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Kodieren als Beruf. Die Kodierfachkräfte, eine Beschäftigtengruppe des Krankenhauses im Spannungsfeld zwischen medizinisch-pflegerischen und betriebswirtschaftlichen Ansprüchen

Coding as a profession. The coding specialists, an employee group of the hospital in the area of conflict between medical-nursing and economic demands

Andreas Pfeuffer (2021)

PhD thesis. Kassel: University of Kassel.

Zusammenfassung. Gegenstand der vorliegenden Arbeit ist das 2003 in Deutschland eingeführte Abrechnungssystem von Krankenhausleistungen nach Fallpauschalen, die auf den Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) basieren. Die arbeits- und berufs- bzw. professionssoziologische, organisations- sowie medizinsoziologische Fragestellungen verknüpfende Arbeit, geht auf der Grundlage semi-standardisierter Leitfadeninterviews mit Beschäftigten unterschiedlicher Kategorien öffentlicher Krankenhäuser und Mitarbeiter*innen des Medizinischen Dienstes der Krankenversicherung (MDK) sowie teilnehmender Beobachtung und Analyse von Fachpublikationen der Frage nach, was in der Praxis in und zwischen den Bereichen des Krankenhauses sowie darüber hinaus im Umgang mit dem MDK formell wie informell (Rightcoding und Upcoding) geschieht, wenn eine Krankenhausbehandlung im Rahmen des DRG-Systems „abgerechnet“ werden soll. Dabei werden die Perspektiven der verschiedenen am Behandlungs- (medizinisch-pflegerische Trajektorie) und Abrechnungsprozess (DRG-Trajektorie) und damit an der «Fabrikation» der jeweiligen DRG eines Falles beteiligten Berufsgruppen auf das Abrechnungssystem, ihr praktischer Umgang damit, aber auch die zwischen diesen Berufsgruppen herrschende Arbeitsteilung, die Auseinandersetzungen um jurisdictional claims (Abbott) und die damit verbundenen Konflikte genauer in den Blick genommen. Die Ärzteschaft reagiert in Bezug auf die ihr obliegenden Dokumentationsverpflichtung vorwiegend vermeidend, wenn sie nicht gelernt hat, das Fallpauschalensystem «auszubeuten» (Werner Vogd). Der Pflegedienst, der lange Zeit Opfer des nicht zuletzt durch das Fallpauschalensystem initiierten Stellenabbaus gewesen ist, hatte ungeachtet dessen zunächst eine durchaus positive Haltung gegenüber dem System und den ihm zukommenden bürokratischen Aufgaben, etwa dem Kodieren im Rahmen der Pflegekomplexmaßnahmen (PKMS), entwickelt, was mit der Hoffnung, die Arbeit der Pflege gegenüber der ärztlichen Tätigkeit aufzuwerten und «sichtbarer» zu machen, als Anerkennungskampf interpretiert wird. Im Zentrum der Arbeit steht aber die Genese und Berufspraxis der Tätigkeitsgruppe der Kodierfachkräfte, die in den meisten Krankenhäusern für die Kodierung der Fälle im Rahmen des Abrechnungsprozesses nicht de jure, aber faktisch zuständig sind. Anhand der Kontrastierung der Berufsverläufe der Personen aus dem Untersuchungssample ergibt sich ein recht buntes Bild an unterschiedlichen vorangegangen Tätigkeiten, Ausbildungen (ehemalige Pflegekräfte, Medizinische Dokumentar*innen, Arzthelferinnen, Stationsassistentinnen) und Motiven für den Wechsel ins Medizincontrolling. In arbeitssoziologischer Perspektive werden auf der Basis der Interviews sowie teilnehmender Beobachtung der Arbeit auf den Stationen sowie des Kodierprozesses mit Patientenakte und „Grouper-Software“ die konkreten Arbeitssituationen und Arbeitsbedingungen, aber auch die Konflikte in den Interaktionen mit den Angehörigen des ärztlichen Dienstes dargestellt, bevor dann in Form einer Fallkontrastierung unterschiedliche Deutungsmuster, professionelle Dispositionen und Praktiken von Kodierfachkräften herausgearbeitet werden. Schließlich wird als letzte Phase der DRG-Trajektorie das Verhältnis der Organisation Krankenhaus zum Kontrollorgan der Krankenversicherungen, dem MDK beleuchtet. Aufgrund von realen oder vermeintlichen Fällen von Missbrauch und Abrechnungsbetrug herrscht ein Misstrauensverhältnis zwischen der Organisation Krankenhaus und den Kostenträgern, das in Form des Auftrags der Abrechnungsprüfungen an den MDK institutionalisiert ist. Hier wird am Beispiel eines öffentlichen Krankenhauses dessen Medizincontrolling als organisationale «Grenzstelle» gefasst, die mit der Organisationsumwelt (Krankenkassen, MDK) ein Vertrauensverhältnis zu etablieren bemüht ist.

Abstract. The subject of this PhD thesis is the billing system for hospital services based on Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG), which was introduced in Germany in 2003. The sociology of work and occupation resp. On the basis of semi-standardized guideline interviews with employees of different categories of public hospitals and employees of the Medical Service of the Health Insurance (MDK) as well as participant observation and analysis of professional publications, the study, which links sociological and professional, organizational and medical sociological questions, pursues the question of what happens in practice in and between the areas of the hospital as well as beyond that in dealing with the MDK formally as well as informally (rightcoding and upcoding), when a hospital treatment is to be « accounted for » within the framework of the DRG system. In this context, the perspectives of the various professional groups involved in the treatment (medical-nursing trajectory) and billing process (DRG trajectory) and thus in the « fabrication » of the respective DRG of a case on the billing system, their practical handling of it, but also the division of labor prevailing between these professional groups, the disputes about jurisdictional claims (Abbott) and the conflicts associated with them are examined more closely. The medical profession reacts in a predominantly avoidant manner with regard to the documentation obligations incumbent upon it, if it has not learned to « exploit » the per-case flat rate system (Werner Vogd). The nursing service, which has long been a victim of the downsizing initiated not least by the fee-per-case system, had, notwithstanding, initially developed a thoroughly positive attitude toward the system and the bureaucratic tasks incumbent upon it, such as coding within the framework of the nursing complex measures (PKMS), which is interpreted as a struggle for recognition with the hope of upgrading the work of nursing vis-à-vis that of physicians and making it more « visible. » However, the focus of the paper is on the genesis and professional practice of the activity group of coding specialists, who in most hospitals are not de jure but de facto responsible for coding cases as part of the billing process. By contrasting the career histories of the persons in the study sample, a rather colorful picture of different previous activities, training (former nurses, medical documentalists, physician assistants, ward assistants) and motives for the change to medical controlling emerges. From the perspective of the sociology of work, the concrete work situations and working conditions, but also the conflicts in the interactions with the members of the medical service are presented on the basis of the interviews and participant observation of the work on the wards as well as the coding process with patient files and « grouper software », before different patterns of interpretation, professional dispositions and practices of coding specialists are then worked out in the form of a case contrast. Finally, as the last phase of the DRG trajectory, the relationship of the hospital organization to the controlling body of the health insurance companies, the MDK, is illuminated. Due to real or alleged cases of abuse and billing fraud, there is a relationship of mistrust between the hospital organization and the payers, which is institutionalized in the form of the assignment of billing audits to the MDK. Here, using the example of a public hospital, its medical controlling is conceived as an organizational « borderline unit » that strives to establish a relationship of trust with the organizational environment (health insurers, MDK).

