Archives de catégorie : Soutenances / Dissertations

Kodieren als Beruf. Die Kodierfachkräfte, eine Beschäftigtengruppe des Krankenhauses im Spannungsfeld zwischen medizinisch-pflegerischen und betriebswirtschaftlichen Ansprüchen

Coding as a profession. The coding specialists, an employee group of the hospital in the area of conflict between medical-nursing and economic demands

Andreas Pfeuffer (2021)

PhD thesis. Kassel: University of Kassel.

Zusammenfassung. Gegenstand der vorliegenden Arbeit ist das 2003 in Deutschland eingeführte Abrechnungssystem von Krankenhausleistungen nach Fallpauschalen, die auf den Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) basieren. Die arbeits- und berufs- bzw. professionssoziologische, organisations- sowie medizinsoziologische Fragestellungen verknüpfende Arbeit, geht auf der Grundlage semi-standardisierter Leitfadeninterviews mit Beschäftigten unterschiedlicher Kategorien öffentlicher Krankenhäuser und Mitarbeiter*innen des Medizinischen Dienstes der Krankenversicherung (MDK) sowie teilnehmender Beobachtung und Analyse von Fachpublikationen der Frage nach, was in der Praxis in und zwischen den Bereichen des Krankenhauses sowie darüber hinaus im Umgang mit dem MDK formell wie informell (Rightcoding und Upcoding) geschieht, wenn eine Krankenhausbehandlung im Rahmen des DRG-Systems „abgerechnet“ werden soll. Dabei werden die Perspektiven der verschiedenen am Behandlungs- (medizinisch-pflegerische Trajektorie) und Abrechnungsprozess (DRG-Trajektorie) und damit an der «Fabrikation» der jeweiligen DRG eines Falles beteiligten Berufsgruppen auf das Abrechnungssystem, ihr praktischer Umgang damit, aber auch die zwischen diesen Berufsgruppen herrschende Arbeitsteilung, die Auseinandersetzungen um jurisdictional claims (Abbott) und die damit verbundenen Konflikte genauer in den Blick genommen. Die Ärzteschaft reagiert in Bezug auf die ihr obliegenden Dokumentationsverpflichtung vorwiegend vermeidend, wenn sie nicht gelernt hat, das Fallpauschalensystem «auszubeuten» (Werner Vogd). Der Pflegedienst, der lange Zeit Opfer des nicht zuletzt durch das Fallpauschalensystem initiierten Stellenabbaus gewesen ist, hatte ungeachtet dessen zunächst eine durchaus positive Haltung gegenüber dem System und den ihm zukommenden bürokratischen Aufgaben, etwa dem Kodieren im Rahmen der Pflegekomplexmaßnahmen (PKMS), entwickelt, was mit der Hoffnung, die Arbeit der Pflege gegenüber der ärztlichen Tätigkeit aufzuwerten und «sichtbarer» zu machen, als Anerkennungskampf interpretiert wird. Im Zentrum der Arbeit steht aber die Genese und Berufspraxis der Tätigkeitsgruppe der Kodierfachkräfte, die in den meisten Krankenhäusern für die Kodierung der Fälle im Rahmen des Abrechnungsprozesses nicht de jure, aber faktisch zuständig sind. Anhand der Kontrastierung der Berufsverläufe der Personen aus dem Untersuchungssample ergibt sich ein recht buntes Bild an unterschiedlichen vorangegangen Tätigkeiten, Ausbildungen (ehemalige Pflegekräfte, Medizinische Dokumentar*innen, Arzthelferinnen, Stationsassistentinnen) und Motiven für den Wechsel ins Medizincontrolling. In arbeitssoziologischer Perspektive werden auf der Basis der Interviews sowie teilnehmender Beobachtung der Arbeit auf den Stationen sowie des Kodierprozesses mit Patientenakte und „Grouper-Software“ die konkreten Arbeitssituationen und Arbeitsbedingungen, aber auch die Konflikte in den Interaktionen mit den Angehörigen des ärztlichen Dienstes dargestellt, bevor dann in Form einer Fallkontrastierung unterschiedliche Deutungsmuster, professionelle Dispositionen und Praktiken von Kodierfachkräften herausgearbeitet werden. Schließlich wird als letzte Phase der DRG-Trajektorie das Verhältnis der Organisation Krankenhaus zum Kontrollorgan der Krankenversicherungen, dem MDK beleuchtet. Aufgrund von realen oder vermeintlichen Fällen von Missbrauch und Abrechnungsbetrug herrscht ein Misstrauensverhältnis zwischen der Organisation Krankenhaus und den Kostenträgern, das in Form des Auftrags der Abrechnungsprüfungen an den MDK institutionalisiert ist. Hier wird am Beispiel eines öffentlichen Krankenhauses dessen Medizincontrolling als organisationale «Grenzstelle» gefasst, die mit der Organisationsumwelt (Krankenkassen, MDK) ein Vertrauensverhältnis zu etablieren bemüht ist.

Abstract. The subject of this PhD thesis is the billing system for hospital services based on Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG), which was introduced in Germany in 2003. The sociology of work and occupation resp. On the basis of semi-standardized guideline interviews with employees of different categories of public hospitals and employees of the Medical Service of the Health Insurance (MDK) as well as participant observation and analysis of professional publications, the study, which links sociological and professional, organizational and medical sociological questions, pursues the question of what happens in practice in and between the areas of the hospital as well as beyond that in dealing with the MDK formally as well as informally (rightcoding and upcoding), when a hospital treatment is to be « accounted for » within the framework of the DRG system. In this context, the perspectives of the various professional groups involved in the treatment (medical-nursing trajectory) and billing process (DRG trajectory) and thus in the « fabrication » of the respective DRG of a case on the billing system, their practical handling of it, but also the division of labor prevailing between these professional groups, the disputes about jurisdictional claims (Abbott) and the conflicts associated with them are examined more closely. The medical profession reacts in a predominantly avoidant manner with regard to the documentation obligations incumbent upon it, if it has not learned to « exploit » the per-case flat rate system (Werner Vogd). The nursing service, which has long been a victim of the downsizing initiated not least by the fee-per-case system, had, notwithstanding, initially developed a thoroughly positive attitude toward the system and the bureaucratic tasks incumbent upon it, such as coding within the framework of the nursing complex measures (PKMS), which is interpreted as a struggle for recognition with the hope of upgrading the work of nursing vis-à-vis that of physicians and making it more « visible. » However, the focus of the paper is on the genesis and professional practice of the activity group of coding specialists, who in most hospitals are not de jure but de facto responsible for coding cases as part of the billing process. By contrasting the career histories of the persons in the study sample, a rather colorful picture of different previous activities, training (former nurses, medical documentalists, physician assistants, ward assistants) and motives for the change to medical controlling emerges. From the perspective of the sociology of work, the concrete work situations and working conditions, but also the conflicts in the interactions with the members of the medical service are presented on the basis of the interviews and participant observation of the work on the wards as well as the coding process with patient files and « grouper software », before different patterns of interpretation, professional dispositions and practices of coding specialists are then worked out in the form of a case contrast. Finally, as the last phase of the DRG trajectory, the relationship of the hospital organization to the controlling body of the health insurance companies, the MDK, is illuminated. Due to real or alleged cases of abuse and billing fraud, there is a relationship of mistrust between the hospital organization and the payers, which is institutionalized in the form of the assignment of billing audits to the MDK. Here, using the example of a public hospital, its medical controlling is conceived as an organizational « borderline unit » that strives to establish a relationship of trust with the organizational environment (health insurers, MDK).

