Archives de l’auteur : GdL

Sozialstrukturanalyse. Grundlagen und Modelle

Social structure analysis. Foundations and models

Christoph Weischer (2022)

2nd edition. Wiesbaden: Springer VS.

Über das Buch. In dieser Einführung in die Sozialstrukturanalyse wird zum einen grundlegend nach den Ursachen sozialer Differenzierung und der relativen Stabilität von Ungleichheitsstrukturen gefragt. Hierzu wird das Zusammenspiel verschiedener differenzierungsrelevanter Arenen (gesellschaftliche Produktion, Nationalstaat, private Haushalte) in theoretischer wie empirischer Perspektive analysiert. Dabei werden auch jene Instanzen dargestellt, die zur Reproduktion ungleicher Lebenslagen beitragen. Zum anderen werden verschiedene Modelle der neueren (z.B. Intersektionalität) und der klassischen Sozialstrukturanalyse vorgestellt.

About the book. This introduction to social structure analysis asks, first, fundamentally about the causes of social differentiation and the relative stability of inequality structures. To this end, the interplay of different arenas relevant for differentiation (social production, nation-state, private households) is analyzed from both a theoretical and empirical perspective. In this context, the instances that contribute to the reproduction of unequal living conditions are also presented. Second, various models of recent (e.g., intersectionality) and classical social structure analysis are presented.

Auszug: “Worlds of Production
Robert Salais und Michael Storper haben ein Modell zur Unterscheidung verschiedener idealtypischer Welten der Produktion entwickelt. Diese Welten sollen unterschiedliche Handlungsrahmen skizzieren, in denen sich Produzenten und Nutzer dieser Produkte bewegen. Ein wichtiges differenzierendes Moment ist das der Ungewissheit: »In the process of producing and exchanging, each person confronts uncertainty with respect to his or her own actions and those of others. This uncertainty takes radically different forms for each type of product, posing different dilemmas for actors with respect to others, but it must be resolved for production to succeed. This means that, for a given type of product, each actor must have the particular competence and resources needed to get around uncertainty by acting in ways expected and understood by others involved in the same productive effort. The result is a process of economic coordination« (1997, S. 26). Der Ansatz von Salais und Storper ist der ›Ökonomie der Konvention‹ zuzurechnen; dieser handlungsorientierte Ansatz interessiert sich dafür, wie Akteure in ökonomischen Beziehungen mit spezifischen Ungewissheiten z. B. in den Tauschbeziehungen umgehen. Die Lösung dieser Probleme wird darin gesehen, dass die Akteure auf bestimmte Konventionen, eine Art von ›Handlungsgrammatiken‹, zurückgreifen, die die Koordinierung von Interaktion, die Einschätzung von Objekten und Personen unterstützen und die so Interaktionen ermöglichen. […]  Im Kontext der Sozialstrukturanalyse interessieren insbesondere die verschiedenen Formen von Arbeits-Konventionen, die mit diesen Produktionswelten verknüpft sind. Wie oben bereits skizziert, liegt ein zentrales Problem aller Arbeitsbeziehungen darin, dass die Leistungen des Arbeitgebers über die vereinbarte Form und Höhe der Entlohnung mehr oder weniger präzise bestimmt sind. Demgegenüber sind die von den Beschäftigten zu erbringenden Gegenleistungen weitaus schwerer zu bestimmen; sie sollen gemäß ihrem Arbeitsvermögen effektiv zur Erstellung eines spezifischen marktgängigen Produkts beitragen. ‘For workers, this convention resides in work routines, customs and traditions, the development of shared expectations, learning, and the transmission of skills; use of material objects (equipment, tools) and work rules contributes to the convention by encouraging and stabilizing certain behaviors’ (S. 58). […] Die Vorteile dieses von Salais und Storper entwickelten Modells liegen auf zwei Ebenen; auf der Theorieebene bietet der Ansatz der ›Ökonomie der Konventionen‹ eine wichtige Erweiterung des puristischen ökonomischen Instrumentariums, indem die Rolle von Routinen und Institutionen in die Modellierung wirtschaftlichen Handelns einbezogen wird. Das vor diesem Hintergrund entwickelte Modell verschiedener Produktionswelten bietet eine grundsätzliche Alternative zu Phasenmodellen verschiedener Art – vom traditionellen Handwerk zur modernen Industrie, vom Fordismus zum Postfordismus etc. Es wird deutlich, welche Rahmenbedingungen dazu beitragen, dass ganz unterschiedliche Produktionswelten eine je rationale Lösung gegebener Problemkonstellationen liefern können.” (S. 132-136)