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Eine „grüne Zukunft” für Kunststoffe? Die Entwicklung von Märkten für Biokunststoffe

A « green future » for plastics? The development of markets for bioplastics

Alexandra Hees (2019)

PhD thesis. Cologne: Universität zu Köln
Referent: Prof. Dr. Jens Beckert
Korreferenten: Prof. Dr. Sophie Mützel, Prof. Dr. André Kaiser
Tag der Promotion: 28.4.2020

Abstract. Die Studie rekonstruiert die historische Entwicklung von Märkten für Biokunststoffe aus einer wirtschaftssoziologischen Perspektive. Im ersten Teil werden die Entstehungsbedingungen alternativer Kunststoffvisionen dargestellt. Wie wurden „Biobasiertheit“ und „biologische Abbaubarkeit“ in der Kunststoffentwicklung zu potentiell wertvollen Produkteigenschaften? Die Untersuchung zeigt, dass sich die mit Biokunststoffen verknüpften Wertversprechen im Kontext kollektiver Krisendiagnosen im letzten Drittel des 20. Jahrhunderts herausgebildet haben, als bis dahin geltende Zukunftsnarrative brüchig wurden und sich neue Zukunftsnarrative formierten. Der zweite Teil der Studie analysiert, wie Unternehmen versucht haben, neue Marktbeziehungen für „grüne“ Kunststoffe aufzubauen und zu stabilisieren. Dabei stießen sie auf Widerstände seitens der Entsorgungswirtschaft, des organisierten Umweltschutzes und staatlicher Regulationsinstanzen. Die Studie argumentiert, dass sich Widerstände nicht allein verhindernd auf die Entwicklung von Märkten auswirken, sondern als Weichensteller für die Ausrichtung von Innovationsstrategien fungieren und Abgrenzungsfolien für den Entwurf alternativer Zukünfte bieten.

Extract: “Wie im theoretischen Teil der Arbeit ausgeführt, steht die soziologische Analyse von Wertzuschreibungs- und Bewertungsprozesse im Fokus der Économie des Conventions. Während Luc Boltanski und Laurent Thévenot in Über die Rechtfertigung (1984) sechs verschiedene Rechtfertigungsordnungen herausgearbeitet hatten, trugen spätere Arbeiten von Laurent Thévenot und seinen Co-Autoren (Lafaye und Thévenot 1993; Thévenot, Moody und Lafaye 2000) der Tatsache Rechnung, dass mit der Ausbreitung und Institutionalisierung des Ökologischen ein ‚grünes‘ Wertprinzip im kulturellen Repertoire moderner Gesellschaften an Bedeutung gewonnen hatte, auf das Akteure zurückgreifen, um ihren Standpunkt zu begründen, Kritik zu üben oder Wertigkeit zuzuschreiben. Dementsprechend ergänzten sie die Rechtfertigungsordnungen aus Über die Rechtfertigung um eine ‚grüne‘ Konvention, die zwar historische Vorläufer in den spirituellen, romantischen und sozialen Naturschutzbewegungen vorangegangener Jahrhunderte hat, sich aber vor allem seit dem Aufstieg der globalen Umweltbewegung in der zweiten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts etablieren konnte (Diaz-Bone 2015: 148; Lafaye und Thévenot 1993; Thévenot, Moody und Lafaye 2000).” (87)

Abstract. The study reconstructs the historical development of markets for bioplastics from an economic sociological perspective. In the first part, the conditions of emergence of alternative plastic visions are presented. How did « biobasedness » and « biodegradability » become potentially valuable product properties in plastics development? The study shows that the value propositions associated with bioplastics emerged in the context of collective diagnoses of crisis in the last third of the 20th century, when previously valid narratives of the future became fragile and new narratives of the future were formed. The second part of the study analyzes how companies attempted to establish and stabilize new market relationships for « green » plastics. In doing so, they encountered resistance from the waste management industry, organized environmental protection and state regulatory bodies. The study argues that resistance is not the only factor preventing the development of markets, but that it also acts as a guide for the direction of innovation strategies and provides demarcation foils for the design of alternative futures.

Extract: « As stated in the theoretical part of the paper, the sociological analysis of value attribution and valuation processes is the focus of Économie des Conventions. While Luc Boltanski and Laurent Thévenot had elaborated six different orders of justification in On Justification (1984), later work by Laurent Thévenot and his co-authors (Lafaye and Thévenot 1993; Thévenot, Moody, and Lafaye 2000) took into account the fact that with the spread and institutionalization of the ecological, a ‘green’ value principle had gained importance in the cultural repertoire of modern societies, to which actors resort to justify their point of view, to criticize, or to ascribe value. Accordingly, they supplemented the orders of justification from On Justification with a ‘green’ convention that, while having historical antecedents in the spiritual, romantic, and social conservation movements of previous centuries, has been able to eta-blish itself, especially since the rise of the global environmental movement in the second half of the twentieth century (Diaz-Bone 2015: 148; Lafaye and Thévenot 1993; Thévenot, Moody, and Lafaye 2000). » (87)

Link to the PhD thesis

Empresários, interesses e ação política: uma crítica da dominação gestionária

Entrepreneurs, interests and political action: a critique of management domination

Sérgio Gini (2021)

PhD thesis. Sao Paulo: Universidade Estadual Paulista (2021-03-02) Advisor: Aluisio Almeida Schumacher

Resumo. O empresariado é um ator político, devidamente situado em um ambiente institucional e que interfere, de acordo com os padrões de justificação de sua ação coletiva, na vida política das cidades. Com base nesse pressuposto, estudamos a atuação do empresariado na cidade de Maringá, Paraná, a partir da organização do Conselho de Desenvolvimento Econômico – Codem, regulado por lei municipal em 1996, onde uma elite estratégica, recrutada na Associação Comercial local exerce o controle institucional e negocia politicamente com o poder público, fazendo de sua ação uma força produtora de consideráveis impactos nas variáveis sociais e econômicas do município a partir da elaboração de agendas políticas de desenvolvimento denominadas de Maringá 2020, Maringá 2030 e Maringá 2047. Essas agendas foram desenvolvidas a partir de técnicas de gestão empresarial passando a ser um modelo a ser seguido pelo Executivo de 1997 até os dias atuais. Este modelo de excelência na gestão é um contraponto à gestão pública e acabou alijando das discussões sobre o desenvolvimento econômico local outros atores que não fazem parte da elite dirigente, como por exemplo os movimentos sociais e o poder Legislativo. A tese que procuramos desenvolver é que em Maringá se estabeleceu uma forma de dominação gestionária, priorizando os interesses da elite empresarial em detrimento de outros projetos de cidade, buscando anular o conflito por meio do consenso institucional. Para a consecução dos nossos objetivos de análise utilizamos a teoria sociológica elaborada por Luc Boltanski, Laurent Thévenot e Ève Chiapello que consideram os modelos de justificação e legitimação das ações da elite empresarial baseada na Teoria das cités, cuja matriz analítica serve de referência para se construir um quadro com os principais valores, perfis e dispositivos que estão em jogo, nas situações em que se realizam as ações coletivas do empresariado, considerando que elas se estruturam em rede e visam, na opinião dos próprios empresários, à sua ampliação e aos benefícios para o bem da sociedade civil organizada. Desse modo, denominamos nesta tese a cité por Projetos como aquela que está estruturada em uma nova relação entre a cidade e as ferramentas de gestão, as mais variadas quanto possível, em ciclo marcado pelo tempo do mercado, o que impede investimentos críticos de outros atores sociais, uma vez que as políticas públicas de desenvolvimento econômico e social estão assentadas na lógica empresarial e concorrencial. Desenvolvemos ainda um aparato crítico, baseado no pensamento social de Boltanski, que desconstrói essa lógica apontando as assimetrias da dominação gestionária. Embora a pesquisa se estruture em um estudo de caso local, os projetos geridos pela elite estratégica de Maringá foram replicados em diversos outros municípios do Brasil tendo sempre o mesmo pano de fundo: a ação empresarial e a dominação gestionária.”

