Archives de l’auteur : fbessis

Rinderhaltung ohne Schlachtung als Agrar-Care-System. Fallbeispiele aus Europa und Indien.

Meyer-Glitza, Patrick (2019)

Cattle farming without slaughter as an agricultural care system. Case studies from Europe and India.

PhD thesis. Berlin: Humboldt Universität zu Berlin.

SUMMARY

“Over the recent years, vegetarianism and veganism have increasingly become a subject of public debate. However, even vegetarian nutrition, through consumption of milk products, leads to the slaughtering of dairy cows that are no longer productive or have been sorted out, and of their male offspring. Thus, vegetarians are indirectly co-responsible for the slaughtering of cattle. For lacto-vegetarians, cattle husbandry without slaughtering (here ‘CWS’, in German ‚ROS’) could be a solution to the dilemma of consuming milk products while not being willing, for ethical reasons, to kill animals. Based on this, the following questions arise: What would cattle husbandry without slaughtering look like in practice? What are the biographical motives behind such farming, and under which ethical aspects is it pursued? In the literary section of this treatise, historical and religious (hinduism) aspects of cattle farming have been outlined. The key issue of the literary section was how CWS is situated in the context of bioethical theories. Other aspects are the longevity of dairy cattle and farms with similarities to CWS and examples of CWS itself. The interviews with the animal owners and/or the heads of animal husbandry in a total of five cases have been carried out and reviewed using qualitative methods of interpretive social research (mostly Grounded Theory, but also biography research and detailed sequential analysis). The five example cases, representing a large part of the parent population at the time of the investigation, have been analyzed and described. In a case comparison, the five cases have been compared to each other in terms of their respective biographical developments, their ethics and their animal husbandry systems (‘system that works’) and also in terms of their conventions (‘économie des conventions’) […] The care-based approach, which is reflected especially in the sanctuary function of the farms, is combined with the agricultural system, resulting in the agri-care-system. The care convention, along with the convention of animal husbandry without slaughtering, put this CWS framework in a wider context. Dilemmas like castration of oxen, euthanasia, killing of wild animals and insects through cultivation of land and feeding of cats cannot be solved by CWS, but CWS can help to alleviate the ambivalence of human handling of domestic and farmed animals. .“ (p. 216/217)

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La valorisation socio-économique des innovations médicales : l’émergence d’une convention de déstigmatisation?

Livi, Christian (2019)

Innovations (60), pp. 43-68.

RESUME

Partant du postulat que les modèles territoriaux d’innovation nécessitent aujourd’hui de considérer les nouvelles dynamiques territoriales et socio-économiques de l’innovation, cet article tente de donner un éclairage particulier, à travers une recherche qualitative, sur le développement des innovations dans le domaine des technologies médicales en Suisse occidentale et sur la valorisation des dispositifs médicaux par les producteurs. D’une part, il met en évidence que les dynamiques territoriales de la production et de la consommation des dispositifs médicaux incarnent des relations multi-locales s’organisant à des différentes échelles, tant institutionnelles que sociales. D’autre part, il propose une clé de lecture de la communauté de production-consommation des dispositifs médicaux – à travers la convention de déstigmatisation – selon laquelle la relation producteur-consommateur se base sur des discours appliqués aux dispositifs par les producteurs selon le public cible de l’application et qui dépassent les valeurs techniques lorsque ces dernières sont destinées aux patients.

Socio-economic valuation of medical innovations: The emergence of a convention of de-stigmatization?

ABSTRACT

Based on the premise that territorial innovation models (TIMs) have nowadays to take into account the new territorial and socio-economic dynamics of innovation, this paper attempts to shed special light trough a qualitative research on the development of medical technologies innovation in Western Switzerland and – in particular – on the valuation of medical devices by producers. Firstly, this paper highlights that the territorial dynamics of the production and consumption of medical devices represent multi-local relationships organized on different scales, both institutional and social. Secondly, it offers a key to understanding the production-consumption community of medical devices – proposing a convention of destigmatization – under which the relationship between producers and consumers is based on discourses applied to devices by producers depending on the target audience and that go far beyond the technical values when they are intended for patients.

Values in crowdfunding in the Netherlands

Van den Hoogen, Quirijn Lennert (2020)

International Journal of Cultural Policy 26(1), pp. 109-127.