Extract: “Worlds of Production
Robert Salais and Michael Storper have developed a model to distinguish between different ideal-typical worlds of production. These worlds are supposed to outline different frames of action in which producers and users of these products move. An important differentiating moment is that of uncertainty: “In the process of producing and exchanging, each person confronts uncertainty with respect to his or her own actions and those of others. This uncertainty takes radically different forms for each type of product, posing different dilemmas for actors with respect to others, but it must be resolved for production to succeed. This means that, for a given type of product, each actor must have the particular competence and resources needed to get around uncertainty by acting in ways expected and understood by others involved in the same productive effort. The result is a process of economic coordination” (1997, p. 26). The approach of Salais and Storper belongs to the ‘economy of convention’; this action-oriented approach is interested in how actors in economic relations deal with specific uncertainties, e.g. in exchange relations. The solution to these problems is seen in the fact that the actors resort to certain conventions, a kind of ‘grammars of action’, which support the coordination of interaction, the estimation of objects and persons, and which thus make interactions possible. […] In the context of social structure analysis, the various forms of work conventions linked to these worlds of production are of particular interest. As already outlined above, a central problem of all labor relations is that the benefits provided by the employer are more or less precisely determined by the agreed form and amount of remuneration. In contrast, the quid pro quos to be provided by workers are far more difficult to determine; they are expected to contribute effectively to the creation of a specific marketable product in accordance with their work capacity. “For workers, this convention resides in work routines, customs and traditions, the development of shared expectations, learning, and the transmission of skills; use of material objects (equipment, tools) and work rules contributes to the convention by encouraging and stabilizing certain behaviors” (p. 58). […] The advantages of this model developed by Salais and Storper lie on two levels; on the theoretical level the approach of the ‘economy of conventions’ offers an important extension of the purist economic toolkit by including the role of routines and institutions in the modeling of economic action. The model of different production worlds developed against this background offers a fundamental alternative to phase models of different kinds – from traditional craft to modern industry, from Fordism to post-Fordism, etc. The model is based on the concept of the ‘economy of conventions’. It becomes clear which framework conditions contribute to the fact that quite different production worlds can each provide a rational solution to given problem constellations.” (pp. 132-136)

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Zur Integration des Modells der Rechtfertigungsordnung in die Wissenssoziologische Diskursanalyse

On the Integration of the Justification Order Model into the Sociology of Knowledge Discourse Analysis

Arne Böker (2022)

In: Bosancic, Sasa/ Keller, Reiner (eds.), Diskurse, Dispositive und Subjektivitäten. Anwendungsfelder und Anschlussmöglichkeiten in der wissenssoziologischen Diskursforschung. Wiesbaden: Springer VS, pp. 15-29.

Auszug: “2.3 Rechtfertigungsordnungen
Die Studienstiftung bildet einen Gegenort innerhalb des Bildungssystems zur reglementierten Massenhochschule, in der Leistungsdifferenzierungen verunmöglicht werden. Es soll nun der Frage nach den Qualitäten nachgegangen werden, die diesen Gegenort auszeichnen. Boltanski und Chiapello (2003) bieten mit ihren Ausführungen zum „Geist des Kapitalismus“ einen geeigneten theoretischen Ausgangspunkt zur Rekonstruktion dieser Qualitäten: „Der Geist des Kapitalismus verkörpert (…) eine (…) Gesamtheit von Glaubenssätzen, die mit der kapitalistischen Ordnung verbunden sind und zur Rechtfertigung dieser Ordnung, zur Legitimation und mithin zur Förderung der damit zusammenhängenden Handlungsweisen und Dispositionen beitragen.“ (Boltanski & Chiapello, 2003, S. 46) Die Gesamtheit von Glaubenssätzen lässt sich auch als Rechtfertigungsordnung bezeichnen. Akteure können darauf zurückgreifen, wenn sie Kritik ausgesetzt sind und sich genötigt sehen, sich zu rechtfertigen. Zugleich ist es möglich, auf Basis von Rechtfertigungsordnungen das Engagement für eine Sache plausibel zu begründen. Wenn also die Qualitäten der Studienstiftung untersucht werden sollen, so lässt sich nach ihrem Geist, nach ihren Glaubenssätzen beziehungsweise nach ihren Rechtfertigungsordnungen fragen.” (S. 21)