Download link

Eine „grüne Zukunft” für Kunststoffe? Die Entwicklung von Märkten für Biokunststoffe

A « green future » for plastics? The development of markets for bioplastics

Alexandra Hees (2019)

PhD thesis. Cologne: Universität zu Köln
Referent: Prof. Dr. Jens Beckert
Korreferenten: Prof. Dr. Sophie Mützel, Prof. Dr. André Kaiser
Tag der Promotion: 28.4.2020

Abstract. Die Studie rekonstruiert die historische Entwicklung von Märkten für Biokunststoffe aus einer wirtschaftssoziologischen Perspektive. Im ersten Teil werden die Entstehungsbedingungen alternativer Kunststoffvisionen dargestellt. Wie wurden „Biobasiertheit“ und „biologische Abbaubarkeit“ in der Kunststoffentwicklung zu potentiell wertvollen Produkteigenschaften? Die Untersuchung zeigt, dass sich die mit Biokunststoffen verknüpften Wertversprechen im Kontext kollektiver Krisendiagnosen im letzten Drittel des 20. Jahrhunderts herausgebildet haben, als bis dahin geltende Zukunftsnarrative brüchig wurden und sich neue Zukunftsnarrative formierten. Der zweite Teil der Studie analysiert, wie Unternehmen versucht haben, neue Marktbeziehungen für „grüne“ Kunststoffe aufzubauen und zu stabilisieren. Dabei stießen sie auf Widerstände seitens der Entsorgungswirtschaft, des organisierten Umweltschutzes und staatlicher Regulationsinstanzen. Die Studie argumentiert, dass sich Widerstände nicht allein verhindernd auf die Entwicklung von Märkten auswirken, sondern als Weichensteller für die Ausrichtung von Innovationsstrategien fungieren und Abgrenzungsfolien für den Entwurf alternativer Zukünfte bieten.

Extract: “Wie im theoretischen Teil der Arbeit ausgeführt, steht die soziologische Analyse von Wertzuschreibungs- und Bewertungsprozesse im Fokus der Économie des Conventions. Während Luc Boltanski und Laurent Thévenot in Über die Rechtfertigung (1984) sechs verschiedene Rechtfertigungsordnungen herausgearbeitet hatten, trugen spätere Arbeiten von Laurent Thévenot und seinen Co-Autoren (Lafaye und Thévenot 1993; Thévenot, Moody und Lafaye 2000) der Tatsache Rechnung, dass mit der Ausbreitung und Institutionalisierung des Ökologischen ein ‚grünes‘ Wertprinzip im kulturellen Repertoire moderner Gesellschaften an Bedeutung gewonnen hatte, auf das Akteure zurückgreifen, um ihren Standpunkt zu begründen, Kritik zu üben oder Wertigkeit zuzuschreiben. Dementsprechend ergänzten sie die Rechtfertigungsordnungen aus Über die Rechtfertigung um eine ‚grüne‘ Konvention, die zwar historische Vorläufer in den spirituellen, romantischen und sozialen Naturschutzbewegungen vorangegangener Jahrhunderte hat, sich aber vor allem seit dem Aufstieg der globalen Umweltbewegung in der zweiten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts etablieren konnte (Diaz-Bone 2015: 148; Lafaye und Thévenot 1993; Thévenot, Moody und Lafaye 2000).” (87)

Abstract. The study reconstructs the historical development of markets for bioplastics from an economic sociological perspective. In the first part, the conditions of emergence of alternative plastic visions are presented. How did « biobasedness » and « biodegradability » become potentially valuable product properties in plastics development? The study shows that the value propositions associated with bioplastics emerged in the context of collective diagnoses of crisis in the last third of the 20th century, when previously valid narratives of the future became fragile and new narratives of the future were formed. The second part of the study analyzes how companies attempted to establish and stabilize new market relationships for « green » plastics. In doing so, they encountered resistance from the waste management industry, organized environmental protection and state regulatory bodies. The study argues that resistance is not the only factor preventing the development of markets, but that it also acts as a guide for the direction of innovation strategies and provides demarcation foils for the design of alternative futures.

Extract: « As stated in the theoretical part of the paper, the sociological analysis of value attribution and valuation processes is the focus of Économie des Conventions. While Luc Boltanski and Laurent Thévenot had elaborated six different orders of justification in On Justification (1984), later work by Laurent Thévenot and his co-authors (Lafaye and Thévenot 1993; Thévenot, Moody, and Lafaye 2000) took into account the fact that with the spread and institutionalization of the ecological, a ‘green’ value principle had gained importance in the cultural repertoire of modern societies, to which actors resort to justify their point of view, to criticize, or to ascribe value. Accordingly, they supplemented the orders of justification from On Justification with a ‘green’ convention that, while having historical antecedents in the spiritual, romantic, and social conservation movements of previous centuries, has been able to eta-blish itself, especially since the rise of the global environmental movement in the second half of the twentieth century (Diaz-Bone 2015: 148; Lafaye and Thévenot 1993; Thévenot, Moody, and Lafaye 2000). » (87)

Link to the PhD thesis

Empresários, interesses e ação política: uma crítica da dominação gestionária

Entrepreneurs, interests and political action: a critique of management domination

Sérgio Gini (2021)

PhD thesis. Sao Paulo: Universidade Estadual Paulista (2021-03-02) Advisor: Aluisio Almeida Schumacher

Resumo. O empresariado é um ator político, devidamente situado em um ambiente institucional e que interfere, de acordo com os padrões de justificação de sua ação coletiva, na vida política das cidades. Com base nesse pressuposto, estudamos a atuação do empresariado na cidade de Maringá, Paraná, a partir da organização do Conselho de Desenvolvimento Econômico – Codem, regulado por lei municipal em 1996, onde uma elite estratégica, recrutada na Associação Comercial local exerce o controle institucional e negocia politicamente com o poder público, fazendo de sua ação uma força produtora de consideráveis impactos nas variáveis sociais e econômicas do município a partir da elaboração de agendas políticas de desenvolvimento denominadas de Maringá 2020, Maringá 2030 e Maringá 2047. Essas agendas foram desenvolvidas a partir de técnicas de gestão empresarial passando a ser um modelo a ser seguido pelo Executivo de 1997 até os dias atuais. Este modelo de excelência na gestão é um contraponto à gestão pública e acabou alijando das discussões sobre o desenvolvimento econômico local outros atores que não fazem parte da elite dirigente, como por exemplo os movimentos sociais e o poder Legislativo. A tese que procuramos desenvolver é que em Maringá se estabeleceu uma forma de dominação gestionária, priorizando os interesses da elite empresarial em detrimento de outros projetos de cidade, buscando anular o conflito por meio do consenso institucional. Para a consecução dos nossos objetivos de análise utilizamos a teoria sociológica elaborada por Luc Boltanski, Laurent Thévenot e Ève Chiapello que consideram os modelos de justificação e legitimação das ações da elite empresarial baseada na Teoria das cités, cuja matriz analítica serve de referência para se construir um quadro com os principais valores, perfis e dispositivos que estão em jogo, nas situações em que se realizam as ações coletivas do empresariado, considerando que elas se estruturam em rede e visam, na opinião dos próprios empresários, à sua ampliação e aos benefícios para o bem da sociedade civil organizada. Desse modo, denominamos nesta tese a cité por Projetos como aquela que está estruturada em uma nova relação entre a cidade e as ferramentas de gestão, as mais variadas quanto possível, em ciclo marcado pelo tempo do mercado, o que impede investimentos críticos de outros atores sociais, uma vez que as políticas públicas de desenvolvimento econômico e social estão assentadas na lógica empresarial e concorrencial. Desenvolvemos ainda um aparato crítico, baseado no pensamento social de Boltanski, que desconstrói essa lógica apontando as assimetrias da dominação gestionária. Embora a pesquisa se estruture em um estudo de caso local, os projetos geridos pela elite estratégica de Maringá foram replicados em diversos outros municípios do Brasil tendo sempre o mesmo pano de fundo: a ação empresarial e a dominação gestionária.”