ABSTRACT

Internet-based crowdfunding through websites such as Kickstarter seems to have become a familiar funding arrangement in the cultural and creative sectors. In the Netherlands, cultural politics have looked to this form of private funding as a possible means of re-establishing the connection between the arts and society. This raises the question of whether greater reliance on crowdfunding means different value orientations for arts institutions. This paper presents the outcomes of empirical research on crowdfunding in the Netherlands via the Voordekunst website. This not-for-profit website collaborates with several private and public art funds, providing the largest platform for ‘project makers’ and donors in the arts in the Netherlands. The value orientation of Dutch crowdfunders is researched, using the value sociology of Boltanski and Thévenot.

Luc Boltanski’s pragmatic sociology: A Bourdieusian critique

Atkinson, Will (2020)

European Journal of Social Theory, 23(3), pp. 310-327

ABSTRACT

Luc Boltanski’s programme of pragmatic sociology, now gaining substantial attention among English-speaking sociologists, was forged in opposition to the supposed excesses and blind spots of Pierre Bourdieu’s ‘critical sociology’. After outlining the main lines of development of Boltanski’s project and emphasizing the major points of difference with Bourdieu, the article offers a critical Bourdieusian response to pragmatic sociology. It highlights a number of ways in which Boltanski’s position is based on a misreading or distortion of Bourdieu’s ideas, is less unlike Bourdieu’s position than he claims and suffers from analytical shortcomings. This is not to say there is nothing of value in Boltanski’s work, but overall it offers useful pointers to be accommodated rather than a thoroughgoing conceptual revolution.

Entre a sociologia da sozialização e a sociologia pragmática: Desafios para pensar as práticas de ensino

Valente, Gabriela (2020)

Educação & Sociedade 41, pp. 1-14. Open access.

RESUMO

O objetivo deste artigo é tecer uma reflexão teórica a partir do questionamento de como a sociologia da socialização e a sociologia pragmática contribuem para os estudos em sociologia da educação, sendo raras as pesquisas que buscam associar estas duas correntes teóricas. Parte-se do pressuposto que, por mais que haja diferenças e similitudes, as duas teorias são complementares e ajudam a compreender sociologicamente a prática humana e, especificamente, a prática docente. Para averiguar esta hipótese, utiliza-se a literatura franco-luso-brasileira. Conclui-se que as duas correntes sociológicas juntas oferecem instrumentos teóricos e metodológicos para a realização de estudos em sociologia da educação que se preocupam com a complexidade do agir, constitutiva da docência.

EXTRACT

“Sociologia pragmática e a conduta humana

A sociologia pragmática (NACHI, 2012) é uma corrente sociológica que se desenvolve com e contra a sociologia bourdieusiana na década de 1980 na França. Entre os diferentes sociólogos que a representam temos Bruno Latour, Michel Callon, Luc Boltanski, Laurent Thevenot e seus discípulos. Evidentemente, existem diferenças nas contribuições sociológicas de cada um deles, as quais não serão tratadas neste texto. Aqui vamos nos deter nas publicações de Luc Boltanski e de Laurent Thevenot, principalmente no que concerne a sociologia da justificação. A sociologia pragmática deixa de ser uma sociologia crítica e pretende realizar uma sociologia da crítica (CORRÊA; DIAS, 2016). A sociologia da crítica pressupõe que os atores dispõem de capacidades críticas que são utilizadas de forma cada vez mais frequente na sociedade moderna (BOLTANSKI, 1990, p. 61), sendo o papel do pesquisador trabalhar a partir de uma perspectiva compreensiva na escuta atenta destas narrativas. Ou seja, criticando diretamente a ideia de que os agentes bourdieusianos não teriam consciência do campo social no qual estão inseridos e do sentido objetivo que suas práticas produzem e reproduzem. Para Bourdieu, as estratégias de ação dos agentes seriam inconscientes e, portanto, não podem ser explicitadas pelo próprio indivíduo. Desta maneira, apenas sociólogos e pesquisadores experientes teriam a condição de compreender a motivação das práticas humanas. A sociologia pragmática repudia esta ideia e entende que a função do pesquisador deve deixar de ser desvelar as estruturas de poder (a partir de um olhar de fora para dentro), passando a ter a função de quebrar com uma suposta assimetria entre pesquisador e pesquisado (de dentro para dentro). Ou seja, o pesquisador tem como função recriar da forma mais completa possível o espaço crítico anunciado pelo pesquisado (BOLTANSKI, 1990, p. 63), tendo como finalidade última representar a base normativa dos julgamentos (BLONDEAU; SEVIN, 2004). Neste sentido, concordamos com Benatouïl (1999) quando ele afirma que a sociologia crítica está preocupada em saber o que a sociedade faz do homem, enquanto que a sociologia pragmática está interessada em saber o que o homem faz de si mesmo, dos outros e de tudo aquilo que o cerca (seres não humanos e natureza, por exemplo).” (p. 5-6)

