected to state and governance structures and to something, Lisa Knoll and Eve Chiapello call “welfare conventions”. Lisa Knoll highlights in her work, how struggles over the welfare or justice question are deeply inscribed into the institutional repertoire of governance. When new welfare market instruments become institutionalized, they are confronted with an institutional legacy they need to transform and compromise. The process of implementation is thus far from obvious and full of critique from different sites. Together with Konstanze Senge, Lisa Knoll shows how the German brake on debt gets confronted by more entrepreneurial/ neoliberal styles of public sector accounting that are carried with instruments such as the energy performance contract.

Furthermore, Lisa Knoll illuminates the cycles of re- and depolitization within the process of market-making. The private, technical and natural aura of markets gives the particular institutional structures an apolitical pretense, which is constantly confronted by moments of critique and repolitication.[1] Lisa Knoll’s work is impregnated by thoughts of Laurent Thévenot on the regimes of engagement or Luc Boltanski on modes of action. She highlights the dynamic process of critique and critique avoidance in different parts of her work. The moments of de- and repolitization of markets often arise in moments of quantification, evidence-building and commensuration (the very moments of depolitization). Lisa Knoll, with reference to the work of Alain Desrosières, puts great emphasis on showing how the avoided struggles over justice reappear in moments of quantification/ commensuration (for example, the emission rights allocation in carbon markets, or the contract negotiations of social impact bonds and energy performance contracts). The Convention School of Economics particularily highlights the historical and political character of statistics and metrics. In the work of Lisa Knoll the disputes over these techniques play a pivotal role and she connects these questions to the subject of de- and repolitization of markets.

[1] In an interesting side-way, Lisa Knoll discusses how this is also true for the subject of gender. The maneuvers of naturalization can be observed as maneuvers of depolitization with different phenomena.

 

Rinderhaltung ohne Schlachtung als Agrar-Care-System. Fallbeispiele aus Europa und Indien.

Meyer-Glitza, Patrick (2019)

Cattle farming without slaughter as an agricultural care system. Case studies from Europe and India.

PhD thesis. Berlin: Humboldt Universität zu Berlin.

SUMMARY

“Over the recent years, vegetarianism and veganism have increasingly become a subject of public debate. However, even vegetarian nutrition, through consumption of milk products, leads to the slaughtering of dairy cows that are no longer productive or have been sorted out, and of their male offspring. Thus, vegetarians are indirectly co-responsible for the slaughtering of cattle. For lacto-vegetarians, cattle husbandry without slaughtering (here ‘CWS’, in German ‚ROS’) could be a solution to the dilemma of consuming milk products while not being willing, for ethical reasons, to kill animals. Based on this, the following questions arise: What would cattle husbandry without slaughtering look like in practice? What are the biographical motives behind such farming, and under which ethical aspects is it pursued? In the literary section of this treatise, historical and religious (hinduism) aspects of cattle farming have been outlined. The key issue of the literary section was how CWS is situated in the context of bioethical theories. Other aspects are the longevity of dairy cattle and farms with similarities to CWS and examples of CWS itself. The interviews with the animal owners and/or the heads of animal husbandry in a total of five cases have been carried out and reviewed using qualitative methods of interpretive social research (mostly Grounded Theory, but also biography research and detailed sequential analysis). The five example cases, representing a large part of the parent population at the time of the investigation, have been analyzed and described. In a case comparison, the five cases have been compared to each other in terms of their respective biographical developments, their ethics and their animal husbandry systems (‘system that works’) and also in terms of their conventions (‘économie des conventions’) […] The care-based approach, which is reflected especially in the sanctuary function of the farms, is combined with the agricultural system, resulting in the agri-care-system. The care convention, along with the convention of animal husbandry without slaughtering, put this CWS framework in a wider context. Dilemmas like castration of oxen, euthanasia, killing of wild animals and insects through cultivation of land and feeding of cats cannot be solved by CWS, but CWS can help to alleviate the ambivalence of human handling of domestic and farmed animals. .“ (p. 216/217)

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Hightech am Ende. Über das globale Recycling von Elektroschrott und die Entstehung neuer Werte

Laser, Stefan (2020)

PhD thesis. Wiesbaden: Springer VS.