Abstract. The business community is a political actor, properly situated in an institutional environment and that interferes, according to the justification standards of its collective action, in the political life of cities. Based on this assumption, we studied the performance of the business community in the city of Maringá, Paraná, founded on the organization of the Economic Development Council – Codem, regulated by municipal law in 1996, where a strategic elite, recruited from the local Commercial Association, exercises institutional control and politically negotiates with the government, making its action a force that produces considerable impacts on the social and economic variables of the municipality from the development of political development agendas called Maringá 2020, Maringá 2030 and Maringá 2047. These agendas were developed from business management techniques becoming a model to be followed by the Executive Branch from 1997 to the present day. This model of excellence in management is a counterpoint to public management and ended up leaving other actors who are not part of the ruling elite, such as social movements and the Legislative Branch, out of the discussions about local economic development. The thesis that we seek to develop is that in Maringá a form of managerial domination was established, prioritizing the interests of the business elite over other city projects, seeking to cancel the conflict through institutional consensus. To achieve our analysis objectives we used the sociological theory developed by Luc Boltanski, Laurent Thévenot and Ève Chiapello who consider the models of justification and legitimization of the actions of the business elite based on the Theory of cités, whose analytical matrix serves as a reference to build a table with the main values, profiles and devices that are at stake, in the situations in which the collective actions of the business community are carried out, considering that they are structured in a network and aim, in the opinion of the businesspersons themselves, for their expansion and the benefits for the good of organized civil society. Thus, in this thesis, we define the cité as Projects as one that is structured in a new relationship between the city and the management tools, as varied as possible, in a cycle marked by the time of the market, which prevents critical investments from other actors social, since public policies for economic and social development are founded on business and competitive logic. We have also developed a critical apparatus, based on Boltanski’s social thinking, which deconstructs this logic by pointing out the asymmetries of managerial domination. Although the research is structured in a local case study, the projects managed by the strategic elite of Maringá have been replicated in several other municipalities in Brazil, always with the same background: business action and managerial domination.

Download link

Interior complex: Design standardization in London’s housing

Seyithan Özer (2021)

A thesis submitted to the School of Architecture of the Royal College of Art for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
London, June 2021

Abstract. This thesis studies design standardization in London’s housing, understood as an interrelated set of standards and conventions that shape design outcomes towards specific forms. Working iteratively between theory and data, the thesis threads broader issues in housing – housing design, design governance, design quality – with an empirical study of housing designs in London at the dwelling unit scale.
Integrating literatures on housing policy and regulation, real estate, state-market relationships, architectural practice, standards and conventions, the thesis conceptualizes design standardization. The empirical focus of the thesis is London’s housing stock and its residents’ experiences and practices of home. To this end, the thesis draws from a mixed methods research that consists of a descriptive statistical analysis of the spatial patterns in a sample of unit plans from inner London’s housing stock (n=3,438), visual analysis of comparative floor plan matrices, an online survey with people living in London on their experience and use of their homes (n=234) and follow-up semi-structured interviews with some survey participants (n=22).
Built largely over the last two hundred years, London’s housing stock contains a variety of housing typologies. While new housing typologies designed for changing needs have emerged, older housing stock has been modified, subdivided, and converted. The research shows that existing housing interiors, in aggregate form evidence processes of standardization. Dwellings built in the past forty years, since the 1980s, show a high level of repetition in their dimensions and interior layouts. I argue this as the result of on the one hand a high-pressure housing market, a perpetual housing shortage and high land prices that all lead the market to function with strict design conventions, and on the other legislations, regulations, codes, and guidelines central and local governments introduce to sustain quality, affordability, and access. Dwellings from the older housing stock – terraced houses – show a wide variety of interior layouts. Despite this, however, there are spatial and organizational directions that emerge at the intersection of the architectural affordances of terraced houses, social change, asset-based welfare and permitted development.
Based on a study of residents’ experiences and domestic practices in relation to design patterns observed in London’s housing, the research also found that existing housing does not sufficiently meet current needs, preferences and occupancy patterns. The assumptions of use and home underlying standards and conventions fail to acknowledge changing domestic needs.
The thesis, studying London’s housing at their intersection, makes original contributions to architectural design, housing studies, infrastructure studies, and material geographies by developing a design standardization framework that incorporates standards and conventions, by constructing a novel dataset of existing housing stock and providing up-to-date data on the housing designs, by analysing residents’ domestic experiences and practices in London, and by analysing home alterations from a socio-technical perspective.

Extract: “This section of the thesis outlines the conventions of market-driven and creative stakeholders and discusses their interaction with standards. Drawing on the empirical studies conducted on different stakeholders involved in housing design, in this section I outline the conventions in housing design and development and their impact on design outcomes. In framing the conventions in housing design and development, studies in the Economics of Convention provide useful methodological approaches by recognizing the plurality of normative values. In particular, the works of sociologist Luc Boltanski and economist Laurent Thévenot on the role of conventions in economic decision-making and justification are of interest. Boltanski and Thévenot study collective cognitive forms that stakeholders use to coordinate, ‘criticize, challenge institutions, argue with one another, or converge toward agreement’.56 These collective cognitive forms, conventions, are essential not only because they help the process of coordination when formal standards and other institutionalized arrangements fall short or require interpretation, or where outcomes are uncertain, but also because actors base their critique of standards and institutional arrangements on them.” (p. 37)

«Revitalisierung» der Berufsbildung Der bildungspolitische Weg zur Institutionalisierung der Berufsbildung in der Schweiz als Verbundaufgabe in den 1990er Jahren

« Revitalization » of Vocational Education and Training The educational policy path to the institutionalization of vocational education and training in Switzerland as a collaborative task in the 1990s

Lea Hägi (2021)

PhD thesis. Zurich: University of Zurich.

Prof. Dr. Philipp Gonon (University of Zurich), supervisor/committee member
Prof. Dr. Rainer Diaz-Bone (University of Lucerne), reviewer/committee member
Dr. Maren Oepke (University of Zurich), assessor

Auszug: “1. Die berufliche Bildung in der Schweiz als Verbundaufgabe
Die berufliche Bildung in der Schweiz blickt auf eine Jahrhunderte alte Geschichte privatwirtschaftlichen Engagements zurück. […] Erst die jüngste Totalrevision der Bundesverfassung im Jahr 1999 ermöglichte es dem Bund das Bundesgesetz über die Berufsbildung auf alle nicht-akademischen – und damit auch nicht dem Gewerbe – Berufe auszudehnen. Vor dieser Verfassungsänderung erstreckte sich der Geltungsbereich des Bundesgesetzes über die Berufsbildung nur auf die Berufe der Wirtschaftszweige Industrie, Handel, Gewerbe, Forstwirtschaft und Hauswirtschaft, während Gesundheit, Soziales, Kunst und Berufe des öffentlichen Dienstes (Bahn, Post, Zoll, Polizei) der kantonalen Rechtsprechungen unterstellt waren (Gemperli, 1997; Wettstein, 1987; Wettstein & Gonon, 2009). […] In Bezug auf die berufliche Bildung war man sich zu Beginn der 1990er Jahre im Grundsatz nur einig, dass die Aufgabenverteilung zwischen Bund und Kantonen entflechtet, beziehungsweise gesetzgeberische Kompetenzen eindeutig dem Bund oder den Kantonen zugewiesen, und die Finanzströme vereinfacht werden sollten. Ob der Bund seine gesetzgeberische Kompetenz aber behalten oder die berufliche Bildung in die Verantwortlichkeit der Kantone übergehen sollte, war hingegen umstritten. Nicht weniger als das tragende Grundprinzip der geteilten Verantwortlichkeit im Bereich der beruflichen Bildung wurde radikal in Frage gestellt. Dieses Moment der Kritik und der Kontroverse bietet hier eine seltene Gelegenheit die Legitimation und Gestaltung der Grundpfeiler der schweizerischen Berufsbildung im Detail analysieren und verstehbar machen zu können. […]