Between socialization sociology and pragmatic sociology: challenge to think teaching practices

ABSTRACT

The aim of this article is to provide a theoretical reflection based on the questioning of how the sociology of socialization and pragmatic sociology contribute to studies in the sociology of education, since researches which seek to associate these two theoretical currents are rare. Therefore, we assume that, although there are differences and similarities, the two theories are complementary and help to sociologically understand the human practice, and specifically in this text the teaching practice. To verify this hypothesis, the Franco-Portuguese Brazilian literature that discusses these theories is used. The conclusion reached is that the two sociological currents together offer theoretical and methodological tools to carry out studies in sociology of education that are concerned with the complexity of acting, constitutive of the teaching profession.

EXTRACT

“Pragmatic sociology and human conduct

Pragmatic sociology (NACHI, 2012) is a sociological current that developed with and against Bourdieusian sociology in the 1980s in France. Among the different sociologists who rep-resent it we have Bruno Latour, Michel Callon, Luc Boltanski, Laurent Thevenot and his disciples. Of course, there are differences in the sociological contributions of each of them, which will not be dealt with in this text. Here we will focus on the publications of Luc Boltanski and Laurent Thevenot, especially as regards the sociology of justification. Pragmatic sociology ceases to be a critical sociology and intends to realize a sociology of criticism (CORRÊA; DIAS, 2016). The sociology of critique presupposes that the actors have critical capacities that are increasingly used in modern society (BOLTANSKI, 1990, p. 61), and the role of the researcher is to work from a comprehensive perspective in attentive listening to these narratives. That is, directly criticizing the idea that Bourdieusian agents would not be aware of the social field in which they are inserted and of the objective sense that their practices produce and reproduce. For Bourdieu, the strategies of action of the agents would be unconscious and, therefore, cannot be made explicit by the individual himself. In this way, only experienced sociologists and researchers would be able to understand the motivation of human practices. Pragmatic sociology repudiates this idea and understands that the function of the researcher should no longer be to unveil power structures (from an outside viewpoint), but to break with a supposed asymmetry between researcher and researcher (from the inside viewpoint). In other words, the researcher’s function is to recreate as completely as possible the critical space announced by the researcher (BOLTANSKI, 1990, p. 63), with the ultimate purpose of rep-resenting the normative basis of judgments (BLONDEAU; SEVIN, 2004). In this sense, we agree with Benatouïl (1999) when he states that critical sociology is concerned with knowing what society makes of man, while pragmatic sociology is interested in knowing what man makes of himself, of others and of everything around him (non-human beings and nature, for example).” (p. 5-6)

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Équilibres et médiations dans la commandite de productions artistiques : intermédiation formelle ou informelle

Cordelier, Benoit/Desaulniers, Audrey-Anne (2020)

Canadian Journal of Communication 45(1), pp. 53-75.

RESUME

Contexte: Cette recherche vise à étudier les partenariats entre les marques commerciales et le domaine culturel. De façon plus précise, elle s’intéresse aux modalités d’accord entre les représentants du marketing et les artistes dans la mise en œuvre de partenariats à travers des outils tels que la commandite et le contenu de marque. S’inspirant majoritairement du travail sur les cités de Luc Boltanski et Laurent Thévenot dans leur ouvrage De la justification : les économies de la grandeur, certaines questions de recherche peuvent être dégagées : comment les artistes et les professionnels en communication ou en marketing s’entendent-ils pour la création de partenariats? Comment ces deux mondes communiquent-ils et quels arguments entretiennent-ils pour justifier leur association?