Abstract. The business community is a political actor, properly situated in an institutional environment and that interferes, according to the justification standards of its collective action, in the political life of cities. Based on this assumption, we studied the performance of the business community in the city of Maringá, Paraná, founded on the organization of the Economic Development Council – Codem, regulated by municipal law in 1996, where a strategic elite, recruited from the local Commercial Association, exercises institutional control and politically negotiates with the government, making its action a force that produces considerable impacts on the social and economic variables of the municipality from the development of political development agendas called Maringá 2020, Maringá 2030 and Maringá 2047. These agendas were developed from business management techniques becoming a model to be followed by the Executive Branch from 1997 to the present day. This model of excellence in management is a counterpoint to public management and ended up leaving other actors who are not part of the ruling elite, such as social movements and the Legislative Branch, out of the discussions about local economic development. The thesis that we seek to develop is that in Maringá a form of managerial domination was established, prioritizing the interests of the business elite over other city projects, seeking to cancel the conflict through institutional consensus. To achieve our analysis objectives we used the sociological theory developed by Luc Boltanski, Laurent Thévenot and Ève Chiapello who consider the models of justification and legitimization of the actions of the business elite based on the Theory of cités, whose analytical matrix serves as a reference to build a table with the main values, profiles and devices that are at stake, in the situations in which the collective actions of the business community are carried out, considering that they are structured in a network and aim, in the opinion of the businesspersons themselves, for their expansion and the benefits for the good of organized civil society. Thus, in this thesis, we define the cité as Projects as one that is structured in a new relationship between the city and the management tools, as varied as possible, in a cycle marked by the time of the market, which prevents critical investments from other actors social, since public policies for economic and social development are founded on business and competitive logic. We have also developed a critical apparatus, based on Boltanski’s social thinking, which deconstructs this logic by pointing out the asymmetries of managerial domination. Although the research is structured in a local case study, the projects managed by the strategic elite of Maringá have been replicated in several other municipalities in Brazil, always with the same background: business action and managerial domination.

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Interior complex: Design standardization in London’s housing

Seyithan Özer (2021)

A thesis submitted to the School of Architecture of the Royal College of Art for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
London, June 2021

Abstract. This thesis studies design standardization in London’s housing, understood as an interrelated set of standards and conventions that shape design outcomes towards specific forms. Working iteratively between theory and data, the thesis threads broader issues in housing – housing design, design governance, design quality – with an empirical study of housing designs in London at the dwelling unit scale.
Integrating literatures on housing policy and regulation, real estate, state-market relationships, architectural practice, standards and conventions, the thesis conceptualizes design standardization. The empirical focus of the thesis is London’s housing stock and its residents’ experiences and practices of home. To this end, the thesis draws from a mixed methods research that consists of a descriptive statistical analysis of the spatial patterns in a sample of unit plans from inner London’s housing stock (n=3,438), visual analysis of comparative floor plan matrices, an online survey with people living in London on their experience and use of their homes (n=234) and follow-up semi-structured interviews with some survey participants (n=22).
Built largely over the last two hundred years, London’s housing stock contains a variety of housing typologies. While new housing typologies designed for changing needs have emerged, older housing stock has been modified, subdivided, and converted. The research shows that existing housing interiors, in aggregate form evidence processes of standardization. Dwellings built in the past forty years, since the 1980s, show a high level of repetition in their dimensions and interior layouts. I argue this as the result of on the one hand a high-pressure housing market, a perpetual housing shortage and high land prices that all lead the market to function with strict design conventions, and on the other legislations, regulations, codes, and guidelines central and local governments introduce to sustain quality, affordability, and access. Dwellings from the older housing stock – terraced houses – show a wide variety of interior layouts. Despite this, however, there are spatial and organizational directions that emerge at the intersection of the architectural affordances of terraced houses, social change, asset-based welfare and permitted development.
Based on a study of residents’ experiences and domestic practices in relation to design patterns observed in London’s housing, the research also found that existing housing does not sufficiently meet current needs, preferences and occupancy patterns. The assumptions of use and home underlying standards and conventions fail to acknowledge changing domestic needs.
The thesis, studying London’s housing at their intersection, makes original contributions to architectural design, housing studies, infrastructure studies, and material geographies by developing a design standardization framework that incorporates standards and conventions, by constructing a novel dataset of existing housing stock and providing up-to-date data on the housing designs, by analysing residents’ domestic experiences and practices in London, and by analysing home alterations from a socio-technical perspective.

Extract: “This section of the thesis outlines the conventions of market-driven and creative stakeholders and discusses their interaction with standards. Drawing on the empirical studies conducted on different stakeholders involved in housing design, in this section I outline the conventions in housing design and development and their impact on design outcomes. In framing the conventions in housing design and development, studies in the Economics of Convention provide useful methodological approaches by recognizing the plurality of normative values. In particular, the works of sociologist Luc Boltanski and economist Laurent Thévenot on the role of conventions in economic decision-making and justification are of interest. Boltanski and Thévenot study collective cognitive forms that stakeholders use to coordinate, ‘criticize, challenge institutions, argue with one another, or converge toward agreement’.56 These collective cognitive forms, conventions, are essential not only because they help the process of coordination when formal standards and other institutionalized arrangements fall short or require interpretation, or where outcomes are uncertain, but also because actors base their critique of standards and institutional arrangements on them.” (p. 37)

The 11th EC / Sociology of Conventions Workshop (virtual)

Report by Mario Steinberg (Basel)

For the first time in a virtual format, the annual EC workshop took place from 06-07 May 2021. This year the event was organized by Regula Julia Leemann (FHNW Basel-Muttenz) and her team. The 11th EC / Sociology of Conventions Workshop was held under the working title « Quantification and Conventions ». However, contributions not explicitly related to the conference theme were also welcome.

Thursday 06 May 2021

After a welcome to the participants by the organizer, Lisa Knoll (University of Paderborn) introduced Eve Chiapello (École des hautes études en sciences sociales, Paris/Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin) for her keynote speech.

Eve Chiapello’s keynote was entitled « Impact and the fight against financialized conventions of quantification ». She presented a convention-based interpretation of the financialization of economy. With an analytical focus on the concept of « impact », Eve Chiapello showed how financial decisions come about, what role different actors (such as financial investors) play, and how the concept of « impact » can be framed in terms of conventionalist theory.

After Eve Chiapello’s keynote and a short coffee break, the program moved to the first slot in the plenary, « Quantification, digitization and convention research studies ». Regula Leemann, Sandra Hafner and Raffaella Simona Esposito (FHNW Basel-Muttenz) gave a speech about « Quantification and conventions in the governance of educational transitions (in Switzerland) ». They introduced into the topic of their ongoing SNSF-project and presented first conceptual questions on the relevance of numbers in governing transitions: What is the role of quantification in these processes of governance? In which situations numbers are important? Which instruments and technologies are applied? What forms of strategies and policies are enabled by quantification? What are the effects of quantification? Regarding convention theory they pointed to important theoretical concepts and methodological approaches as e.g. the statistical panopticism, statistical chains and the convention-based foundations of indicators.

After a short break, the program moved on to the next slot, « Show and Tell ». Valeska Cappel (University of Lucerne) and Carolin Kappler (FernUniversität Hagen) presented their current publication project « Gesundheit – Konventionen – Digitalisierung », which will be published by Springer VS, Book Series Soziologie der Konventionen (Eds. Rainer Diaz-Bone & Lisa Knoll). The publication has the significance of opening up a field of research for convention theorists that has hardly been transferred in German-language research on the sociology of convention: the field of health research. Valesca Capell and Karolin Kappler deliver a volume that connects the sociology of conventions and the plurality of conventions with digital transformation processes, which can be considered a novelty so far.

In the continued slot « Quantification, Digitization and convention research Studies », Kenneth Horvath (University of Lucerne) and Mario Steinberg (PH FHNW/University of Basel) first presented their planned research project « The politics and pedagogies of algorithmic sorting in education ». In their presentation, the authors trace the role that conventions play in the implementation of artificial intelligence and digitization, especially regarding the question of what impact the so-called technological transformation will have on concrete school practices.