ABSTRACT

Stefan Laser folgt den Spuren des Werts von Elektroschrott. Mithilfe ethnographischer Studien bespricht er ein umkämpftes Gesetz in Indien, verfolgt als Mitarbeiter eines deutschen Recycling-Weltmarktführers das Schreddern und Schmelzen alter Elektronikgeräte und untersucht eine Google-Innovation zur Neugestaltung von Smartphones. Im Zentrum des Buchs steht die aufwendige, kontroverse Entstehung neuer Werte. Der Autor identifiziert das Hightech-Recycling als dominante politische und ökonomische Kraft im Umgang mit Elektroschrott – eine einseitige Strategie, die andere verdrängt und nicht zur nachhaltigen Vermeidung von Müll beiträgt.

AUSZUG

“Ein wichtiges Stichwort in diesem Kontext ist die Soziologie der Kritik – an Stelle der kritischen Soziologie. Die Soziologie der Kritik will die kritischen Potenziale der Akteure erkunden, ihnen soll kein vorgefertigtes Narrativ übergestülpt werden (Boltanski und Chiapello 2006; Boltanski 2008; Bogusz 2010, S. 127-150; Vobruba 2017). Trotz allem kann hier die Kritik eine Option sein. Es ist ein Spiel aus Nähe und Distanz, auf das man sich einlassen muss (Bohmann et al. 2010). Wie bei den Stichworten der Kritik und Politik drohen auch mit Blick auf das Schlagwort der Ökonomie reduktionistische Kurzschlüsse. Die STS sehen es als problematisch an, das Ökonomische als „Ding“ mit stabilen Eigenschaften anzusehen – vor allem: mit Eigenschaften zu beschreiben, die man als gegeben und bekannt erachtet. Wichtige Bindestrichsoziologien, die hier anschlussfähig sind, sind die Wirtschaftssoziologie und insbesondere die Konventionenökonomie. Die Wirtschaftssoziologie (allgemein: Beckert und Deutschmann 2009; Granovetter und Swedberg 2011; Maurer 2017) fordert dazu auf, das Ökonomische konsequent empirisch und als Teil der Gesellschaft zu untersuchen. Die Wirtschaftswisseschaft wird in dieser Literatur als „untersozialisiert“ angesehen, die gängige Soziologie wiederum als „übersozialisiert“ beschrieben – erste würden vorwiegend auf Individuen und ihr Eigeninteresse schauen, letztere überbewerteten internalisierte Normen, sodass individuelle Entscheidungen als gänzlich irrelevant erschienen (Granovetter 2000, S. 205). In der Konventionenökonomie wird dann der Konvention eine heuristische Sonderfunktion zugewiesen. Konvention heißt dabei „zusammenkommen“ oder „eine Übereinkunft treffen“ (Salais 1989, S. 213; übersetzt und zit. nach Diaz-Bone 2015, S. 19). Im Kern ist die EC an der Konstruktion und Verbreitung von Wertigkeiten interessiert. Autorinnen in diesem Feld gehen davon aus, dass ökonomischer Austausch nur möglich ist, weil zuvor Übereinkünfte getroffen wurden – das heißt: Messungen durchgeführt und Qualitäten erfasst wurden. Bevor etwas ökonomisch „inwertgesetzt“ wird, muss es also evaluiert werden.” (p. 31)

High-tech at the end. About the global recycling of electronic waste and the creation of new values.

ABSTRACT

Stefan Laser follows the trail of the value of electronic waste. With the help of ethnographic studies, he discusses a contested law in India, follows the shredding and melting of old electronic equipment as an employee of a German recycling world leader, and examines a Google innovation for redesigning smartphones. At the heart of the book is the elaborate, controversial creation of new values. The author identifies high-tech recycling as the dominant political and economic force in the handling of electronic waste – a one-sided strategy that displaces others and does not contribute to the sustainable avoidance of waste.