Analyse: La méthodologie retenue propose une enquête à partir d’entretiens compréhensifs dans le cadre de deux études de cas québécoises : la commandite d’une œuvre interactive réalisée dans le cadre d’un festival culturel montréalais et la production d’une émission télévisée avec du contenu de marque.

Conclusions et implications: L’analyse révèle les tensions existantes entre chacun des partenaires faisant néanmoins l’objet de différents types de médiation du côté des entreprises et des artistes que nous proposons de qualifier d’intermédiations formelle et informelle.

Balances and Mediations in the Sponsorship of Artistic Productions: Formal or Informal Intermediation

ABSTRACT

Background: This research aims to study partnerships between commercial brands and the cultural field. More specifically, it focuses on the process of agreement between marketing representatives and artists in the implementation of partnerships through sponsorship and branded content. Inspired mainly by the work done on cities by Luc Boltanski and Laurent Thévenot in On Justification: Economies of Worth, certain research questions can be identified: how do artists and communication or marketing professionals agree to create partnerships? How do these two worlds communicate and what arguments do they have to justify their association?

Analysis: The selected methodology proposes a survey based on comprehensive interviews in the context of two Quebec case studies: the sponsorship of an interactive work produced as part of a Montreal cultural festival and the production of a television program with branded content.

Conclusions and implications: The analysis reveals tensions existing between each partner that nevertheless are subject to different types of mediation between companies and artists which we propose to qualify as formal and informal mediation.

Production management as an ordering of multiple qualities: negotiating the quality of coffee in Timor-Leste

Kanamaru, Tomoaki (2020)

Journal of Cultural Economy 13(2), pp. 139-152

ABSTRACT

The emergence of close-knit global–local links in many agro-food production systems has necessitated rigorous coordination between the key stakeholders to ensure that quality and safety standards are met. To analyze this new supply chain configuration, agro-food studies inspired by convention theory have drawn significant attention to the plurality of quality conventions. In the literature specifically focusing on the inter-relationships between multiple quality conventions, the ways of interpreting a specific value orientation are perceived to have important implications. This view may lead to a questioning of how the configuration of multiple quality conventions can be stabilized if conflicting justification principles are not easily reconciled. The argument is further connected with an examination of situated plurality in a particular context, focusing on how the boundary among multiple quality conventions is stabilized on the ground. In this paper, through a case analysis of coffee quality management in Timor-Leste, I attempt to demonstrate that commoditization is to be reformulated as the process in which the qualification of objects and regularization of action are constituted through the differentiation of consumable quality as generality from heterogeneous cultural elements as particularity.

Civic modes of greening the city? Urban natures in-between familiar engagement and green critique

Laage-Thomsen, Jakob/Blok, Anders (2020)

Local Environment 25(2), pp. 162-178.

ABSTRACT

In this article, we deploy the loosely bounded phenomenon of “urban green communities” – in the shape of urban gardening, beekeeping, food collectives, biodiversity enhancement, tree planting and kindred citizen-based group practices towards urban greening – in order to probe the wide variations in modes of civic engagement with urban sustainability politics. As such, we explore the conceptual gaps opened up in-between everyday lifestyle politics, green social movements and critiques of neoliberal urban political economies, by leveraging a novel and fine-grained conceptualization of civic and place-based material participation built from pragmatic sociology. The work of Laurent Thévenot on regimes of engagement, in particular, allow us to trace translations in-between the familiar attachments and the public critiques undertaken by urban green communities in ways that expand the frame on socio-material politics relative to current research conversations. Empirically, we leverage this re-conceptualization as part of a comprehensive digital mapping exercise set in Denmark, in which we trace core patterns and differences in modes of urban-green politics at the level of everyday citizen practices and group interaction styles across a diversity of urban green communities. Having identified six such civic modes of urban greening and specified their group styles of engagement, we end by discussing the implications of our findings for questions of care, justice and democracy in sustainable city-making.

Conceptualising environmental governance in turbulent times: Insights from Brexit and waste in the UK

Cowell, Richard/Flynn, Andrew/Hacking, Nick (2020)

Political Geography 81, pp. 1-10. Online first.