In the last slot of the first day, « Comments and Reflection« , Rainer Diaz Bone (University of Lucerne) spoke about quantification from a conventionalist perspective. He gave an overview of fundamental principles of EC when considering quantification. Fundamental to understanding quantification processes is the EC’s view that measurements themselves are convention-related. Consequently, quantification as a black box can only be understood if not only the consequences, benefits and effects of quantification are considered, but also their origin and distribution. In addition, measurements create new realities. Only because measurements are based on conventions, they become a social practice and are tested, justified and challenged in collective actions. The plurality of data worlds allows for different ways of taking measurements – but (from a neopragmatist point of view) no measurement can claim universal validity. At the end of his talk Rainer Diaz-Bone presented the concept of analytical axes for the convention-based analysis of quantification-processes as a heuristic for the analysis of quantification processes (see screenshot below).

The first day of the conference ended with a virtual apéro at the meeting-platform wonder me. Here, the participants had the opportunity to exchange ideas about specific topics of the conference and about topics beyond the conference itself.

Friday 7 May 2021

Friday started with parallel sessions. In the session « Education Research Studies », Philipp Gonon (University of Zürich), Lorenzo Bonoli (Eidgenössisches Hochschulinstitut für Weiterbildung), Jackie Vorpe (Eidgenössisches Hochschulinstitut für Weiterbildung) and Lena Freidorfer-Kabashi (University of Zürich) started with their presentation on regional differences in the justification of Swiss VET education. Colleagues ask how and why regional differences in Switzerland’s VET system are possible. They identify different education regimes in dual VET that can explain cantonal differences. Following Eric Verdier, they describe a neo-comparativist regime for the canton of Zurich, a hybrid of market and academic regimes for the canton of Ticino and a universal regime for the canton of Geneva.

After a short coffee break, Leonie Bisang (University of Lucerne/FHNW Olten) talked about her dissertation project on the reproduction of social inequalities in the tertiary education market. In her lecture, she also wanted to find out how the sociology of conventions can help to understand social inequalities in the swiss university landscape in her dissertation project.

Afterwards, Matthias Alke (HU Berlin) presented on the formation and historical change of job profiles in public adult education. The focus of Matthias Alke’s lecture was the public discourse on adult education and questions of its professionalization. Professional action in adult education as a young phenomenon, Matthias Alke explains from the perspective of the EC how job advertisements (understood as formal investments) describe conventionally formed requirements for quality, activity and occupation.

In the parallel session « Labor Market Intermediaries /HR Practices / PHD Presentations » Julia Brandl (University of Innsbruck) reported on the role of the labor market in shaping wage expectations – using the example of job advertisements. The research project she presented asks to what extent mandatory salary information in job advertisements can reduce gender-specific, different salary expectations. From a conventional sociological perspective, job advertisements can be seen as mediators between employers and job seekers. Job advertisements as such not only present information, but also have a transformative influence on the recipients.

Dominik Zellhofer (Vienna University of Economics and Business) presented his paper based on his dissertation entitled « The people problem of information security: A CISO’s quest for compromise ». In his lecture, he asks how actors in organizations negotiate policies and how technology information security policies are influenced by them. To answer these questions, he draws on the concept of form investment, which comes from EC. Empirically, he takes look at key figures like the CISO (Chief Information Security Officer).

Afterwards Eva Nadai (HSA FHNW) spoke about the role of labor market intermediaries from a conventionalist perspective. She described forms of recruitment of the low-employed from a conventional sociological perspective with a focus on intermediaries. Her presentation focuses on labor market intermediaries as human actors, organizations and dispositives, the evaluation of the quality of labor, and the significance of form investment from an EC perspective.

After the lunch break, the parallel sessions « Methodology » and « Health – Mental Distress Research Study /Paper Presentation » started. In the first sessions (Methodology), Simon Schrör (University of Lucerne/Weizenbaum Institut Berlin) gave a talk on methodological implications of artifacts in pragmatist research. Simon Schrör’s lecture is about making artefacts fearful for the pragmatic analysis of situations in the Sociology of Conventions and also proposing them as an independent epistemological unit. According to this, artefacts represent an extension of the empirical view, which, however, does not dissolve the reference to the object. Using the example of changes in the Deign furniture industry, he shows how the artefact-based identification of situations is made empirical.

Later on, in the same session, Simon Weingärtner (HSU Hamburg) presented on « On the Micro- and Macro-Politics of Work and Employment ». His lecture takes as its starting point whether the effects of the current COVID-19 situation will lead to a situation similar to what Polanyi described as the « Great Transformation » in 1944. Guided by the theoretical focus of boundary work, he investigates the transformation of political fields. In order to derive the historical change, he concludes his lecture by presenting a heuristic of employment regimes and socio-political change, which ranges from the mid-20th century (mass production) through the late 20th century (collaborative production) to the end of the 21st century (platformization).

Meanwhile in the parallel session (Health – Mental Distress Research Study /Paper Presentation) Miriam Kutt (University of Lucerne) spoke about the conflict potential of damaged identities and the connection between practices of silence and conflict avoidance and stigmatization of mental illness. Her presentation was entitled « Das Konfliktkapital beschädigter Identitäten – Praktiken des Schweigens und der Konfliktvermeidung im Zusammenhang mit der Stigmatisierung psychischer Krankheiten » [« The Conflict Capital of Damaged Identities – Practices of Silence and Conflict Avoidance in the Context of Mental Illness Stigma. »]. She focused on the extent to which social structural conditions in situations of stigmatization and discrimination lead those affected to remain silent and avoid conflict. She also asked how these conditions need to be changed so that those affected can be normative, stand up for themselves and their peers, and thus engage for the common good. From the perspective of the sociology of conventions, she works with regime theory and the concept of conflict avoidance « closing ones eyes », following Thévenot.

Anna Gonon (FHNW Olten) then reports in her presentation, entitled « Integration as justification work: a conventionalist perspective on the occupational reintegration of employees with mental distress » on recent findings of her doctoral project in which she investigates the processes of interpretation and the logic of justification of mentally ill employees in companies. She takes a particular look at collective processes of interpretation and justification. From the perspective of the sociology of conventions, Anna Gonon looks at justifications as problems of action in integration work. The aim of her lecture was therefore to show the principles of the assessment of reintegration and the decision on continued employment from an EC perspective.

A coffee break later, the last program item of the conference « Show and Tell » began. Here, authors presented current publications around the sociology of conventions. Arne Böker (University of Halle-Wittenberg) started off by presenting his completed dissertation project « Über die Rechtfertigung von Begabtenförderung. Eine Diskursanalyse am Beispiel der Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes » [On Justification of gifted education programs. A discourse analysis using the example of the German Academic Scholarship Foundation]. From the perspective of historical educational research, he examined how the Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes [German Academic Scholarship Foundation] defined the criteria for the selection of its scholarship holders in terms of selection, promotion and social composition. Based on this, he empirically reconstructed the central used conventions, their stability and instability over time, as well as their relationship to problematizations and audits of the foundation itself.

In the following, Esther Berner (HSU Hamburg) reported on her research on the historical transformation of conventions in the shoe industry using the example of Bally and Bata in the period 1870-1940 (published in Journal of Vocational Education & Training, online). Esther Berner examines two large shoe companies in Switzerland, Bally and Bata, with regard to the constructions and changes of shoe quality in production worlds from a historical perspective. She particularly focuses on quality conventions (e.g. individuals, techniques, information) in her analysis. By examining the change in manufacturing processes and the qualification of employees, she is able to show the change, criticism and conflict of conventions in a period from 1870 to 1940.