2.1. Theoretische Annäherung: Die Economie des Conventions
Für die theoretische Auseinandersetzung mit den im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit aufgeworfenen Fragestellungen der Legitimation der geteilten Verantwortlichkeit im Bereich der beruflichen Bildung, wird mit dem im Kern institutionentheoretisch begründeten Ansatz der Economie des Conventions (kurz EC) gearbeitet. Der interdisziplinär geprägte Ansatz wird auch als wissenschaftliche Bewegung bezeichnet und der neuen französischen Wirtschaftssoziologie zugeordnet (Diaz-Bone, 2018). Als zentrale Grundlagenwerke zur EC werden oft die Beiträge von Luc Boltanski und Laurent Thévenot (Boltanski & Thévenot, 1991) sowie jener von Robert Salais und Michaël Storper (Salais & Storper, 1993) bezeichnet. Die EC ist allerdings genauso geprägt von einer Vielzahl an Forschungsbeiträgen, die als Quellen für diese Grundlagenwerke dienten wie beispielsweise die Beiträge von François Eymard-Duvernay (1986) zu Produktqualitäten, von Robert Salais, Nicolas Baverez und Bénédicte Reynaud (1986) zur Entstehungsgeschichte des Wandels der Kategorie der Arbeitslosigkeit, von Robert Salais und Laurent Thévenot (1986) zur Kategorie der Arbeit, oder von Laurent Thévenot (1986) zu Forminvestitionen, die auch im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit eine grosse Rolle spielen werden. Des Weiteren ist die Bewegung der EC aber ebenso geprägt von Beiträgen, die an die Grundlagenwerke anknüpfen und die aufgeworfenen Grundideen weiterentwickeln.” (p. 1/2/3/21)

Extract: « 1. vocational training in Switzerland as a joint task.
Vocational education in Switzerland looks back on a centuries-old history of private-sector involvement. […] It was not until the recent total revision of the Federal Constitution in 1999 that the Confederation was able to extend the Federal Law on Vocational Education and Training to all non-academic – and thus also non-trade – professions. Prior to this constitutional amendment, the scope of the Federal Law on Vocational Education and Training extended only to occupations in the economic sectors of industry, commerce, trade, forestry, and home economics, while health, social services, arts, and public service occupations (railroads, postal services, customs, police) were subject to cantonal jurisdictions (Gemperli, 1997; Wettstein, 1987; Wettstein & Gonon, 2009). […] With regard to vocational education and training, at the beginning of the 1990s there was in principle only agreement that the distribution of tasks between the federal government and the cantons should be unbundled, that legislative competences should be clearly assigned to the federal government or the cantons, and that financial flows should be simplified. However, whether the federal government should retain its legislative competence or whether vocational education and training should become the responsibility of the cantons was a matter of dispute. Nothing less than the fundamental principle of shared responsibility in the area of vocational education was radically called into question. This moment of criticism and controversy offers a unique opportunity to analyze and understand in detail the legitimacy and design of the basic pillars of Swiss vocational education. […]

2.1 Theoretical Approach: The Economie des Conventions
For the theoretical examination of the issues raised in the context of the present work on the legitimacy of shared responsibility in the field of vocational education and training, we will work with the approach of the Economie des Conventions (EC for short), which is at its core based on institutional theory. This interdisciplinary approach is also referred to as a scientific movement and is classified as part of the new French economic sociology (Diaz-Bone, 2018). The contributions of Luc Boltanski and Laurent Thévenot (Boltanski & Thévenot, 1991) and that of Robert Salais and Michaël Storper (Salais & Storper, 1993) are often referred to as key foundational works on EC. However, the EC is equally characterized by a large number of research contributions that served as sources for these foundational works, such as the contributions of François Eymard-Duvernay (1986) on product qualities, of Robert Salais, Nicolas Baverez and Bé-nédicte Reynaud (1986) on the genesis of the change in the category of unemployment, by Robert Salais and Laurent Thévenot (1986) on the category of work, or by Laurent Thévenot (1986) on form investments, which will also play a major role in the context of the present work. Furthermore, however, the EC movement is equally characterized by contributions that follow up on the foundational works and further develop the basic ideas raised. » (p. 1/2/3/21)

Formation et dynamiques d’une catégorie de marché alternatif : une approche sociogénétique et ethnographique des musiques indépendantes

Boris Collet (2020)

Thèse en sciences de gestion, soutenue le 3 décembre 2020 à l’université de Rouen Normandie

Jury:
M. Éric RÉMY, Professeur / Université Toulouse III, Codirecteur de thèse
M. Renaud GARCIA-BARDIDIA, Professeur / Université de Rouen Normandie, Codirecteur de thèse
M. Philippe ROBERT-DEMONTROND, Professeur / Université de Rennes I, Rapporteur
Mme Dominique ROUX, Professeure / Université de Reims, Rapportrice
M. Baptiste CLERET, Maître de Conférences / Université de Rouen Normandie, Examinateur
Mme Delphine DION, Professeure / ESSEC Business School, Examinatrice
Mme Nil ÖZÇAĞLAR-TOULOUSE, Professeure / Université de Lille, Examinatrice
M. Joonas ROKKA, Professeur / EM Lyon Business School, Examinateur

Résumé. Au cours des dernières décennies, la notion d’indépendance s’est imposée dans un grand nombre de secteurs des industries culturelles et créatives. Dans cette thèse, nous nous intéressons à l’émergence de la catégorie indépendante au sein du marché musical et à ses dynamiques avec la catégorie dominante en mobilisant les apports théorico-méthodologiques de la sociologie pragmatique dans l’articulation de trois concepts interreliés – marché(s), intermédiation et valeurs. À cet effet, nous avons mené une ethnographie multi-située de quatre ans au contact des acteurs de la scène musicale afin de mettre au jour les principes sous-jacents, c’est-à-dire les fondements axiologiques, qui caractérisent l’indépendance en tant que catégorie culturelle, économique et artistique. En parallèle, nous avons procédé à une analyse sociohistorique afin de comprendre l’émergence et le développement de cette catégorie de marché et d’en établir une périodisation. Nos analyses permettent d’établir que l’indépendance est le lieu de tensions entre plusieurs représentations et d’affrontements idéologiques. De plus, elles confirment le rôle des intermédiaires et de leurs dispositifs dans la catégorisation des marchés et la valorisation des biens. En situant cette recherche au croisement des théories culturelles de la consommation (CCT) et du macromarketing, nous concluons en discutant de la marchandisation de la culture et des formes alternatives de marketization. Nous exposons également les implications pour les acteurs du marché et les institutions dans la mise en place de stratégies commerciales et de politiques culturelles en faisant valoir les spécificités de l’indépendance en tant que mode de production et de consommation alternatif. Cette recherche ouvre ainsi la voie à l’étude des perspectives éthiques de la consommation culturelle.

Extrait. “L’approche conventionnaliste des marchés dont nous nous inspirons fait le lien entre valeurs et marchés en s’intéressant à la variété de modes de coordination (Eymard-Duvernay, 2006). En parallèle, d’autres auteurs de ce courant mettent en avant le rôle des intermédiaires et des dispositifs dans la formation des marchés (e.g., Bessy et Chauvin, 2014 ; Chiapello et Godefroy, 2017 ; Karpik, 2007). En effet, les intermédiaires sont des acteurs centraux de la formation de catégories de marché (Durand et Thornton, 2018 ; Khaire, 2017b). L’intermédiation contribue ainsi à la fois à la création de nouveaux marchés et à définir de nouvelles conventions d’évaluation. L’objectif de cette recherche est donc de mieux comprendre la catégorie indépendante, ses conventions, les cadres d’évaluation qui la sous-tendent et le rôle joué par les différents acteurs et dispositifs du marché dans sa genèse, sa diffusion et sa stabilisation (Bessy et Chauvin, 2013). À ce titre, il est question de mettre au jour les principes axiologiques de l’indépendance à partir des apports théoriques et méthodologiques de la sociologie compréhensive et pragmatique des valeurs (Boltanski et Thévenot, 1991 ; Heinich, 2017a).”