ABSTRACT

Institutional turbulence created by the UK’s EU exit (Brexit) prompts a wider need to re-think whether our conceptualisations of governance in the environmental sphere sufficiently understand the dynamics of change. In this context, Boltanski and Thévenot’s ‘Orders of Worth’ (OoW) framework, has particular merit. This conceptualises governance regimes as composed of compromises between plural and incommensurable orders of the public good, with innate potential for instability; especially – we would add – when the territoriality of governance is in flux. The OoW approach is applied to an analysis of waste governance debates in the UK following the 2016 EU referendum. Documentary and interview data show how present and prospective governance arrangements in the waste and resources sector are subject to rival justifications, with actors advancing different compromises between economic, industrial, civic and environmental orders, but that each is also attached to conceptions of the relevant governance scale (EU, UK, devolved nation). Our study shows the wider potential fragility of environmental reforms, arising from the secondary status of environmental concerns in compromises with dominant market, industrial and civic orders. The ‘orders of worth’ framework requires attention to the scales of political authority being mobilised in disputes, which add their own incommensurability.

Les pratiques de recrutement des entreprises: un pouvoir de segmentation et de valorisation

Rieucau, Géraldine/Larquier, Guillemette de (2020)

Recruitment practices of companies: a power of segmentation and valorization

Online-Presentation at seminar “Pratiques d’entreprise et segmentations” of Employment and Labour Research Centre (Centre d’Etudes de l’Emploi et du Travail, CEET) Paris 26 May 202015-17.30.

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Hightech am Ende. Über das globale Recycling von Elektroschrott und die Entstehung neuer Werte

Laser, Stefan (2020)

PhD thesis. Wiesbaden: Springer VS.

ABSTRACT

Stefan Laser folgt den Spuren des Werts von Elektroschrott. Mithilfe ethnographischer Studien bespricht er ein umkämpftes Gesetz in Indien, verfolgt als Mitarbeiter eines deutschen Recycling-Weltmarktführers das Schreddern und Schmelzen alter Elektronikgeräte und untersucht eine Google-Innovation zur Neugestaltung von Smartphones. Im Zentrum des Buchs steht die aufwendige, kontroverse Entstehung neuer Werte. Der Autor identifiziert das Hightech-Recycling als dominante politische und ökonomische Kraft im Umgang mit Elektroschrott – eine einseitige Strategie, die andere verdrängt und nicht zur nachhaltigen Vermeidung von Müll beiträgt.

AUSZUG

“Ein wichtiges Stichwort in diesem Kontext ist die Soziologie der Kritik – an Stelle der kritischen Soziologie. Die Soziologie der Kritik will die kritischen Potenziale der Akteure erkunden, ihnen soll kein vorgefertigtes Narrativ übergestülpt werden (Boltanski und Chiapello 2006; Boltanski 2008; Bogusz 2010, S. 127-150; Vobruba 2017). Trotz allem kann hier die Kritik eine Option sein. Es ist ein Spiel aus Nähe und Distanz, auf das man sich einlassen muss (Bohmann et al. 2010). Wie bei den Stichworten der Kritik und Politik drohen auch mit Blick auf das Schlagwort der Ökonomie reduktionistische Kurzschlüsse. Die STS sehen es als problematisch an, das Ökonomische als „Ding“ mit stabilen Eigenschaften anzusehen – vor allem: mit Eigenschaften zu beschreiben, die man als gegeben und bekannt erachtet. Wichtige Bindestrichsoziologien, die hier anschlussfähig sind, sind die Wirtschaftssoziologie und insbesondere die Konventionenökonomie. Die Wirtschaftssoziologie (allgemein: Beckert und Deutschmann 2009; Granovetter und Swedberg 2011; Maurer 2017) fordert dazu auf, das Ökonomische konsequent empirisch und als Teil der Gesellschaft zu untersuchen. Die Wirtschaftswisseschaft wird in dieser Literatur als „untersozialisiert“ angesehen, die gängige Soziologie wiederum als „übersozialisiert“ beschrieben – erste würden vorwiegend auf Individuen und ihr Eigeninteresse schauen, letztere überbewerteten internalisierte Normen, sodass individuelle Entscheidungen als gänzlich irrelevant erschienen (Granovetter 2000, S. 205). In der Konventionenökonomie wird dann der Konvention eine heuristische Sonderfunktion zugewiesen. Konvention heißt dabei „zusammenkommen“ oder „eine Übereinkunft treffen“ (Salais 1989, S. 213; übersetzt und zit. nach Diaz-Bone 2015, S. 19). Im Kern ist die EC an der Konstruktion und Verbreitung von Wertigkeiten interessiert. Autorinnen in diesem Feld gehen davon aus, dass ökonomischer Austausch nur möglich ist, weil zuvor Übereinkünfte getroffen wurden – das heißt: Messungen durchgeführt und Qualitäten erfasst wurden. Bevor etwas ökonomisch „inwertgesetzt“ wird, muss es also evaluiert werden.” (p. 31)

High-tech at the end. About the global recycling of electronic waste and the creation of new values.