EXCERPT

“An important keyword in this context is the sociology of critique – instead of critical sociology. The sociology of critique seeks to explore the critical potentials of the actors; no ready-made narrative should be imposed on them (Boltanski and Chiapello 2006; Boltanski 2008; Bogusz 2010, pp. 127-150; Vobruba 2017). Nevertheless, criticism can be an option here. It is a game of closeness and distance that must be played (Bohmann et al. 2010). As with the keywords of critique and politics, reductionist short-circuits also threaten the buzzword economy. The STS see it as problematic to view the economic as a « thing » with stable properties – above all: to describe it with properties that are considered common and familiar. Important hyphen sociologies that can be connected here are economic sociology and especially convention economy. Economic sociology (generally: Beckert and Deutschmann 2009; Granovetter and Swedberg 2011; Maurer 2017) calls for a consistent empirical investigation of the economic as part of society. In this literature, economic science is seen as « undersocialised », while common sociology is described as « oversocialised » – the former would look primarily at individuals and their self-interest, the latter overvalued internalised norms, so that individual decisions appeared to be completely irrelevant (Granovetter 2000, p. 205). In the convention economy the convention is then assigned a heuristic special function. Convention means « to come together » or « to reach an agreement » (Salais 1989, p. 213; translated and quoted according to Diaz-Bone 2015, p. 19). In essence, the EC is interested in the construction and dissemination of valences. Authors in this field assume that economic exchange is only possible because agreements have been made beforehand – that is, measurements have been taken and qualities have been recorded. So before something is economically « valued » it must be evaluated.” (p. 31)

Sampling in der Musikproduktion. Das Spannungsfeld zwischen Urheberrecht und Kreativität.

Fischer, Georg (2020)

Marburg: Büchner Verlag. PhD thesis. Open Access.

AUSZUG

“Die statische Konnotation, die im Wort »Konvention« mitschwingt, sollte nicht über Gebühr bemüht werden; genauso wie die mögliche Folgerung, dass Kooperationen und Konventionen Ausdruck von konflikt- oder reibungsfreien Aushandlungsprozessen voller Harmonie sind. Konventionen sind freilich dynamisch gedacht, sie können sich ändern und auf veränderte Umstände reagieren (Becker 2008: 59), gleichzeitig ihre stabilisierende Funktion aber beibehalten. Oftmals sind Konventionen Ergebnis langwieriger sozialer Verhandlungen, die von mit mehr oder weniger Macht ausgestatteten Akteuren zu eigenen Gunsten beeinflusst und installiert werden. Die Funktionen, die von Konventionen bereitgestellt werden, changieren zwischen loser Orientierung und zwingender Beachtung. Daraus folgert Becker, dass die Nicht-Beachtung bestimmter Konventionen nicht unbedingt das Misslingen eines Kunstwerks nach sich zieht, aber seine Herstellung deutlich umständlicher werden lässt: ‘Conventions make collective activity simpler and less costly in time, energy, and other resources; but they do not make unconventional work impossible, only more costly and difficult. Change can and does occur whenever someone devises a way to gather the greater resources required or reconceptualizes the work so it does not require what is not available.’ (Becker 2008: 35)” “Innerhalb der französischen Wirtschaftssoziologie hat sich seit den 1980er Jahren mit der »Economie des conventions« eine sozialwissenschaftliche Forschungsbewegung formiert, die den Begriff der Konvention ebenfalls als zentralen theoretischen Ausgangspunkt zur Analyse ökonomischer Institutionen behandelt. Ähnlich wie bei Becker werden Konventionen als kollektive interpretative Rahmen behandelt, die Koordinations- und Evaluationspraktiken ermöglichen. Für eine umfassende Einführung siehe Diaz-Bone (2015). (S. 90/Fußnote 24)

Sampling in music production. The tension between copyright and creativity

EXCERPT

“The static connotation that resonates in the word « convention », should not be unduly burdensome; just as the possible conclusion that cooperation and conventions are an expression of conflict- or friction-free negotiation processes full of harmony. Of course, conventions are dynamic, they can change and react to changing circumstances (Becker 2008: 59), while at the same time retaining their stabilizing function. Often, conventions are the result of protracted social negotiations, which are carried out by more or less powerful actors to their own advantage and installed. The functions that are provided by conventions change between loose orientation and compulsory attention. From this Becker concludes that the non-observance of certain conventions does not necessarily mean that a work of art will fail, but makes its production much more laborious: « Conventions make collective activity simpler and less costly in time, energy, and other resources; but they do not make unconventional work impossible, only more costly and difficult. Change can and does occur whenever someone devises a way to gather the greater resources required or reconceptualizes the work so it does not require what is not available. » (Becker 2008: 35) “Within French economic sociology, since the 1980s with the « Economie des conventions » a social science research movement which also sees the concept of convention as a central theoretical and practical Starting point for the analysis of economic institutions. Similarly as with Becker, conventions are used as collective interpretative frameworks that enable coordination and evaluation practices. For a comprehensive introduction see Diaz-Bone (2015).” (p. 90/Footnote 24)