The last contribution of the event was made by Julia Brandl (University of Innsbruck) and Arjan Kozica (University of Applied Science Reutlingen). They presented their forthcoming book, which will be published in the series Soziologie der Konventionen. The book will be published with the title « Betriebliche Personalpolitik. Eine konventionensoziologische Perspektive » [Workplace Human Resource Policies. A Sociology of Conventions Perspective.] In their work the authors apply the sociology of conventions-approach to human resource policies in economic companies. Julia Brandl reports (also on behalf of the excused Arjan Kozica) on their planned publication. It is aimed at students of economics and at practitioners of company personnel work and the structuring of company employment relationships. In doing so, they make the sociology of conventions fruitful for an understanding of business personnel policy. To this end, the book aims to establish practical links to the practice of business administration throughout, highlighting the significance of EC for company personnel policy as an alternative to established theories such as the Rational choice theory or social psychology.

At the end of the conference, all participants gathered again and looked ahead to the upcoming EC workshop which Christian Imdorf (Leibniz University of Hannover) will organize at Hannover. In summary we all look back on an instructive workshop, with new and exciting insights into current research on the sociology of conventions.

Many thanks to Regula Julia Leemann and her team for the organization of the 11th Sociology of Conventions Workshop!!!

«Revitalisierung» der Berufsbildung Der bildungspolitische Weg zur Institutionalisierung der Berufsbildung in der Schweiz als Verbundaufgabe in den 1990er Jahren

« Revitalization » of Vocational Education and Training The educational policy path to the institutionalization of vocational education and training in Switzerland as a collaborative task in the 1990s

Lea Hägi (2021)

PhD thesis. Zurich: University of Zurich.

Prof. Dr. Philipp Gonon (University of Zurich), supervisor/committee member
Prof. Dr. Rainer Diaz-Bone (University of Lucerne), reviewer/committee member
Dr. Maren Oepke (University of Zurich), assessor

Auszug: “1. Die berufliche Bildung in der Schweiz als Verbundaufgabe
Die berufliche Bildung in der Schweiz blickt auf eine Jahrhunderte alte Geschichte privatwirtschaftlichen Engagements zurück. […] Erst die jüngste Totalrevision der Bundesverfassung im Jahr 1999 ermöglichte es dem Bund das Bundesgesetz über die Berufsbildung auf alle nicht-akademischen – und damit auch nicht dem Gewerbe – Berufe auszudehnen. Vor dieser Verfassungsänderung erstreckte sich der Geltungsbereich des Bundesgesetzes über die Berufsbildung nur auf die Berufe der Wirtschaftszweige Industrie, Handel, Gewerbe, Forstwirtschaft und Hauswirtschaft, während Gesundheit, Soziales, Kunst und Berufe des öffentlichen Dienstes (Bahn, Post, Zoll, Polizei) der kantonalen Rechtsprechungen unterstellt waren (Gemperli, 1997; Wettstein, 1987; Wettstein & Gonon, 2009). […] In Bezug auf die berufliche Bildung war man sich zu Beginn der 1990er Jahre im Grundsatz nur einig, dass die Aufgabenverteilung zwischen Bund und Kantonen entflechtet, beziehungsweise gesetzgeberische Kompetenzen eindeutig dem Bund oder den Kantonen zugewiesen, und die Finanzströme vereinfacht werden sollten. Ob der Bund seine gesetzgeberische Kompetenz aber behalten oder die berufliche Bildung in die Verantwortlichkeit der Kantone übergehen sollte, war hingegen umstritten. Nicht weniger als das tragende Grundprinzip der geteilten Verantwortlichkeit im Bereich der beruflichen Bildung wurde radikal in Frage gestellt. Dieses Moment der Kritik und der Kontroverse bietet hier eine seltene Gelegenheit die Legitimation und Gestaltung der Grundpfeiler der schweizerischen Berufsbildung im Detail analysieren und verstehbar machen zu können. […]

2.1. Theoretische Annäherung: Die Economie des Conventions
Für die theoretische Auseinandersetzung mit den im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit aufgeworfenen Fragestellungen der Legitimation der geteilten Verantwortlichkeit im Bereich der beruflichen Bildung, wird mit dem im Kern institutionentheoretisch begründeten Ansatz der Economie des Conventions (kurz EC) gearbeitet. Der interdisziplinär geprägte Ansatz wird auch als wissenschaftliche Bewegung bezeichnet und der neuen französischen Wirtschaftssoziologie zugeordnet (Diaz-Bone, 2018). Als zentrale Grundlagenwerke zur EC werden oft die Beiträge von Luc Boltanski und Laurent Thévenot (Boltanski & Thévenot, 1991) sowie jener von Robert Salais und Michaël Storper (Salais & Storper, 1993) bezeichnet. Die EC ist allerdings genauso geprägt von einer Vielzahl an Forschungsbeiträgen, die als Quellen für diese Grundlagenwerke dienten wie beispielsweise die Beiträge von François Eymard-Duvernay (1986) zu Produktqualitäten, von Robert Salais, Nicolas Baverez und Bénédicte Reynaud (1986) zur Entstehungsgeschichte des Wandels der Kategorie der Arbeitslosigkeit, von Robert Salais und Laurent Thévenot (1986) zur Kategorie der Arbeit, oder von Laurent Thévenot (1986) zu Forminvestitionen, die auch im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit eine grosse Rolle spielen werden. Des Weiteren ist die Bewegung der EC aber ebenso geprägt von Beiträgen, die an die Grundlagenwerke anknüpfen und die aufgeworfenen Grundideen weiterentwickeln.” (p. 1/2/3/21)

Extract: « 1. vocational training in Switzerland as a joint task.
Vocational education in Switzerland looks back on a centuries-old history of private-sector involvement. […] It was not until the recent total revision of the Federal Constitution in 1999 that the Confederation was able to extend the Federal Law on Vocational Education and Training to all non-academic – and thus also non-trade – professions. Prior to this constitutional amendment, the scope of the Federal Law on Vocational Education and Training extended only to occupations in the economic sectors of industry, commerce, trade, forestry, and home economics, while health, social services, arts, and public service occupations (railroads, postal services, customs, police) were subject to cantonal jurisdictions (Gemperli, 1997; Wettstein, 1987; Wettstein & Gonon, 2009). […] With regard to vocational education and training, at the beginning of the 1990s there was in principle only agreement that the distribution of tasks between the federal government and the cantons should be unbundled, that legislative competences should be clearly assigned to the federal government or the cantons, and that financial flows should be simplified. However, whether the federal government should retain its legislative competence or whether vocational education and training should become the responsibility of the cantons was a matter of dispute. Nothing less than the fundamental principle of shared responsibility in the area of vocational education was radically called into question. This moment of criticism and controversy offers a unique opportunity to analyze and understand in detail the legitimacy and design of the basic pillars of Swiss vocational education. […]

2.1 Theoretical Approach: The Economie des Conventions
For the theoretical examination of the issues raised in the context of the present work on the legitimacy of shared responsibility in the field of vocational education and training, we will work with the approach of the Economie des Conventions (EC for short), which is at its core based on institutional theory. This interdisciplinary approach is also referred to as a scientific movement and is classified as part of the new French economic sociology (Diaz-Bone, 2018). The contributions of Luc Boltanski and Laurent Thévenot (Boltanski & Thévenot, 1991) and that of Robert Salais and Michaël Storper (Salais & Storper, 1993) are often referred to as key foundational works on EC. However, the EC is equally characterized by a large number of research contributions that served as sources for these foundational works, such as the contributions of François Eymard-Duvernay (1986) on product qualities, of Robert Salais, Nicolas Baverez and Bé-nédicte Reynaud (1986) on the genesis of the change in the category of unemployment, by Robert Salais and Laurent Thévenot (1986) on the category of work, or by Laurent Thévenot (1986) on form investments, which will also play a major role in the context of the present work. Furthermore, however, the EC movement is equally characterized by contributions that follow up on the foundational works and further develop the basic ideas raised. » (p. 1/2/3/21)

The un/making of forms. Formographic inquiries into practice, accountability, and infra-critique

International workshop organized by Ingmar Lippert (IT University Copenhagen) and Susann Wagenknecht (Technical University Dresden)
at Technical University of Dresden 2-3 September 2021