Formation and dynamics of an alternative market category: a sociogenetic and ethnographic approach to independent music

PhD thesis. Rouen: University of Rouen

Abstract. Over the past few decades, the notion of independent has become established in many sectors of the cultural and creative industries. In this thesis, we examine the emergence of the independent category within the music market and its dynamics with the dominant category by mobilizing the theoretical-methodological contributions of pragmatic sociology in the articulation of three interrelated concepts – market(s), intermediation and values. To this end, we conducted a four-year multi-site ethnography in contact with actors of the music scene in order to uncover the underlying principles, i.e., the axiological foundations, that characterize independence as a cultural, economic, and artistic category. At the same time, we carried out a socio-historical analysis in order to understand the emergence and development of this market category and to establish its periodization. Our analyses allow us to establish that independence is the site of tensions between several representations and ideological confrontations. Moreover, they confirm the role of intermediaries and their devices in the categorization of markets and the valuation of goods. By situating this research at the crossroads of cultural theories of consumption (CCT) and macromarketing, we conclude by discussing the commodification of culture and alternative forms of marketization. We also outline the implications for market actors and institutions in the implementation of commercial strategies and cultural policies, highlighting the specificities of independence as an alternative mode of production and consumption. This research paves the way for the study of the ethical perspectives of cultural consumption. »

Extract. “The convention theorist approach to markets from which we draw inspiration links values and markets by looking at the variety of modes of coordination (Eymard-Duvernay, 2006). At the same time, other authors of this trend highlight the role of intermediaries and mechanisms in the formation of markets (e.g., Bessy and Chauvin, 2014; Chiapello and Godefroy, 2017; Karpik, 2007). Indeed, intermediaries are central actors in the formation of market categories (Durand and Thornton, 2018; Khaire, 2017b). Intermediation thus contributes both to the creation of new markets and to the definition of new evaluation conventions. The objective of this research is therefore to better understand the independent category, its conventions, the evaluation frameworks that underlie it and the role played by the different actors and devices in the market in its genesis, diffusion and stabilization (Bessy and Chauvin, 2013). As such, the axiological principles of independence are to be brought to light based on the theoretical and methodological contributions of the comprehensive and pragmatic sociology of values (Boltanski and Thévenot, 1991; Heinich, 2017a).”

Download link

Collective Firms between Collective and Company

Nina Pohler (2020)

PhD thesis. Berlin: Humboldt Universität

Disputation on 04.12. 2020

Jury:
Prof. Dr. Christian Kassung
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr. Sabine Kunst
Prof. Dr. Karin Lohr
Prof. Eeva Luhtakallio

This thesis wants to understand how alternative firms deal with the complexity of balancing different rationalities in their intraorganizational coordination, in the absence of formal hierarchies. In a comparative case study of three small, democratically governed collective firms, the relationship between coordination and morality is analyzed. The majority of research on collective firms focuses on democratic governance structures, which risks to underestimate the importance of coordination that is based on intimate knowledge and personal relations. This is especially important to understand collective firms, which are dependent on lateral accountability and cooperation between their members. Consequently, this work is informed by the work of Laurent Thévenot which allows to understand coordination based on different levels of generalization. The results of this thesis contribute to three different areas of research: First, contributions are made to the field of valuation studies, by further developing insights on the notion of the test. The thesis also points out the central role of legitimate principles of difference and equivalence for successful commensuration, and the tension between particularity and generalization in standardizing evaluation devices. Second, the study contributes insights for scholarship on coordination and morality in organizations. It demonstrates that considering coordination based on different degrees of generality yields important insights on intraorganizational coordination. Finally, this study contributes to scholarship on cooperatives and collectivist organizations. The often noted duality of collective firms is reframed as the need to balance and mediate different modes of coordination. The study develops a heuristic concept, the composite relation, which explains how collectives are held together despite their central tension between particular and collective goods.

Download link

Les arrangements du quotidien : comment les acteurs locaux reconfigurent les politiques publiques : Analyse de la mise en oeuvre d’un Programme de Réussite Educative

Laurie Sompayrac (2020)

PhD thesis. Université de Limoges

Thèse sous la direction de Dominique Gay-Sylvestre et Maryan Lemoine présentée et soutenue le 17 Novembre 2020

Jury:

M. Choukri Ben Ayed, Professor of Sociology, University of Limoges
M. Dominique Broussal, Professor of educational science, University of Toulouse
Mme Michèle Guigue, professor em. of educational science, University of Lille M. Sébastien Pesce, Professor of educational science, University of Orléans

Résumé. Les politiques publiques affichent des objectifs, pensent et produisent des injonctions qui ont pour but de cadrer l’action publique territorialisée. A l’étude nous avons cependant pu constater que ces développements ne se soucient pas toujours des capacités et des potentialités de compréhension, d’appropriation et de mise en œuvre, non seulement des objectifs, mais aussi des modalités pour traduire cette action publique sur le terrain. Les opérateurs font en effet face aux urgences de mettre en œuvre les injonctions dans des délais relativement courts, qui ne leur laissent que peu de temps pour comprendre les enjeux, problématiser et construire l’ingénierie la plus adéquate pour mettre en œuvre l’action publique territorialisée. A travers notre démarche méthodologique d’inspiration ethnographique, nous avons voulu observer comment les acteurs au quotidien ont alors à inventer, au-delà des cadres et des règlements préétablis, des pratiques et une mise en ordre de l’action publique territorialisée, essayant ce faisant de poursuivre ou de se rapprocher des objectifs fixés par les politiques publiques.Les analyses des interactions des individus, l’étude des documents qui circulent entre eux, les observations in situ ainsi que les entretiens ont permis de révéler comment les individus développent des « conventions » (Diaz-Bone & Thévenot, 2010) à la fois pratiques et langagières pour se comprendre et mener leurs activités et reconnaissent certaines « manières de faire » (de Certeau, 1900) comme étant les plus pertinentes pour résoudre les énigmes auxquelles ils sont confrontés. Même si les acteurs n’en ont pas conscience, l’ensemble de ces éléments, ancrés, actualisés et plus récents, forment ainsi une matrice (Kuhn, 1962) interprofessionnelle au sein de laquelle se développent les actions et se constituent des références communes qui influent fortement sur tout ce qui se joue et est produit au sein de et par ce système. Tout en agissant dans cette dimension matricielle, les acteurs continuent de l’alimenter en s’engageant dans des instances collectives. D’une part les individus y assoient la défense de leurs propres représentations et conceptions des injonctions et objectifs, d’autre part ils essaient de trouver ou de partager des moyens d’actions propres à assurer la mise en œuvre des moyens qui permettront de les atteindre ou de les approcher, oscillant dans ces modes de cheminement entre éthiques professionnelle, morale et même plus personnelle.

The daily arrangements : how local individuals reconfigure public policies : Analysis of the enforcement of an « Educative Success Programm »

Abstract. The public policies display targets, think about and elaborate injunctions which have a purpose to frame the public territorial activities. However our study shows how these intentions are not always aligned with the collective skills, the potentialities of comprehension, the capacities of appropriation and the possibilities of enforcement to reach the goals in the territories, not even the capacities to understand and perform the public activity. The workers are urged by the short delays imposed. They don’t have much time to understand the issues, to engage a problematization process and to build the most suitable engineering to enforce the public territorial activity. Through our ethnographic approach, we wanted to observe how the workers create some daily practices beyond the rules and the frames settled up for us, while they try to follow or get closer to the policies targets. By using the interactionnism analysis, the documents which circulate or not between the workers and their interviews, we were able to show how the individuals elaborate some practical and language agreements (Diaz-Bone & Thévenot, 2010) to understand each others, carry out particular activities and recognize some « ways of doing » (de Certeau, 1990) as the most relevant to solve their problems. Even if the individuals are not aware of it, all the elements, grounded, actualized and the most recent of them, belong to an interprofessionnal matrix. The activities and the mutual references expand in this matrix. These aspects influence the issues and the productions within and through this system. While acting on the matrix, the individuals nourish it by committing in the collective. On one hand the individuals are able to protect their own representations and conceptions of the policies injunctions and targets. On the other hand they try to find and share their own ways to act by their own to reach the targets. They are constantly swinging between moral, professionnal and personal ethics.