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Ist eine gute Schule eine inklusive Schule? Entwicklung von Messinstrumenten durch Schulinspektionen

Piezunka, Anne (2020)

Stuttgart: Klinkhardt. PhD thesis. Open access

ABSTRACT

“Wie misst man die Qualität von Schule und was versteht man überhaupt unter einer « guten » Schule? Mit diesen Fragen setzen sich im Fall von Deutschland die bundeslandspezifischen Schulinspektionen auseinander. Sie evaluieren mithilfe von Befragungen und standardisierten Beobachtungen regelmäßig die Qualität von Einzelschulen. Im Rahmen der Arbeit wird untersucht, inwiefern Schulinspektionen unter einer guten Schule eine inklusive Schule verstehen und wie die dazugehörigen Messinstrumente entstanden sind. Da es an einer einheitlichen Definition von schulischer Inklusion fehlt, wird im Rahmen der Arbeit auch berücksichtigt, was die Schulinspektionen in den einzelnen Bundesländern darunter verstehen und wie sie die gesetzliche Vorgabe in ihren Messinstrumenten interpretiert haben. Hierbei wird auf Arbeiten aus der Inklusionsforschung (z.B. Prengel; Hinz) sowie auf Arbeiten aus der Bewertungssoziologie (z.B. Boltanski & Thévenot) zurückgegriffen. Des Weiteren wird mithilfe des organisationssoziologischen Sensemaking-Ansatzes (Weick; Spillane) analysiert, welche Rahmenbedingungen bei der Entwicklung der Messinstrumente eine Rolle spielten, z.B. bildungspolitische Konstellationen sowie persönliche Erfahrungen.

Diese Dissertation wurde 2019 mit dem Wissenschaftspreis der Sektion Sonderpädagogik der DGfE ausgezeichnet.”

Is a good school an inclusive school? Development of measuring instruments through school inspections

ABSTRACT

“How do you measure the quality of school and what do you actually understand by a « good » school? In the case of Germany, these questions are dealt with by the federal state school inspections. They regularly evaluate the quality of individual schools by means of surveys and standardized observation. The project investigates to what extent school inspections understand a good school to be an inclusive school and how the corresponding measuring instruments were developed. Since there is no uniform definition of school inclusion, the study also takes into account what school inspectorates in the individual German states understand by this and how they have interpreted the legal requirement in their measuring instruments. In this context, reference is made to work from inclusion research (e.g. Prengel; Hinz) as well as to work from the sociology of evaluation (e.g. Boltanski & Thévenot). In addition, the organizational-sociological sensemaking approach (Weick; Spillane) is used to analyze which framework conditions played a role in the development of the measuring instruments, e.g. educational policy constellations and personal experiences.

This dissertation was awarded the Science Prize of the Special Education Section of the DGfE in 2019″.

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Engaging with austerity: austerity management, discourse and the regimes of engagement

Sam Van Elk (2020)