Program Extract: “[…] As formality is made and unmade (Smart et al. 2017), forms help organize far-flung coordination and gain salience as prerequisite of accountability. They furnish the yardsticks of critique. With this workshop, we draw attention to the situated relation of form and critique that emerges from the ever changing tangle of practice. We suggest exploring « infra-critiques »—critiques ‘from within’ shifting forms of life (Verran 2014, Jaeggi 2018). Analyses of critique ‘from within’ emphasize the multiplicity and limitations of formal assessment. They help examining how in/form/alities boost and marginalize different modes of benchmarking and evaluation, denunciation and appraisal, determination and indetermination (Boltanski & Thévenot 1999). Requirements for specific in/form/ation, e.g., can feed authoritative regimes of control while effectively undermining accountability and attenuating critique (Lippert 2018). Against this backdrop, we are interested in formographic inquiries that problematize the enactment of form as a fixed, detached point of reference. […]
The workshop will take place at the Technical University Dresden, Germany, September 2-3, 2021. The workshop is designed as collective learning process, focusing on submissions that rely upon ethnographic materials to engage in the nexus of form, practice, critique, and accountability. To this end, we ask participants to circulate workshop papers (2,000w), accompanied by a digitally reproducible object (with permissions), prior to the workshop.

Link to the complete presentation

Hochschulzertifikate in der wissenschaftlichen Weiterbildung: Ordnungs-, Gestaltungs- und Lösungspotenziale

University certificates in academic continuing education: potentials for order, design and solutions

Research project

Deutsche Zentrum für Hochschul- und Wissenschaftsforschung

Projektbeschreibung. Wichtige Beobachtung im Kontext des Bund-Länder-Wettbewerbs „Aufstieg durch Bildung: offene Hochschulen“ ist eine Weiterentwicklung des Studienformats ‚Zertifikatsangebot‘ sowie die damit einhergehende partielle Verwendung eines aus dem Schweizer Hochschulsystem stammenden Ordnungs- und Akkumulationssystems. Es stellen sich die Fragen, ob diese Beobachtungen für andere Hochschulen bestätigt und möglicherweise generalisiert werden können, worauf die Entwicklungen zurückzuführen sind und wie sie begründet bzw. legitimiert werden. Auf dem Hintergrund des erst im Rahmen des Bologna-Prozesses eingeführten Typs ‚weiterbildender Master‘ ist zudem das Verhältnis von Zertifikatsabschlüssen und akademischem Mastergrad von bildungspolitischen Interesse.
Methodologisch wird das aus Grundmitteln finanzierte Anforschungsprojekt einerseits an Ansätze der neoinstitutionalistischen Organisationstheorie anschließen, mit denen neben Fragen der Legitimation auch die der Isomorphie in den Entwicklungen erklärt werden können, sowie andererseits an die Économie des conventions. Letztere erscheint geeignet, um die Begründung von Investitionen in neue Bildungsformate zu untersuchen sowie Dimensionen der Ökonomie eines Bildungsmarktes und seiner Handlungskoordination am Beispiel der wissenschaftlichen Weiterbildung zu identifizieren.

Projektbeginn: 01.04.2021 – Projektende: 31.12.2021
Projektleitung: Dr. Walburga Katharina Freitag

Project description. Important observation in the context of the federal-state competition « Advancement through Education: Open Universities » is a further development of the study format ‘certificate offer’ as well as the accompanying partial use of an order and accumulation system originating from the Swiss higher education system. The questions arise whether these observations can be confirmed and possibly generalized for other higher education institutions, what the developments are due to and how they are justified or legitimized. Against the background of the type of ‘continuing education master’s degree’ introduced only in the context of the Bologna Process, the relationship between certificate degrees and academic master’s degrees is also of interest in terms of educational policy.
Methodologically, the research project, which is financed by basic funds, will be linked to approaches of neoinstitutionalist organization theory, which can be used to explain questions of legitimacy and isomorphism in developments, as well as to the Économie des conventions. The latter seems suitable to investigate the justification of investments in new educational formats as well as to identify dimen-sions of the economy of an educational market and its coordination of actions using the example of scientific continuing education. »

Project start: 01.04.2021 – Project end: 31.12.2021
Project Management: Dr. Walburga Katharina Freitag

Congress of the Swiss Sociological Association (SSA) “Social justice in times of uncertainty”

Online, hosted at Geneva 28-30 June 2021.

 

Events related to EC:

1a) SEMI-PLENARY SESSIONS III.1 ECONOMICS AND SOCIOLOGY OF CONVENTIONS. A NEOPRAGMATIST APPROACH TO INEQUALITIES AND PLURALITIES
Organizers: Jean-Michel Bonvin (University of Geneva), Diaz-Bone Rainer (University of Lucerne)

Wednesday 30 June, 09:00 – 10:30

  • Peter Wagner (University of Barcelona)
  • Philipp Batifoulier (University of Paris Sorbonne Nord)
  • Jean-Michel Bonvin (University of Geneva)
  • Rainer Diaz-Bone (University of Lucerne)

1b) Paper-Session B7: SOCIAL INEQUALITIES AND ORDERS OF JUSTIFICATION IN THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM
Organizers: Rainer Diaz-Bone (University of Lucerne), Valeska Cappel (University of Lucerne)

Monday 28 June, 15:00 – 16:30

  • Karolin Kappler (FernUniversität Hagen), Valeska Cappel (University of Lucerne): Trade-offs and conflicting goals in the digitization of health – Presentation of the anthology « Health – Conventions – Digitization”.
  • Stefan Janković (University of Belgrade), Milica Resanović (University of Belgrade): Breaking through the Pandemic Incertitudes: From Hazy Health Care Instruction to Commensuration of Worths among Serbia’s Young Professionals.
  • Giovanni Matera (EHESP French School of Public Health): Hospitality, Migration and Mental Health. Engaging a pluralist perspective to study the treatment of migrant persons suffering from mental illness.

1c) Paper-Session C.7 ENGAGING PLURALIST PERSPECTIVES IN CIVIC INTERVENTIONS: NEOPRAGMATISM AND SOCIAL RESEARCH», Organizers: Rainer Diaz-Bone (University of Lucerne), Kenneth Horvath (University of Lucerne), Guy Schwegler (University of Lucerne), Simon Schrör (Weizenbaum Institute,  Humboldt University Berlin)

Tuesday 29 June, 10:45 – 12:15 (Session 1 of 2)

  • Kenneth Horvath (University of Lucerne): Invoking controversy, deciphering normativities: the method of “qualitative experiments” and the objectives of critical social research after the pragmatic turn
  • Anke Schad-Spindler (University of Vienna), Stefanie Fridrik (University of Vienna), Oliver Marchart (University of Vienna), Friederike Landau (Radboud University Nijmegen): Venturing into pandemic cultural policy conflicts.
  • Guy Schwegler (University of Lucerne): A different theory, a different culture? Considering ontologies of cultural production in light of performativity

Tuesday 29 June, 15:00 – 16:30 (Session 2 of 2)

  • Simon Schrör (Weizenbaum Institute, Humboldt University Berlin): Scientific Investigations as Part of Practical Discourses? Pluralities of engagement in professional debates on copyright reform.
  • Sinisa Hadziabdic (Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies, Cologne): Living and Dying with Your Own Ideas? Generational Replacement vs. Within-Individual Paradigm Change among Economists

 

Congress program

Faire digitale Dienste: Ko-Valuation in der Gestaltung datenökonomischer Geschäftsmodelle (FAIR­DIENSTE)

Fair digital services: co-evaluation in the design of data-economic business models

New research project, from 02/2021 to 02/2024 at University of Kassel

Motivation, Ziele und Vorgehen. Unternehmen, die digitale Produkte oder Dienstleistungen vermarkten, stehen oft vor dem Dilemma, dass ihr Interesse und ihr Bedarf an Kundendaten dem Wunsch der Kundinnen und Kunden nach Privatheit entgegensteht. Für Verbraucherinnen und Verbraucher bedeutet es einen Eingriff in ihre Selbstbestimmungsrechte, wenn sie zu viele Daten preisgeben müssen oder durch digitale Überwachung in ihrem Verhalten unbemerkt gelenkt werden. Im Projekt „Faire digitale Dienste: Ko-Valuation in der Gestaltung datenökonomischer Geschäftsmodelle (FAIRDIENSTE)“ wird dieser Strukturkonflikt zum Anlass genommen, verschiedene Wege der fairen Vermittlung von Werten im Zuge der Geschäftsmodellgestaltung mit soziologischen und  (wirtschafts-)informatischen Ansätzen auszuloten und in Beziehung zu setzen. […] Das soziologische Teilvorhaben greift insbesondere auf die Forschungsrichtung der Soziologie der Konventionen zurück. Diese betont, dass monetäre Wertgesichtspunkte nicht die einzigen Maßstäbe zur Wertvermittlung sind; vielmehr geht es im Rahmen komplexer gesellschaftlicher Zusammenhänge stets um die Koordination und Vermittlung einer Pluralität von Wertgesichtspunkten.