Download link

Die Ökonomie der Konventionen und der Aufbau Ost – Ein qualitativ-empirischer Vergleich des ost- und westdeutschen Maschinen- und Anlagenbaus

Martin Kirschbaum (2020)

PhD thesis. Potsdam: University of Potsdam

Zusammenfassung. Ein wesentlicher Grund für den fortdauernden wirtschaftlichen Rückstand Ostdeutschlands, im Vergleich zu Westdeutschland, liegt am geringeren Gewicht technologieintensiver Branchen und, damit zusammenhängend, an fehlenden regionalen Wachstumszentren („Clustern“). Die Économie des conventions (EC), ein wirtschaftswissenschaftliches und wirtschaftssoziologisches Paradigma, das in Frankreich in den 80er Jahren entstanden ist, ermöglicht die Analyse von Unternehmen und Märkten und wurde für die vorliegende Dissertation verwendet, um unterschiedliche „Qualitätskonventionen“ in einer vergleichenden Analyse in der west- und ostdeutschen Maschinenbaubranche zu identifizieren. Anhand von Studien des Instituts für Wirtschaftsforschung in Halle (IWH), der Baden-Württembergischen Landesregierung und des Verbandes des Deutschen Maschinen- und Anlagenbaus e. V. (VDMA) wurde das Feld auf fünf ostdeutsche und acht baden-württembergische Raumordungsregionen eingegrenzt und ein qualitativer Stichprobenplan entwickelt. Empirisch wurden 21 leitfadengestützte Experteninterviews mit Geschäftsführern der Maschinen- und Anlagenbaubranche durchgeführt, die mit der Qualitativen Inhaltsanalyse methodisch ausgewertet und dann mit Bezug zur EC zu Idealtypen verdichtet wurden. Im Ost-West-Vergleich zeigte sich, dass für ostdeutsche Unternehmen eine Entwicklung hin zum Systemanbieter, die Projekte koordinieren (Netzwerkkonvention), um damit auf (internationalen) Märkten höhere Preise durchzusetzen (Marktkonvention), am vielversprechendsten ist. Damit einher geht der Aufbau und die Aufrechterhaltung von Netzwerken (Netzwerkkonvention), die Herausforderung besteht aber darin, auch mit Wettbewerbern (Marktkonvention) vertrauensvoll zusammen zu arbeiten. Des Weiteren zeigte sich, dass bei öffentlich geförderten Verbundprojekten („Clusterpolitik“) die Marktkonvention ebenfalls nicht dominant sein darf bzw. sie zumindest Kompromisse mit anderen Konventionen eingehen muss, damit diese Netzwerke nicht nach Ende der Förderperiode auseinander fallen. Diese Befunde decken sich mit Arbeiten aus der Wirtschaftsgeographie und verwandter Fächer, bei denen gezeigt wurde, dass erst ein Gebilde aus spezifischen regionale Institutionen technologisches Lernen ermöglicht bzw. dass insbesondere die gleichzeitige Ausprägung von Konkurrenz- und Kooperationsprinzipien („Coopetition“) auf der gleichen Wertschöpfungsstufe, es Unternehmen ermöglicht, neue wettbewerbsfähige Produkte auf den Markt zu bringen. Eine theoretisch fundierte Clusterpolitik sollte daher nicht nur Vernetzungsaktivitäten (Netzwerkkonvention), sondern auch den Wettbewerb (Marktkonvention) im Cluster mit fördern. Im Fazit wurden dann die Instrumente, die in der Literatur genannt werden, um vorhandene Clusterstrukturen weiter zu entwickeln, mit der rekonstruierten Typologie der Qualitätskonventionen verknüpft.

The economics of conventions and reconstruction of eastern Germany. A qualitative, empirical comparison of eastern German and western German mechanical engineering

Abstract. A main reason for eastern Germany’s persistent economic lag in comparison to western Germany lies in the lower importance of technology-intensive industries and the associated lack of regional growth centres (or clusters). The Économie des conventions (EC) – an economic and sociological paradigm developed in France in the 1980s – enables the analysis of companies and markets and has been applied to this dissertation, in order to identify the different “quality conventions” as part of a comparative analysis of the mechanical engineering sector in western and eastern Germany. Based on studies by the Institute for Economic Research in Halle (Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung – IWH), the State Government of Baden-Württemberg and the Association of German Mechanical Engineering (Verband des Deutschen Maschinen- und Anlagenbaus e. V. – VDMA), the field was limited to five eastern German spatial planning regions and eight in Baden-Württemberg and a qualitative sampling scheme developed. A total of 21 structured expert interviews with managing directors in the mechanical engineering sector were empirically conducted, methodically evaluated by way of qualitative content analysis and then condensed into ideal types with reference to the EC. The comparison between the east and west shows that for eastern German companies, a trend towards system providers that coordinate projects (network convention) in order to thereby assert higher prices on (international) markets (market convention) is most promising. This involves the development and maintenance of networks (network convention), however the challenge lies in trustingly cooperating with competitors (market convention). Moreover, it was found that the market convention for publicly subsidised joint projects (cluster policy) may likewise not be permitted to dominate or it must at least accept compromises with other conventions to prevent these networks from falling apart after the end of the funding period. These findings coincide with work in economic geography and related fields, where it has been shown that only an entity comprising specific regional institutions enables technological learning, or rather that the concurrent expression of competition and cooperation principles (“coopetition”) at the same value creation level enables companies to launch new competitive products onto the market. A sound theoretical cluster policy should therefore not only promote networking activities (network convention) but also competition (market convention) in the cluster. In summary, the instruments named in the literature for further developing existing cluster structures are then combined with the reconstructed typology of the quality conventions.

Download link

« Ma mort, mon choix » ; analyse de postes pro-choix à la lumière de la théorie des cités de Boltanski et Thévenot

Camille Gambi (2020)

Mémoire de Master (Criminologie), Université catholique de Louvain

Promoteurs : Bertrand Renard & Jean-François Cauchie

Lien vers la thèse téléchargeable

Perspectives on Quality of Higher Education in the Context of Finnish Education Export

Henna Juusola (2020)

PhD thesis. Tampere: University of Tampere. Open access.

JURY
Responsible supervisor and Custos:
– Professor Dr. Jussi Kivistö, Tampere University Finland
Supervisors:
– Emeritus Professor Dr. Seppo Hölttä, Tampere University, Finland
– Dr. Terhi Nokkala, University of Jyväskylä, Finland
Pre-examiners
– Professor Dr. Harri Laihonen, University of Eastern Finland
– Professor Dr. Anna Kosmützky, Leibniz Universität Germany
Opponent
– Professor Dr. Harri Laihonen University of Eastern Finland

Abstract. The aim of this doctoral dissertation is to describe quality-related initiatives, characteristics and principles that are produced and maintained in the context of Finnish higher education export at the national, institutional and programme levels using triangulation of data, method and theory. As such, this study contributes to the analytical and empirical understanding of the multifaceted concept of quality in the context of Finnish education export. In this study, education export denotes the international and for-profit actions that cross national borders either through the mobility of individuals and groups or through the mobility of programmes and other educational services. Previously conducted research shows that ‘quality’ in the context of education export has been subject to several expectations, principles and regulations that have exerted intense pressure on higher education institutions to consider the project locations and needs of students and customers without abandoning international comparability. Thus, involvement in education export actions can oblige higher education institutions to reflect on their traditions and processes from multiple perspectives and foster institutional aims to attain legitimation in various regimes. This research consists of four sub-studies and a summary that stress the different perspectives of quality in the context of Finnish higher education export at the national (macro), institutional (meso) and programme (micro) levels. The data used in this research included national policy documents, institutional audit reports, interviews (students and staff members), personal notes from participant observation and data from the online questionnaire (teachers). National policy documents were analysed and interpreted using Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis (sub-study I). Institutional audit reports (sub-study II) and interviews (substudy III) were explored using convention theory and qualitative content analysis. Data from the online questionnaire were analysed by qualitative content analysis and interpreted from the perspective of Mezirow’s transformative learning (sub-study IV). Personal notes recorded during the participant observation (sub-studies III and IV) were used to explain the context of the exported programme (sub-studies III and IV) and to refocus the research questions. This doctoral dissertation’s findings suggest that quality is formulated within the complex network of political, social, contextual, geographical and situational dimensions. At the national level, quality embodies the responsibility and resources that justify education export; Finnish education’s national reputation is a shared myth that sustains the widely held perception of Finnish education as superior. At the institutional level, education export is still a relatively new and fragmented action, which benefits from its international reputation but continues to seek a more strategic direction. The results also suggest that education export implementation is embedded in the temporal and local dimensions as well as in interaction among the students, teachers and representatives from the provider and receiver institutions. Therefore, higher education institutions are expected to consider quality from multiple perspectives and to justify quality of education for different stakeholder groups. Moreover, for education export providers, supporting teachers’ engagement in education export action is essential, as maintaining education quality throughout the process of knowledge creation requires trust-based interaction among providers and receivers.