ABSTRACT

Stefan Laser follows the trail of the value of electronic waste. With the help of ethnographic studies, he discusses a contested law in India, follows the shredding and melting of old electronic equipment as an employee of a German recycling world leader, and examines a Google innovation for redesigning smartphones. At the heart of the book is the elaborate, controversial creation of new values. The author identifies high-tech recycling as the dominant political and economic force in the handling of electronic waste – a one-sided strategy that displaces others and does not contribute to the sustainable avoidance of waste.

EXCERPT

“An important keyword in this context is the sociology of critique – instead of critical sociology. The sociology of critique seeks to explore the critical potentials of the actors; no ready-made narrative should be imposed on them (Boltanski and Chiapello 2006; Boltanski 2008; Bogusz 2010, pp. 127-150; Vobruba 2017). Nevertheless, criticism can be an option here. It is a game of closeness and distance that must be played (Bohmann et al. 2010). As with the keywords of critique and politics, reductionist short-circuits also threaten the buzzword economy. The STS see it as problematic to view the economic as a “thing” with stable properties – above all: to describe it with properties that are considered common and familiar. Important hyphen sociologies that can be connected here are economic sociology and especially convention economy. Economic sociology (generally: Beckert and Deutschmann 2009; Granovetter and Swedberg 2011; Maurer 2017) calls for a consistent empirical investigation of the economic as part of society. In this literature, economic science is seen as “undersocialised”, while common sociology is described as “oversocialised” – the former would look primarily at individuals and their self-interest, the latter overvalued internalised norms, so that individual decisions appeared to be completely irrelevant (Granovetter 2000, p. 205). In the convention economy the convention is then assigned a heuristic special function. Convention means “to come together” or “to reach an agreement” (Salais 1989, p. 213; translated and quoted according to Diaz-Bone 2015, p. 19). In essence, the EC is interested in the construction and dissemination of valences. Authors in this field assume that economic exchange is only possible because agreements have been made beforehand – that is, measurements have been taken and qualities have been recorded. So before something is economically “valued” it must be evaluated.” (p. 31)

Questioning Performance Measurement: Metrics, Organizations and Power.

Redden, Guy (2019)

London: Sage.

EXTRACT

“3  Perspectives On Performance Measurement

Societies throughout history have used numbers for a fascinating range of ends (Cohen 2005: 12). One of the key stories about their social power posits that they have shaped modernity since the eighteenth century through scientific methodologies, government statistics, and their use in market exchange and industrial production (Cohen 2005). Taking such a historical view emphasizes that languages of number change like others, and, in particular, that numerous instances of ‘the extension of quantitative thinking’ become evident (147).  Yet despite the key roles numbers have played in modernity, Poovey (1998: xi) argues that they constitute the last frontier of representation in that their social significance has hardly been analysed critically compared with other kinds of discourse. Longstanding associations between numbers and objectivity have made them the bedrock of the ostensibly interpretation- and value-free ‘modern fact’ (xii). Porter (1995: viii) suggests that their rarely questioned authority stems from an association between quantification and the ‘successful’ scientific study of nature, such that use of quantitative methods generally comes with a halo of objectivity, whatever the particularities of the approaches in question. He proposes that quantification should instead be considered as specific strategies of communication that arise from and help to foster specific forms of community.  Along these lines, Porter and others have showed how enumeration of social issues enabled bureaucracy to emerge, and determined the character of the social facts that became used as norms for governing populations (Desrosières 2002: 147, Hacking 1990). They also demonstrated that statistics are not self­ standing tools used by actors, but instead involve complex forms fashioned in and through the concerns of changing social contexts that they in turn help to shape. According to Desrosières, ‘By “statistics” we mean here the body of knowledge consisting of the registration and presentation of quantitative data and the algorithms for its analysis such as series, indicators, econometric models, and many other methods available nowadays in databanks and data­ processing packages’ (2010: 43). In this view their production never was a pure science but one forged in a reaction between methods developed in the natural sciences and the exigencies of administration (Desrosières 2002).” 