Extract: “2.3 Orders of Justification
The Studienstiftung forms a counter-place within the educational system to the regimented mass university, in which performance differentiations are made impossible. The question of the qualities that characterize this counter-place will now be explored. Boltanski and Chiapello (2003) offer a suitable theoretical starting point for the reconstruction of these qualities with their remarks on the “spirit of capitalism”: “The spirit of capitalism embodies (…) a (…) set of beliefs that are connected with the capitalist order and contribute to the justification of this order, to the legitimation and consequently to the promotion of the modes of action and dispositions associated with it”. (Boltanski & Chiapello, 2003, p. 46) The set of beliefs can also be called the justificatory order. Actors can fall back on it when they are exposed to criticism and feel compelled to justify themselves. At the same time, it is possible to plausibly justify one’s commitment to a cause on the basis of justification orders. Thus, if the qualities of the Study Foundation are to be examined, it is possible to ask about its spirit, its beliefs, and its orders of justification, respectively.” (p. 21)

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In der „Anti-Brennpunktschule “? Neopragmatische Perspektiven auf pädagogisches Unterscheidungswissen, schulische Leistungsordnungen und kategoriale Ungleichheiten

In the “Anti-hot spot school”? Neopragmatic Perspectives on Pedagogical Discernment, School Achievement Orders, and Categorical Inequalities

Kenneth Horvath (2022)

In:  Oleschko, Sven/Grannemann, Katharina/Szukala, Andrea (eds.), Diversitätssensible Lehrer*innenbildung. Theoretische und praktische Erkundungen. Münster: Waxmann, pp. 33-56. Open access.

Auszug. “Als wichtigste theoretische Bezugspunkte dienen diesem Ansatz neopragmatische Perspektiven, wie sie speziell in den französischen Sozialwissenschaften im Kontext der „Soziologie der Konventionen“ und der „Soziologie der Kritik“ entwickelt wurden (Barthe et al., 2016; Boltanski, 2010; Boltanski & Thévenot, 1999, 2007; Diaz-Bone, 2018; Imdorf, Leemann & Gonon, 2019). Die zentrale Anregung dieser Perspektiven liegt darin, professionelle Wissensformen sowohl in ihren logisch- argumentativen als auch in ihren praktisch-situativen Bezügen zu analysieren (also zu untersuchen, in welche übergreifenden Vorstellungen einer „guten und gerechten Schule“ sie eingebettet sind und wie sie für die Definition und Bewältigung konkreter problematischer Situationen genutzt werden): Unterscheidungen wie soziale Herkunft , Begabung oder Migrationshintergrund werden nicht vorab als relevant gesetzt, sondern in ihrer Einbettung in Argumentationen und Situationsdefinitionen rekonstruiert.” (S. 33-34)

Extract. “Neopragmatic perspectives, as developed specifically in the French social sciences in the context of the “sociology of conventions” and the “sociology of critique,” serve as the main theoretical reference points for this approach (Barthe et al., 2016; Boltanski, 2010; Boltanski & Thévenot, 1999, 2007; Diaz-Bone, 2018; Imdorf, Leemann & Gonon, 2019). The central suggestion of these perspectives is to analyze professional knowledges in terms of both their logical-argumentative and practical-situational references (i.e., to examine the overarching notions of a “good and just school” in which they are embedded and how they are used to define and address concrete problematic situations): Distinctions such as socia-le origin , giftedness, or migration background are not set as relevant in advance, but are reconstructed in their embedding in argumentations and situational definitions.” (pp. 33-34)

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Adult Education at Auction: On Tendering-Based Procurement and Valuation in Swedish Municipal Adult Education

Diana Holmqvist (2022)

PhD thesis. Linköping: University of Linkööping. Open access.