Abstract. Companies that market digital products or services often face the dilemma that their interest in and need for customer data conflicts with their customers’ desire for privacy. For consumers, it means an encroachment on their rights of self-determination if they have to disclose too much data or are guided in their behavior unnoticed by digital surveillance. In the project « Fair digital services: co-evaluation in the design of data-economic business models (FAIRDIENSTE) », this structural conflict is taken as an opportunity to explore and compare different ways of fairly communicating values in the course of business model design using sociological and (business) informatics approaches. […] The sociological sub-project draws in particular on the research direction of the sociology of conventions. This emphasizes that monetary value points of view are not the only yardsticks for the mediation of value; rather, within the framework of complex social contexts, it is always a matter of coordinating and mediating a plurality of value points of view.

Formation et dynamiques d’une catégorie de marché alternatif : une approche sociogénétique et ethnographique des musiques indépendantes

Boris Collet (2020)

Thèse en sciences de gestion, soutenue le 3 décembre 2020 à l’université de Rouen Normandie

Jury:
M. Éric RÉMY, Professeur / Université Toulouse III, Codirecteur de thèse
M. Renaud GARCIA-BARDIDIA, Professeur / Université de Rouen Normandie, Codirecteur de thèse
M. Philippe ROBERT-DEMONTROND, Professeur / Université de Rennes I, Rapporteur
Mme Dominique ROUX, Professeure / Université de Reims, Rapportrice
M. Baptiste CLERET, Maître de Conférences / Université de Rouen Normandie, Examinateur
Mme Delphine DION, Professeure / ESSEC Business School, Examinatrice
Mme Nil ÖZÇAĞLAR-TOULOUSE, Professeure / Université de Lille, Examinatrice
M. Joonas ROKKA, Professeur / EM Lyon Business School, Examinateur

Résumé. Au cours des dernières décennies, la notion d’indépendance s’est imposée dans un grand nombre de secteurs des industries culturelles et créatives. Dans cette thèse, nous nous intéressons à l’émergence de la catégorie indépendante au sein du marché musical et à ses dynamiques avec la catégorie dominante en mobilisant les apports théorico-méthodologiques de la sociologie pragmatique dans l’articulation de trois concepts interreliés – marché(s), intermédiation et valeurs. À cet effet, nous avons mené une ethnographie multi-située de quatre ans au contact des acteurs de la scène musicale afin de mettre au jour les principes sous-jacents, c’est-à-dire les fondements axiologiques, qui caractérisent l’indépendance en tant que catégorie culturelle, économique et artistique. En parallèle, nous avons procédé à une analyse sociohistorique afin de comprendre l’émergence et le développement de cette catégorie de marché et d’en établir une périodisation. Nos analyses permettent d’établir que l’indépendance est le lieu de tensions entre plusieurs représentations et d’affrontements idéologiques. De plus, elles confirment le rôle des intermédiaires et de leurs dispositifs dans la catégorisation des marchés et la valorisation des biens. En situant cette recherche au croisement des théories culturelles de la consommation (CCT) et du macromarketing, nous concluons en discutant de la marchandisation de la culture et des formes alternatives de marketization. Nous exposons également les implications pour les acteurs du marché et les institutions dans la mise en place de stratégies commerciales et de politiques culturelles en faisant valoir les spécificités de l’indépendance en tant que mode de production et de consommation alternatif. Cette recherche ouvre ainsi la voie à l’étude des perspectives éthiques de la consommation culturelle.

Extrait. “L’approche conventionnaliste des marchés dont nous nous inspirons fait le lien entre valeurs et marchés en s’intéressant à la variété de modes de coordination (Eymard-Duvernay, 2006). En parallèle, d’autres auteurs de ce courant mettent en avant le rôle des intermédiaires et des dispositifs dans la formation des marchés (e.g., Bessy et Chauvin, 2014 ; Chiapello et Godefroy, 2017 ; Karpik, 2007). En effet, les intermédiaires sont des acteurs centraux de la formation de catégories de marché (Durand et Thornton, 2018 ; Khaire, 2017b). L’intermédiation contribue ainsi à la fois à la création de nouveaux marchés et à définir de nouvelles conventions d’évaluation. L’objectif de cette recherche est donc de mieux comprendre la catégorie indépendante, ses conventions, les cadres d’évaluation qui la sous-tendent et le rôle joué par les différents acteurs et dispositifs du marché dans sa genèse, sa diffusion et sa stabilisation (Bessy et Chauvin, 2013). À ce titre, il est question de mettre au jour les principes axiologiques de l’indépendance à partir des apports théoriques et méthodologiques de la sociologie compréhensive et pragmatique des valeurs (Boltanski et Thévenot, 1991 ; Heinich, 2017a).”

Formation and dynamics of an alternative market category: a sociogenetic and ethnographic approach to independent music

PhD thesis. Rouen: University of Rouen

Abstract. Over the past few decades, the notion of independent has become established in many sectors of the cultural and creative industries. In this thesis, we examine the emergence of the independent category within the music market and its dynamics with the dominant category by mobilizing the theoretical-methodological contributions of pragmatic sociology in the articulation of three interrelated concepts – market(s), intermediation and values. To this end, we conducted a four-year multi-site ethnography in contact with actors of the music scene in order to uncover the underlying principles, i.e., the axiological foundations, that characterize independence as a cultural, economic, and artistic category. At the same time, we carried out a socio-historical analysis in order to understand the emergence and development of this market category and to establish its periodization. Our analyses allow us to establish that independence is the site of tensions between several representations and ideological confrontations. Moreover, they confirm the role of intermediaries and their devices in the categorization of markets and the valuation of goods. By situating this research at the crossroads of cultural theories of consumption (CCT) and macromarketing, we conclude by discussing the commodification of culture and alternative forms of marketization. We also outline the implications for market actors and institutions in the implementation of commercial strategies and cultural policies, highlighting the specificities of independence as an alternative mode of production and consumption. This research paves the way for the study of the ethical perspectives of cultural consumption. »

Extract. “The convention theorist approach to markets from which we draw inspiration links values and markets by looking at the variety of modes of coordination (Eymard-Duvernay, 2006). At the same time, other authors of this trend highlight the role of intermediaries and mechanisms in the formation of markets (e.g., Bessy and Chauvin, 2014; Chiapello and Godefroy, 2017; Karpik, 2007). Indeed, intermediaries are central actors in the formation of market categories (Durand and Thornton, 2018; Khaire, 2017b). Intermediation thus contributes both to the creation of new markets and to the definition of new evaluation conventions. The objective of this research is therefore to better understand the independent category, its conventions, the evaluation frameworks that underlie it and the role played by the different actors and devices in the market in its genesis, diffusion and stabilization (Bessy and Chauvin, 2013). As such, the axiological principles of independence are to be brought to light based on the theoretical and methodological contributions of the comprehensive and pragmatic sociology of values (Boltanski and Thévenot, 1991; Heinich, 2017a).”