PhD thesis, London: King’s College

Supervisors: Ewan Ferlie & Susan Trenholm

Abstract. Austerity is among contemporary public management’s defining features. Austerity management research traditionally focuses on the contents of budgetary changes and organisations’ broad strategies. While valuable, this high-level strategic lens comes at the expense of accounting for the austere situation’s turbulence and the grounded practices through which austerity is managed. Consequently, this thesis reconceptualises austerity management through Thévenot’s regimes of engagement (RE). This pragmatist lens better conceptualises actors’ situated dilemmas and consequent practices. Thévenot’s approach particularly suits austere environments, whose scarcity surfaces public organisations’ latent inter-goal conflicts: RE differentiates modes of action by the different goods people seek. To capture the national and organisational debate in whose context public managers operate, RE was combined with Critical Discourse Analysis. The resultant study focuses on a sector in which austerity management research is overdue: UK healthcare. It combines a case study of national policy with three organisational cases. Observations, interviews and documents are analysed discursively, processually and pragmatically. The resultant findings enable three theoretical contributions. The first emphasises the linguistic situating work we do to establish the nature of situations we encounter. It particularly emphasises its importance in shaping the national austerity situation. The second highlights an annual cycle of instability as organisations’ emphasis shifts between reporting acceptable financial plans and making those often highly optimistic numbers real. The third demonstrates that austerity destabilises the very coordination devices which people deploy to manage it. Together, these contributions conceptualise austerity management as a set of responses to a situation. It notes how austerity’s evaluative and situational instability undermine traditional ways of coordinating work despite uncertainty. This recasts austerity management as not only a set of financial choices but also a search for coordination. Such an approach is needed to do justice to the messy realities of austerity which public managers know so well.

Les fondamentaux de la logistique durable. Pratiques, contraintes, performances

Thomas ZEROUAL

Habilitation à diriger les recherches en Sciences économiques soutenue à l’Université de Lille le lundi 2 mars 2020.

Le jury :
C. Blanquart, DR Université Gustave Eiffel ;  Présidente,
F. Gallouj, PR Université de Lille ; Garant,
A. Hamdouch, PR Université de Tours ; Rapporteur,
C. Tanguy, PR Agrosup Dijon ; Rapporteur,
M. Savy, PR Université Gustave Eiffel ; Rapporteur.

Extrait :

« L’économie des conventions explore la diversité des discours et des registres de justification des actions humaines. L’intérêt est de pouvoir représenter une pluralité d’objectifs pour chaque acteur dans le même temps. Cette grille de lecture semble adaptée à notre problématique. La logistique durable vise en effet plusieurs objectifs : A l’aide des quatre puis des six mondes, il sera possible d’affiner les catégories d’objectifs d’une part et d’identifier des indicateurs pour évaluer les résultats d’autre part. […]
Sur le modèle de l’économie des conventions, une première série de travaux distingue, à partir des caractéristiques de la production, quatre « logiques » différentes. A chaque « logique » de production est associée des « logiques » de circulation de biens, d’informations et de personnes. Dans ces travaux, la terminologie de Salais et Storper pour désigner les mondes (industriel, marchand, interpersonnel, immatériel) évolue pour identifier de manière plus explicite la nature de l’organisation logistique. Quatre logiques de production sont identifiées (industrielle, flexible, professionnelle et immatérielle) donnant lieu à une organisation logistique spécifique. Il n’existe donc pas qu’une seule logique de circulation issue d’une organisation logistique. Il existe des logiques de circulation qui impliquent des flux de transport. […]
Le tableau 45 ci-dessous reprend cette évaluation multicritères basée sur les registres de justification. L’intérêt du tableau est de permettre d’intégrer l’ensemble des valeurs défendues par les différents acteurs au sein d’une chaîne logistique. Tous les objectifs peuvent ainsi être visualisés ainsi que leurs effets immédiats et médiats. Il devient également possible de comprendre au sein d’une chaîne quel type d’objectifs est plus valorisé que tel autre. » (p. 126-127)

The fundamentals of sustainable logistics. Practices, constraints, performance

Translation of the excerpt:

« The economics of convention explores the diversity of discourses and registers of justification for human actions. The interest is to be able to represent a plurality of objectives for each actor at the same time. This reading grid seems adapted to our problematic. Indeed, sustainable logistics has several objectives: With the help of the four and then the six worlds, it will be possible to refine the categories of objectives on the one hand and to identify indicators to evaluate the results on the other hand. […]
Based on the model of the economics of convention, a first series of works distinguishes, on the basis of the characteristics of production, four different « logics ». Each « logic » of production is associated with « logics » of circulation of goods, information and people. In these works, the terminology used by Salais and Storper to designate the worlds (industrial, commercial, interpersonal, immaterial) evolves to identify more explicitly the nature of logistical organization. Four production logics are identified (industrial, flexible, professional and immaterial) giving rise to a specific logistics organization. There is therefore not only one circulation logic resulting from a logistics organisation. There are circulation logics that involve transport flows. […]
Table 45 below shows this multi-criteria assessment based on the justification records. The interest of the table is to allow the integration of all the values defended by the different actors within a supply chain. All the objectives can thus be visualised as well as their immediate and media effects. It also becomes possible to understand within a chain which type of objectives is more valued than another. »
(p. 126-127)

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Lebensführung im Alter(n)swandel. Impulse für eine interdisziplinäre Sozialstrukturanalyse des höheren Alters.