Abstract. Our understanding of adult education’s purpose and value is linked to how we think ‘good’ education should be organised and provided. This thesis explores the interplay between organisation and values by looking at how conceptualisations and valuations of adult education are affected when private providers become involved in public education.

For this purpose, the study draws on the example of Swedish municipal adult education (MAE). On the one hand, Swedish adult education is organised to compensate for structural inequalities and mitigate barriers to participation in education for citizens. On the other hand, private providers are allowed to make profits from their involvement in public education. Sweden’s combined commitment to universal welfare and the market make this a particularly interesting case to examine. Mainly contracted through tendering-based procurement, for-profit companies (and to a lesser extent non-public organisations) now service almost half of all MAE course participants. The thesis explores how municipalities construct the value and purpose of MAE when placing orders with private providers, and how teachers working in MAE reflect upon the purpose and value of MAE.

Drawing on empirical data from both procurements and interviews, the study shows that municipalities use tendering-based procurement to shape the public-private partnership and promote different values. On a national level, this creates a heterogenous landscape of adult education provision and valuations. Furthermore, the study shows that there are tensions between MAE teachers’ professional self-conceptualisations and the realities put forth by policy or constructed in the procurement process. Analysing how teachers navigate these tensions, the study shows that teachers work to resist reformation, while they also become complicit in enforcing values promoted through policy and procurement.

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Avaliação, Classificação e Decisões sobre Embriões In Vitro: As (Re)Apropriações das Normas pelos Embriologistas

Evaluation, Classification and Decision-Making on In Vitro Embryos: The (Re)Appropriations of Norms by Embryologists

Catarina Delaunay & Luís Gouveia (2021)

Antropolítica, 52, pp. 94-118

Resumo. Este artigo descreve, analisa e discute as formas de relação dos embriologistas com as normas padronizadas que orientam a sua prática profissional no âmbito das técnicas de Procriação Medicamente Assistida em termos de avaliação, classificação e tomada de decisão sobre o embrião humano criado in vitro. Com base em entrevistas realizadas com embriologistas de centros públicos e privados de Procriação Medicamente Assistida, problematizamos as formas de adesão e conformação à governança pela norma, ou, como contraposto, às modalidades de composição, adaptação, negociação, ressignificação e crítica das normatividades estandardizadas por parte desses profissionais de saúde de acordo com os seus próprios esquemas cognitivos, saberes experienciais e padrões normativos. Sistematizamos os critérios usados na decisão sobre os embriões a transferir, congelar ou descartar e propomos uma gramática de lógicas em termos de atitudes  e posicionamentos, mais ou menos rígidos, dos embriologistas diante dos standards e guidelines de avaliação e da classificação dos embriões.

Abstract. This article describes, analyzes and discusses the ways in which embryologists relate to the standardized norms that guide their professional practice in the field of Medically Assisted Procreation techniques in terms of evaluation, classification and decision-making about the human embryo created in vitro. Based on interviews conducted with embryologists from public and private Medically Assisted Procreation centers, we problematize the forms of adherence and conformation to governance by the norm, or, as a counterpoint, the modalities of composition, adaptation, negotiation, re-signification and critique of standardized normativities by these health professionals according to their own cognitive schemes, experiential knowledge and normative standards. We systematize the criteria used in deciding which embryos to transfer, freeze or discard, and propose a grammar of logics in terms of embryologists’ more or less rigid attitudes and stances towards embryo evaluation and classification standards and guidelines.