Download link

Vers un processus d’innovation managériale durable : une lecture par la traduction et les compromis

Fanny Fox (2020)

PhD thesis. Liege: Université de Liège. 28 aoüt 2020. Open access.

Promoteur :  Professeur François PICHAULT (Université de Liège)
Membres du jury :
          Professeur Christian DEFÉLIX (Université Grenoble Alpes)
          Professeur Édouard DELRUELLE (Université de Liège)
          Professeur Mathieu DETCHESSAHAR (Université de Nantes)
          Professeur Frédéric SCHOENAERS (Université de Liège)

Résumé. L’innovation managériale, au cœur des débats contemporains, demeure opaque à certains égards, notamment en raison des définitions attachées à dire ce qu’elle n’est pas. Ainsi, elle se distingue de l’innovation technologique, ne concerne pas le core business et s’éloigne des modes de gestion hiérarchique classiques. Notre recherche entend dépasser ces écueils pour se concentrer sur le processus d’innovation managériale et, partant, faciliter son déploiement. Trois articles explorent cinq études de cas, tantôt issues de recherches classiques, tantôt issues de recherches-interventions. Premièrement, la démarche de libération dans un organisme public est analysée à l’aune de la sociologie de la traduction. Ce projet, largement médiatisé, vise à réaménager les espaces et le temps de travail et à instiller une culture de responsabilisation. Les pierres d’achoppement, contradictions et acquis du changement sont mis en évidence, depuis sa conception jusqu’au suivi de sa mise en œuvre. Deuxièmement, les conséquences pour l’innovation managériale d’un revirement stratégique sont interrogées. D’une part, la responsabilisation et la transformation managériale au sein d’une industrie chocolatière sont délaissées. D’autre part, les ambitions d’innovation sociale pour une usine du futur sont abandonnées par une entreprise aéronautique. Plusieurs sources de vulnérabilité de l’innovation managériale, liées au processus de traduction et à l’asymétrie du rapport de forces, sont mises en lumière. Troisièmement, la mise en péril de l’innovation managériale par l’évolution du contexte est étudiée. D’un côté, une structure associative cherche à préserver son fonctionnement autogestionnaire. De l’autre, un fournisseur d’énergie souhaite maintenir sa culture atypique originelle. À l’aide de la théorie des conventions, l’examen du contenu des innovations managériales démontre la nécessaire construction d’un compromis dont le maintien devient un enjeu crucial. Ces résultats sont ensuite intégrés au sein d’une modélisation dynamique du processus d’innovation managériale susceptible d’en favoriser la durabilité. In fine, l’ensemble ouvre la voie à une réflexion sur la soutenabilité du processus d’innovation managériale et à des recommandations managériales.

Towards a sustainable managerial innovation process: a reading through translation and compromises

Abstract. Managerial innovation, at the heart of contemporary debates, remains opaque in certain respects, notably because of the definitions attached to saying what it is not. Thus, it differs from technological innovation, does not concern core business and is far removed from traditional hierarchical management methods. Our research aims to go beyond these pitfalls to focus on the process of managerial innovation and thus facilitate its deployment. Three articles explore five case studies, some of which are based on classic research, others on research-interventions. First, the process of liberation in a public organization is analyzed in the light of the sociology of translation. This project, which is widely publicized in the media, aims to redesign work spaces and time and to instil a culture of empowerment. The stumbling blocks, contradictions and achievements of change are highlighted, from its conception to the monitoring of its implementation. Secondly, the consequences for managerial innovation of a strategic turnaround are questioned. On the one hand, accountability and managerial transformation within a chocolate industry are neglected. On the other hand, social innovation ambitions for a factory of the future are abandoned by an aeronautics company. Several sources of vulnerability of managerial innovation, linked to the translation process and the asymmetry of the balance of power, are highlighted. Thirdly, the endangerment of managerial innovation by the evolution of the context is studied. On the one hand, an associative structure seeks to preserve its self-management functioning. On the other, an energy supplier wishes to maintain its original atypical culture. Using convention theory, the examination of the content of managerial innovations demonstrates the necessary construction of a compromise, the maintenance of which becomes a crucial issue. These results are then integrated into a dynamic modeling of the managerial innovation process likely to promote its sustainability. Ultimately, the whole process opens the way to a reflection on the sustainability of the managerial innovation process and to managerial recommendations.

Download link

Die Soziologie der Konventionen. Beiträge zur Analyse von Wohlfahrtsmärkten im Wandel

Lisa Knoll (2019)

The sociology of conventions. Contributions to the Analysis of Changing Welfare Markets

Cumulative Habilitation in Sociology, University of Hamburg, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences

Lisa Knoll (2020): « Geldsoziologie. Eine Diskussion und kritische Reflexion aktueller Debatten » [« Sociology of money. A discussion and critical reflection of current debates »] Lecture given at University of Hamburg (22 June 2020) to finish the habilitation procedure.

Committee
Jürgen Beyer (University of Hamburg)
Rainer Diaz-Bone (University of Lucerne)
Anita Engels (University of Hamburg)
Stefanie Kley (University of Hamburg)
Katharina Manderscheid (University of Hamburg)
Sieghard Neckel (University of Hamburg)

SUMMARY.

This compendium of work provides a contribution to the understanding of welfare markets and their transformation. On the basis of research projects on welfare taxation, carbon markets, social impact bonds, energy performance contracting, and nudging, Lisa Knoll highlights how the governing regimes of welfare markets change alongside a paradox: on the one hand market theories deny the state as an intervening force and on the other hand the state is required to acertain just market structures. It seems that a great deal of political frustration stems from this paradox: promising the absence of the state on the one hand, but still producing a lot of bureacracy on the other (which is then associated with the “regulatory frenzy” of politicians, without any connection to liberal politics). The habilitation of Lisa Knoll illuminates this free market-paradox with the social science toolkit of the Convention School of Economics (Économie des conventions).

With its claim to overcome the state vs. market divide, its take on the omnipresence of critique, and the constant pragmatic adaptation of institutions and structures, the Convention School is well equipped to shed light onto the critical struggles that make welfare markets change their character over time. Lisa Knoll shows that important debates within welfare economics itself can be analyzed as a cycle of criticism over the question of how the state should and should not intervene. Economic debates do not appear as a monolithic bloc in Lisa Knolls work, but as an outcome of constant struggles over the question of justice. Market interventions, such as social impact bonds are deeply connected to state and governance structures and to something, Lisa Knoll and Eve Chiapello call “welfare conventions”. Lisa Knoll highlights in her work, how struggles over the welfare or justice question are deeply inscribed into the institutional repertoire of governance. When new welfare market instruments become institutionalized, they are confronted with an institutional legacy they need to transform and compromise. The process of implementation is thus far from obvious and full of critique from different sites. Together with Konstanze Senge, Lisa Knoll shows how the German brake on debt gets confronted by more entrepreneurial/ neoliberal styles of public sector accounting that are carried with instruments such as the energy performance contract.

Furthermore, Lisa Knoll illuminates the cycles of re- and depolitization within the process of market-making. The private, technical and natural aura of markets gives the particular institutional structures an apolitical pretense, which is constantly confronted by moments of critique and repolitication.[1] Lisa Knoll’s work is impregnated by thoughts of Laurent Thévenot on the regimes of engagement or Luc Boltanski on modes of action. She highlights the dynamic process of critique and critique avoidance in different parts of her work. The moments of de- and repolitization of markets often arise in moments of quantification, evidence-building and commensuration (the very moments of depolitization). Lisa Knoll, with reference to the work of Alain Desrosières, puts great emphasis on showing how the avoided struggles over justice reappear in moments of quantification/ commensuration (for example, the emission rights allocation in carbon markets, or the contract negotiations of social impact bonds and energy performance contracts). The Convention School of Economics particularily highlights the historical and political character of statistics and metrics. In the work of Lisa Knoll the disputes over these techniques play a pivotal role and she connects these questions to the subject of de- and repolitization of markets.