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De la co-détermination à l’éco-détermination

Conférence d’Olivier Favereau, 15/01/2021, Science Po Alumni. YouTube

Même si loi PACTE vient de faire évoluer substantiellement la gouvernance des entreprises, les réflexions se poursuivent pour transformer le cadre de gouvernement des entreprises afin de résoudre les crises profondes actuelles. Olivier Favereau y contribue en plaidant dans son rapport à l’Organisation Internationale du Travail pour que la co-détermination déjà présente dans d’autres pays comme l’Allemagne ou la Suède fasse plus largement « descendre l’exigence démocratique au sein des entreprises », condition du succès selon lui de la transition écologique. Il apparaît en effet que les stratégies de « soft law » ne sont pas à la hauteur des mutations aujourd’hui nécessaires pour résoudre les crises. En effet la puissance des forces économiques, sociales ou politiques déclenchées mondialement par les bouleversements en cours nécessite que le cadre légal de gouvernance des entreprises soit revu en profondeur.
C’est à cette prise de recul et à ce débat que nous invite Olivier Favereau.

Even if the PACTE law has just substantially changed corporate governance, discussions are continuing to transform the corporate governance framework in order to resolve the current deep crises. Olivier Favereau contributes to this by pleading in his report to the International Labor Organization for the co-determination already present in other countries such as Germany and Sweden to « lower the democratic requirement within companies », a condition for the success of the ecological transition, according to him. In fact, it appears that « soft law » strategies are not equal to the changes that are now necessary to resolve crises. Indeed, the economic, social and political forces unleashed worldwide by the current upheavals require that the legal framework of corporate governance be thoroughly reviewed.
Olivier Favereau invites us to take a step back and to engage in this debate.

Lien vers la vidéo YouTube/ Link to YouTube video

Collective Firms between Collective and Company

Nina Pohler (2020)

PhD thesis. Berlin: Humboldt Universität

Disputation on 04.12. 2020

Jury:
Prof. Dr. Christian Kassung
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr. Sabine Kunst
Prof. Dr. Karin Lohr
Prof. Eeva Luhtakallio

This thesis wants to understand how alternative firms deal with the complexity of balancing different rationalities in their intraorganizational coordination, in the absence of formal hierarchies. In a comparative case study of three small, democratically governed collective firms, the relationship between coordination and morality is analyzed. The majority of research on collective firms focuses on democratic governance structures, which risks to underestimate the importance of coordination that is based on intimate knowledge and personal relations. This is especially important to understand collective firms, which are dependent on lateral accountability and cooperation between their members. Consequently, this work is informed by the work of Laurent Thévenot which allows to understand coordination based on different levels of generalization. The results of this thesis contribute to three different areas of research: First, contributions are made to the field of valuation studies, by further developing insights on the notion of the test. The thesis also points out the central role of legitimate principles of difference and equivalence for successful commensuration, and the tension between particularity and generalization in standardizing evaluation devices. Second, the study contributes insights for scholarship on coordination and morality in organizations. It demonstrates that considering coordination based on different degrees of generality yields important insights on intraorganizational coordination. Finally, this study contributes to scholarship on cooperatives and collectivist organizations. The often noted duality of collective firms is reframed as the need to balance and mediate different modes of coordination. The study develops a heuristic concept, the composite relation, which explains how collectives are held together despite their central tension between particular and collective goods.

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Les arrangements du quotidien : comment les acteurs locaux reconfigurent les politiques publiques : Analyse de la mise en oeuvre d’un Programme de Réussite Educative

Laurie Sompayrac (2020)

PhD thesis. Université de Limoges

Thèse sous la direction de Dominique Gay-Sylvestre et Maryan Lemoine présentée et soutenue le 17 Novembre 2020

Jury:

M. Choukri Ben Ayed, Professor of Sociology, University of Limoges
M. Dominique Broussal, Professor of educational science, University of Toulouse
Mme Michèle Guigue, professor em. of educational science, University of Lille M. Sébastien Pesce, Professor of educational science, University of Orléans

Résumé. Les politiques publiques affichent des objectifs, pensent et produisent des injonctions qui ont pour but de cadrer l’action publique territorialisée. A l’étude nous avons cependant pu constater que ces développements ne se soucient pas toujours des capacités et des potentialités de compréhension, d’appropriation et de mise en œuvre, non seulement des objectifs, mais aussi des modalités pour traduire cette action publique sur le terrain. Les opérateurs font en effet face aux urgences de mettre en œuvre les injonctions dans des délais relativement courts, qui ne leur laissent que peu de temps pour comprendre les enjeux, problématiser et construire l’ingénierie la plus adéquate pour mettre en œuvre l’action publique territorialisée. A travers notre démarche méthodologique d’inspiration ethnographique, nous avons voulu observer comment les acteurs au quotidien ont alors à inventer, au-delà des cadres et des règlements préétablis, des pratiques et une mise en ordre de l’action publique territorialisée, essayant ce faisant de poursuivre ou de se rapprocher des objectifs fixés par les politiques publiques.Les analyses des interactions des individus, l’étude des documents qui circulent entre eux, les observations in situ ainsi que les entretiens ont permis de révéler comment les individus développent des « conventions » (Diaz-Bone & Thévenot, 2010) à la fois pratiques et langagières pour se comprendre et mener leurs activités et reconnaissent certaines « manières de faire » (de Certeau, 1900) comme étant les plus pertinentes pour résoudre les énigmes auxquelles ils sont confrontés. Même si les acteurs n’en ont pas conscience, l’ensemble de ces éléments, ancrés, actualisés et plus récents, forment ainsi une matrice (Kuhn, 1962) interprofessionnelle au sein de laquelle se développent les actions et se constituent des références communes qui influent fortement sur tout ce qui se joue et est produit au sein de et par ce système. Tout en agissant dans cette dimension matricielle, les acteurs continuent de l’alimenter en s’engageant dans des instances collectives. D’une part les individus y assoient la défense de leurs propres représentations et conceptions des injonctions et objectifs, d’autre part ils essaient de trouver ou de partager des moyens d’actions propres à assurer la mise en œuvre des moyens qui permettront de les atteindre ou de les approcher, oscillant dans ces modes de cheminement entre éthiques professionnelle, morale et même plus personnelle.

The daily arrangements : how local individuals reconfigure public policies : Analysis of the enforcement of an « Educative Success Programm »

Abstract. The public policies display targets, think about and elaborate injunctions which have a purpose to frame the public territorial activities. However our study shows how these intentions are not always aligned with the collective skills, the potentialities of comprehension, the capacities of appropriation and the possibilities of enforcement to reach the goals in the territories, not even the capacities to understand and perform the public activity. The workers are urged by the short delays imposed. They don’t have much time to understand the issues, to engage a problematization process and to build the most suitable engineering to enforce the public territorial activity. Through our ethnographic approach, we wanted to observe how the workers create some daily practices beyond the rules and the frames settled up for us, while they try to follow or get closer to the policies targets. By using the interactionnism analysis, the documents which circulate or not between the workers and their interviews, we were able to show how the individuals elaborate some practical and language agreements (Diaz-Bone & Thévenot, 2010) to understand each others, carry out particular activities and recognize some « ways of doing » (de Certeau, 1990) as the most relevant to solve their problems. Even if the individuals are not aware of it, all the elements, grounded, actualized and the most recent of them, belong to an interprofessionnal matrix. The activities and the mutual references expand in this matrix. These aspects influence the issues and the productions within and through this system. While acting on the matrix, the individuals nourish it by committing in the collective. On one hand the individuals are able to protect their own representations and conceptions of the policies injunctions and targets. On the other hand they try to find and share their own ways to act by their own to reach the targets. They are constantly swinging between moral, professionnal and personal ethics.

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