Normes social du travail: Avantage ou risque pour l’économie marocaine?

El Filali, Issam (2020)

Revue Economie, Gestion et Société 23(1), pp. 1-13.

ABSTRACT

“In a context of globalization, Moroccan exporters are called upon to improve their business strategies by giving more importance to the social conditions in which their products are manufactured because their new consumers tend to become demanding in terms of consumption standards. As a result, our country is committed to improve its commercial attractiveness, particularly through the promotion of corporate social responsibility, despite the theoretical controversies on this subject.”

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De la donnée à l’information: de l’importance des conventions dans les organisations.

Colletis, Gabriel/Fieux, Etienne/Isla, Anne/Peneranda, Adrien (2020)

Openscience.fr

RESUME

“Nous évoluons tous en permanence dans de multiples organisations et sommes assaillis par un flux ininterrompu de données et d’informations, flux que nous contribuons à alimenter. Ces données et informations, distinguées dans le texte, ne sont ni neutres ni objectives mais sont le résultat d’opérations diverses générées par les organisations qui forment ou utilisent lesdites « données ». Ces opérations obéissent à quatre types de conventions : des conventions de quantification, des conventions de contextualisation, des conventions d’énonciation, des conventions sémiotiques, enfin. Reflet de la doxa, les conventions en sont aussi le produit et façonnent les normes qui encadrent la vie économique et le fonctionnement des organisations. Deux exemples de travail des conventions dans une organisation sont proposés dans le texte : celui d’un hôpital et du tableau de bord de celui-ci supposé refléter sa performance ; celui du partage de la valeur ajoutée. En même temps cadre et résultat de l’action, instituantes et instituées comme l’ont montré les « conventionnalistes », les conventions et la dispute autour de celles-ci constituent le reflet de la vie de la démocratie dans les organisations. La question de l’élaboration des conventions est trop souvent ignorée et son importance sous-estimée par les acteurs potentiels de la dispute dans les organisations et, singulièrement, les syndicats.

ABSTRACT

“We are constantly evolving in multiple organizations and we have to deal with an uninterrupted flow of data and information, which we contribute to feed. These data and information, clearly differentiated in this paper, are neither neutral nor objective but are the result of various operations generated by the organizations that form or use the so-called “data”. These operations obey four types of conventions: quantification conventions, contextualization conventions, stating conventions, semiotic conventions, finally. Conventions reflect the doxa and are shaping the norms that frame the economic life and the functioning of organizations. The example of a hospital illustrates these conventions in the article. Another example is used: the added value divide. The balance scorecard of this hospital reflects his performance. The conventions are simultaneously process and result of the action, instituting and instituted, as the “conventionalists” have shown. The conventions and the dispute around them testify to the life of democracy in organizations. The question of the elaboration of conventions is too often ignored and its importance underestimated by the potential actors of the dispute in the organizations and, in particular, the unions.”

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The moral microfoundations of institutional complexity. Sustainability implementation as compromise-making at an oil sands company.

Demers, Christiane/Gond, Jean-Pascal (2020)

Organization Studies 41(4), pp 563-586.

ABSTRACT

“Research on institutional complexity has overlooked the fact that moral judgements are likely involved when individuals face a plurality of logics within organizations. To analyse the moral microfoundations of institutional complexity, we build on Boltanski and Thévenot’s economies of worth framework and explore how individuals produce moral judgement in response to the institutional complexity triggered by a major shift in the sustainability strategy within an oil sands company. Fifty-two interviews with employees, managers and executives reveal how actors rely on four types of justification that combine different moral principles and related objects with the aim of either forming (sheltering and solidifying work) or challenging (fragilizing and deconstructing work) a new compromise with regard to sustainability within the organization. Our results show how the economies of worth framework can enrich institutional complexity theory by bringing morality back into the analysis as a core dimension of inhabited institutions while advancing the microanalysis of compromise-making around sustainability in organization studies.”