[1] In an interesting side-way, Lisa Knoll discusses how this is also true for the subject of gender. The maneuvers of naturalization can be observed as maneuvers of depolitization with different phenomena.

 

Rinderhaltung ohne Schlachtung als Agrar-Care-System. Fallbeispiele aus Europa und Indien.

Meyer-Glitza, Patrick (2019)

Cattle farming without slaughter as an agricultural care system. Case studies from Europe and India.

PhD thesis. Berlin: Humboldt Universität zu Berlin.

SUMMARY

“Over the recent years, vegetarianism and veganism have increasingly become a subject of public debate. However, even vegetarian nutrition, through consumption of milk products, leads to the slaughtering of dairy cows that are no longer productive or have been sorted out, and of their male offspring. Thus, vegetarians are indirectly co-responsible for the slaughtering of cattle. For lacto-vegetarians, cattle husbandry without slaughtering (here ‘CWS’, in German ‚ROS’) could be a solution to the dilemma of consuming milk products while not being willing, for ethical reasons, to kill animals. Based on this, the following questions arise: What would cattle husbandry without slaughtering look like in practice? What are the biographical motives behind such farming, and under which ethical aspects is it pursued? In the literary section of this treatise, historical and religious (hinduism) aspects of cattle farming have been outlined. The key issue of the literary section was how CWS is situated in the context of bioethical theories. Other aspects are the longevity of dairy cattle and farms with similarities to CWS and examples of CWS itself. The interviews with the animal owners and/or the heads of animal husbandry in a total of five cases have been carried out and reviewed using qualitative methods of interpretive social research (mostly Grounded Theory, but also biography research and detailed sequential analysis). The five example cases, representing a large part of the parent population at the time of the investigation, have been analyzed and described. In a case comparison, the five cases have been compared to each other in terms of their respective biographical developments, their ethics and their animal husbandry systems (‘system that works’) and also in terms of their conventions (‘économie des conventions’) […] The care-based approach, which is reflected especially in the sanctuary function of the farms, is combined with the agricultural system, resulting in the agri-care-system. The care convention, along with the convention of animal husbandry without slaughtering, put this CWS framework in a wider context. Dilemmas like castration of oxen, euthanasia, killing of wild animals and insects through cultivation of land and feeding of cats cannot be solved by CWS, but CWS can help to alleviate the ambivalence of human handling of domestic and farmed animals. .“ (p. 216/217)

Download link

Hightech am Ende. Über das globale Recycling von Elektroschrott und die Entstehung neuer Werte

Laser, Stefan (2020)

PhD thesis. Wiesbaden: Springer VS.

ABSTRACT

Stefan Laser folgt den Spuren des Werts von Elektroschrott. Mithilfe ethnographischer Studien bespricht er ein umkämpftes Gesetz in Indien, verfolgt als Mitarbeiter eines deutschen Recycling-Weltmarktführers das Schreddern und Schmelzen alter Elektronikgeräte und untersucht eine Google-Innovation zur Neugestaltung von Smartphones. Im Zentrum des Buchs steht die aufwendige, kontroverse Entstehung neuer Werte. Der Autor identifiziert das Hightech-Recycling als dominante politische und ökonomische Kraft im Umgang mit Elektroschrott – eine einseitige Strategie, die andere verdrängt und nicht zur nachhaltigen Vermeidung von Müll beiträgt.

AUSZUG

“Ein wichtiges Stichwort in diesem Kontext ist die Soziologie der Kritik – an Stelle der kritischen Soziologie. Die Soziologie der Kritik will die kritischen Potenziale der Akteure erkunden, ihnen soll kein vorgefertigtes Narrativ übergestülpt werden (Boltanski und Chiapello 2006; Boltanski 2008; Bogusz 2010, S. 127-150; Vobruba 2017). Trotz allem kann hier die Kritik eine Option sein. Es ist ein Spiel aus Nähe und Distanz, auf das man sich einlassen muss (Bohmann et al. 2010). Wie bei den Stichworten der Kritik und Politik drohen auch mit Blick auf das Schlagwort der Ökonomie reduktionistische Kurzschlüsse. Die STS sehen es als problematisch an, das Ökonomische als „Ding“ mit stabilen Eigenschaften anzusehen – vor allem: mit Eigenschaften zu beschreiben, die man als gegeben und bekannt erachtet. Wichtige Bindestrichsoziologien, die hier anschlussfähig sind, sind die Wirtschaftssoziologie und insbesondere die Konventionenökonomie. Die Wirtschaftssoziologie (allgemein: Beckert und Deutschmann 2009; Granovetter und Swedberg 2011; Maurer 2017) fordert dazu auf, das Ökonomische konsequent empirisch und als Teil der Gesellschaft zu untersuchen. Die Wirtschaftswisseschaft wird in dieser Literatur als „untersozialisiert“ angesehen, die gängige Soziologie wiederum als „übersozialisiert“ beschrieben – erste würden vorwiegend auf Individuen und ihr Eigeninteresse schauen, letztere überbewerteten internalisierte Normen, sodass individuelle Entscheidungen als gänzlich irrelevant erschienen (Granovetter 2000, S. 205). In der Konventionenökonomie wird dann der Konvention eine heuristische Sonderfunktion zugewiesen. Konvention heißt dabei „zusammenkommen“ oder „eine Übereinkunft treffen“ (Salais 1989, S. 213; übersetzt und zit. nach Diaz-Bone 2015, S. 19). Im Kern ist die EC an der Konstruktion und Verbreitung von Wertigkeiten interessiert. Autorinnen in diesem Feld gehen davon aus, dass ökonomischer Austausch nur möglich ist, weil zuvor Übereinkünfte getroffen wurden – das heißt: Messungen durchgeführt und Qualitäten erfasst wurden. Bevor etwas ökonomisch „inwertgesetzt“ wird, muss es also evaluiert werden.” (p. 31)

High-tech at the end. About the global recycling of electronic waste and the creation of new values.

ABSTRACT

Stefan Laser follows the trail of the value of electronic waste. With the help of ethnographic studies, he discusses a contested law in India, follows the shredding and melting of old electronic equipment as an employee of a German recycling world leader, and examines a Google innovation for redesigning smartphones. At the heart of the book is the elaborate, controversial creation of new values. The author identifies high-tech recycling as the dominant political and economic force in the handling of electronic waste – a one-sided strategy that displaces others and does not contribute to the sustainable avoidance of waste.

EXCERPT

“An important keyword in this context is the sociology of critique – instead of critical sociology. The sociology of critique seeks to explore the critical potentials of the actors; no ready-made narrative should be imposed on them (Boltanski and Chiapello 2006; Boltanski 2008; Bogusz 2010, pp. 127-150; Vobruba 2017). Nevertheless, criticism can be an option here. It is a game of closeness and distance that must be played (Bohmann et al. 2010). As with the keywords of critique and politics, reductionist short-circuits also threaten the buzzword economy. The STS see it as problematic to view the economic as a « thing » with stable properties – above all: to describe it with properties that are considered common and familiar. Important hyphen sociologies that can be connected here are economic sociology and especially convention economy. Economic sociology (generally: Beckert and Deutschmann 2009; Granovetter and Swedberg 2011; Maurer 2017) calls for a consistent empirical investigation of the economic as part of society. In this literature, economic science is seen as « undersocialised », while common sociology is described as « oversocialised » – the former would look primarily at individuals and their self-interest, the latter overvalued internalised norms, so that individual decisions appeared to be completely irrelevant (Granovetter 2000, p. 205). In the convention economy the convention is then assigned a heuristic special function. Convention means « to come together » or « to reach an agreement » (Salais 1989, p. 213; translated and quoted according to Diaz-Bone 2015, p. 19). In essence, the EC is interested in the construction and dissemination of valences. Authors in this field assume that economic exchange is only possible because agreements have been made beforehand – that is, measurements have been taken and qualities have been recorded. So before something is economically « valued » it must be evaluated.” (p. 31)