Extract: “Informação e conformidade, enquanto investimentos em formas (THÉVENOT, 1984, 1986) que geram formas do provável (THÉVENOT, 2002) associadas à grandeza industrial (BOLTANSKI; THÉVENOT, 2006) em termos de eficácia técnica (avaliação da qualidade e potencial de evolução do embrião) remetem para formas convencionais de coordenação da ação (entre embriologistas, médicos e beneficiários).
Alguns desses profissionais definem-se como “pragmáticos” (Entrevista B7.1), vinculando-se mais aos standards de avaliação técnico-científica dos embriões e procedimentos padronizados de seleção e rejeição, sem que essa decisão suscite em si qualquer tipo de inquietação. Como analisamos mais à frente, outros embriologistas introduzem uma maior complexidade de variáveis na descrição que fazem da tomada de decisão sobre os embriões gerados em laboratório (descarte, criopreservação, transferência etc.). Se a estandardização, ao produzir garantias públicas, em termos de regulação e objetividade, pode engendrar a pressão e opressão de um regime de envolvimento sobre outro (THÉVENOT, 2009), alguns embriologistas entrevistados contrariam essa sobreposição da norma padronizada mediante formas de envolvimento compósitas.” (p. 102)

Extract: “Information and conformity, as investments in forms (THÉVENOT, 1984, 1986) that generate forms of the probable (THÉVENOT, 2002) associated with industrial grandeur (BOLTANSKI; THÉVENOT, 2006) in terms of technical efficacy (evaluation of the embryo’s quality and potential for evolution) refer to conventional forms of action coordination (among embryologists, physicians and beneficiaries).
Some of these professionals define themselves as “pragmatic” (Interview B7.1), binding themselves more to the standards of technical-scientific evaluation of embryos and standardized procedures of selection and rejection, without this decision itself raising any kind of inquiry. As we analyze later, other embryologists introduce a greater complexity of variables in their description of decision making about laboratory-generated embryos (discard, cryopreservation, transfer, etc.). If standardization, by producing public guarantees, in terms of regulation and objectivity, can engender the pressure and oppression of one involvement regime over another (THÉVENOT, 2009), some interviewed embryologists counter this superimposition of the standardized norm by composite forms of involvement.” (p. 102)”

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Steuerung von Bildungseinrichtungen – Theoretische Analysen erziehungswissenschaftlicher Organisationsforschung

Governance of educational institutions. Theoretical analyses of educational organization research

Matthias Alke & Timm C.Feld (eds.)(2022)

Wiesbaden: Springer VS

Über das Buch. Eine Voraussetzung für die erfolgreiche Realisierung lebenslangen Lernens liegt in Bildungseinrichtungen, die den Rahmen für die professionelle Begleitung und Unterstützung individueller Lern- und Bildungsprozesse schaffen. Mit Blick auf die organisationale Ebene rücken dann Steuerungsfragen in den Fokus, die auch auf eine Erneuerung oder Verbesserung der strategischen, strukturellen, kulturellen sowie angebotsbezogenen Merkmale und Prozesse der Bildungseinrichtungen zielen. Der Sammelband zielt darauf ab, Potentiale als auch Grenzen unterschiedlicher grundlagentheoretischer Zugänge (Systemtheorie, Neo-Institutionalismus, Soziologie der Konventionen) aufzuzeigen, um steuerungsbezogene Fragen von Bildungseinrichtungen zu analysieren und empirisch zu untersuchen.

About the book. A prerequisite for the successful realization of lifelong learning lies in educational institutions that create the framework for the professional accompaniment and support of individual learning and educational processes. With a view to the organizational level, questions of control then come into focus, which also aim at a renewal or improvement of the strategic, structural, cultural as well as supply-related characteristics and processes of educational institutions. The anthology aims to show potentials as well as limitations of different basic theoretical approaches (systems theory, neo-institutionalism, sociology of conventions) to analyze and empirically investigate control-related issues of educational institutions.