Bolze, Max (2020)

Wiesbaden: Springer VS.

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG

“Max Bolze entwickelt an der Schnittstelle zwischen Alter(n)s- und Lebensstilforschung ein interdisziplinäres Forschungsprogramm, das er als Sozialstrukturanalyse des höheren Alters charakterisiert. Den Kern bildet ein handlungstheoretisch fundiertes Mehrebenenmodell zur Analyse von Lebensführungen. Mit diesem gelingt es, die sozialwissenschaftliche Diskussion um eine soziale und kulturelle Differenzierung des Alter(n)s theoretisch-konzeptionell präziser zu erfassen und empirisch zugänglich zu machen. Hierfür werden methodologische und empirische Zugänge gelegt, über die durch Methodenintegration eine Verbesserung der in der Lebensstilforschung häufig problematisierten Typenbildung erreicht werden kann.”

AUSZUG

“Aus meiner Sicht ist die Angewandte Gerontologie als Forschungsfeld, das zur Verbesserung der Lebensqualität älterer Menschen beiträgt, grundsätzlich begrüßenswert. Die Modifikation des Alterns sollte jedoch erkennbarer von der wertfreien Beschreibung und Erklärung dessen, was alte Menschen tun, getrennt werden. Die verwendeten Konzepte und die ihnen unterliegenden Konventionen sollten bei allen Betrachtungsweisen stets observiert und in ihren Produktionsbedingungen und Auswirkungen kritisch hinterfragt werden. […] Hier bietet die aus Frankreich stammende Wissenschaftsbewegung der ‚Economie des conventions‘ spannende Ansatzpunkte. Aus einer pragmatischen Perspektive wird insbesondere der Blick auf die Konventionen (im Sinne von Weltsichten, Normativitäten, Koordinationslogiken) gerichtet, die bei der Herstellung und Organisation von Wissen, Handlungen und Prozessen eine Rolle spielen (Boltanski und Thévenot 2007). In jüngerer Zeit gewinnt die Economie des conventions auch im deutschsprachigen Raum an Bedeutung (Diaz-Bone 2018a). Eine Verknüpfung zur Alter(n)sforschung steht noch aus.” (S. 23/Fußnote 12)

Lifestyle in a changing age. Impulses for an interdisciplinary social structure analysis of old age/aging

ABSTRACT

“Max Bolze is developing an interdisciplinary research program at the interface between age(s) and lifestyle research, which he characterizes as a social structure analysis of old age. The core is a multi-level model based on action theory for the analysis of lifestyles. This model makes it possible to grasp the social science discussion on social and cultural differentiation of age/aging more precisely in theoretical and conceptual terms and to make it empirically accessible. For this purpose, methodological and empirical approaches are being developed, which, through the integration of methods, can lead to an improvement in the type formation that is often problematic in lifestyle research.”

EXTRACT

“In my view, applied gerontology is fundamentally welcome as a field of research that contributes to improving the quality of life of older people. However, the modification of ageing should be more clearly separated from the value-free description and explanation of what older people do. The concepts used and the conventions that underlie them should always be observed and their production conditions and effects critically questioned in all approaches. […] Here the French-born scientific movement of the ‘Economie des conventions’ offers exciting starting points. From a pragmatic perspective, it focuses in particular on the conventions (in the sense of world views, normativities, coordination logics) that play a role in the production and organization of knowledge, actions and processes (Boltanski and Thévenot 2007). More recently, the Economie des conventions has also gained importance in the German-speaking world (Diaz-Bone 2018a). A link to research on ageing/research on age is still pending.” (p. 23/footnote 12)