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Production, Retailing and Consumption of Food. Commodity Chains before and after Covid-19

Conference 16./17.06.2022, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany

Organizers: Elmar Kulke, Linda Hering and Jakob Engel (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany), Nina Baur and Lara Espeter (Technische Universität Berlin, Germany)

Aims of the Conference

During the last decades, global economic interactions have been strongly influenced by the development of global commodity chains (GCC) which are linking different steps of production, transportation/logistics, retailing and consumption at different places all over the world. In the beginning, only manufacturing industries were organized on a global level. Today more and more fresh food, vegetables or flowers are coming from new-established export-oriented farming in countries of the Global South. All in all, in a globalizing world, how these global commodity chains are organized and develop is of great importance for the functioning of the economy and society. This is especially true for agricultural production in general and the production of fresh produce in particular which are especially sensitive sectors both for producers and consumers: While agriculture is only a minor economic sector in highly industrialized countries, in the Global South, agricultural production remains an important sector. Agriculture thus remains an important source of the livelihoods for large parts of the world population. Regional-, supra-regional and export-linkages open farmer reliable incomes and enable them to invest in improving the production; but they also have to obey social and ecological standards defined by retailing and consumption. However, the system also makes farmers vulnerable, if they face sudden changes through competition with new developing production clusters or external shocks like Corona. For highbrow consumers in the Global North, fresh produce such as flowers or exotic fresh fruit served out of season have been a source of distinction for a long time. More importantly, for not-so-well-off consumers, food is especially sensitive because eating is not only a necessity but in many parts of the world, poverty is still linked to lack of food. Even in Europe, the experience and fear of starvation is deeply engrained in cultural memory, as for long periods of European history, everyday lives were characterized by lack of food and famines. Before the Corona crisis, this seemed a thing of the past: Modern-day consumers experienced food and other fresh produce as a commodity like any other to be bought securely on a regular basis all over the year in the local stores without having to worry about their origins and availability. The Covid-19 pandemic has brought this seeming security to an immediate end: The sudden and ongoing lock-downs and restrictions of transport have shown how fragile and vulnerable global commodity chains in general and commodity chains of fresh agricultural products in particular are. Understanding how commodity chains, logistics, transport and communication for agricultural fresh products are organized and have been re-organized during the last decades, as well as comprehending the effects of the Covid-19 crisis on commodity chains thus is of utmost importance. Such analyses of should not only be based on theoretical considerations but also on empirical evidence and more detailed analyses. The conference will provide this empirical evidence. The main objective of the conference is to analyze how production, retailing and consumption of food interlock as well as how external shocks induce the (re-)organization of the commodity chains for agricultural fresh-products. We will particularly analyze the Covid-19 -down-induced) and the long-term (induced by attempts to establish of reliable and robust chains) positive and negative effects both on 2 the organization of commodity chains and the individual actors of the chain. We will inspect how the spatial distribution of commodity chains interacts with actors on the actor levels by combining the economic geography approaches of global value chains (GVC) and global production networks (GPN) with the economic sociological approaches of convention theory and world systems analysis. The Papers address one of the following questions:

  1. How were commodity chains organized and spatially structured before the Covid-19 crisis and what challenges did they face during the crisis?
  2. What are the driving forces of these changes? That is: Who are powerful actors in the chain(consumers, retailers, intermediaries, agricultural producers, policy-makers) and where are they located? Who acted when, why and with what effects as a consequence of the Covid-19 crisis?
  3. What short-term effects (during the crisis) and long-term effects (after the crisis) does this have on the spatial organization of the chain and on the actors of the chain? What effect does the organization?

Please register until 10.06.22. Contact: linda.hering@hu-berlin.de

Gesundheit – Konventionen – Digitalisierung. Eine politische Ökonomie der (digitalen) Transformationsprozesse von und um Gesundheit

Health – Conventions – Digitalization. A Political Economy of the (Digital) Transformation Processes of and around Health

Valeska Cappel & Karolin Eva Kappler (eds.) (2022)

Wiesbaden: Springer VS. Open access.

Ninth book in the series „Soziologie der Konventionen

Über das Buch. Die Open Access Publikation nimmt die Mobilisierung von Gesundheit als Kategorie in den Fokus. Dem pragmatischen Zugang zu Digitalisierung und Gesundheit der Économie des Conventions folgend, wird situativ aufgezeigt, welche Rolle bestehende und neue Formen, Konventionen und Objekte spielen, insbesondere im Zusammenhang mit digitalen Transformationen. Der Sammelband setzt sich damit von einer salutogenetischen oder pathologischen Betrachtungsweise, die den bisherigen soziologischen Blick auf Gesundheitsverhältnisse mitunter geprägt hat, ab und zeichnet die Pluralität der Konventionen im Gesundheitsfeld nach.

About the book. This open access publication focuses on the mobilization of health as a category. Following the pragmatic approach to digitalization and health of Économie des Conventions, it situationally highlights the role of existing and new forms, conventions, and objects, especially in the context of digital trans-formations. The anthology thus departs from a salutogenetic or pathological approach, which has sometimes shaped the sociological view of health relations to date, and traces the plurality of conventions in the field of health.

Table of contents

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Learning for life: ESD, ecopedagogy and the new spirit of capitalism

Rikard Hjorth Warlenius (2022)

Journal of Environmental Education, Online first

Abstract. More than a decade ago, critical ecopedagogue Richard Kahn expressed his fears and hopes regarding Education for sustainable development (ESD). He feared that ESD would be short lived and marginalized and would develop an instrumental pedagogy of one-sided transmission of knowledge, yet hoped for ESD to encompass three types of “ecoliteracies”: technical/functional, cultural and critical. After an assessment of current ESD, as reported by UNESCO, this paper concludes that his two first fears were unfounded, while his hopes regarding ESD’s pedagogical content were largely not met. To better understand the result, Luc Boltanski’s and Éve Chiapello’s analysis of “the new spirit of capitalism” is mobilized. According to it, current capitalism integrates “artistic critique” on e.g., lack of autonomy and creativity with greater ease than “social critique” with respect to e.g., poverty and inequality. This might explain what ecoliteracies that are integrated into ESD.

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Digitalisierung und qualitative Bildungs- und Sozialforschung. Kommentierte Suchbewegungen und ein Entwurf zur Systematisierung des Einflusses des Digitalen

Digitization and qualitative educational and social research. Annotated Search Movements and a Draft for Systematizing the Influence of the Digital

Maria Kondratjuk (2022)

In: Maria Kondratjuk, Olaf Dörner, Sandra Tiefel & Heike Ohlbrecht (eds.): Qualitative Forschung auf dem Prüfstand. Beiträge zur Professionalisierung qualitativ-empirischer Forschung in den Sozial- und Bildungswissenschaften. Opladen: Barbara Budrich, pp. 47-63. Open access.

Auszug: “Eine der grundsätzlichen Problematisierungen, die mit der Digitalisierung einhergehen, ist die Veränderung der Sozialökologien, die durch die Digitalisierung „einflussreiche metaphysische und sozialtheoretische Grundlagen (nicht nur) der qualitativen Sozialforschung in Frage“ stellt (Diaz-Bone 2021, o.S.). Formen der Sozialität, Informalität, Materialität usw. (und damit zur Rolle von nicht-menschlichen Akteuren/Aktanten und digitalen Dingen9) werden neu und anders verhandelt und definiert.10 Es gibt Ansätze, die explizit auf einer methodologischen Reflexion gründen, wie die Akteur-Netzwerk- Theorie (z.B. Latour 2016), die Situationsanalyse (z.B. Clarke 2012), die relationale Netzwerkanalyse (Fuhse & Mützel 2010), Sozialweltanalysen (z.B. Kondratjuk 2017) oder die Theorie der Konventionen (Diaz-Bone & Thévenot 2010) als Kombination neostrukturalistischer und neopragmatischer Zugänge, die Perspektiven für die angeführten Problematisierungen eröffnen (vgl. dazu Diaz-Bone et al. 2020).” (S. 59)

Extract. “One of the fundamental problematizations associated with digitization is the change in social ecologies, which through digitization “calls into question influential metaphy-sical and social theoretical foundations (not only) of qualitative social research” (Diaz-Bone 2021, o.p.). Forms of sociality, informality, materiality, etc. (and thus to the role of non-human actors/actants and digital things9) are being renegotiated and defined differently.10 There are approaches explicitly grounded in methodological reflection, such as actor-network theory (e.g., Latour 2016), situation analysis (e.g., Clarke 2012), relational network analysis (Fuhse & Mützel 2010), social world analyses (e.g. Kondratjuk 2017) or the theory of conventions (Diaz-Bone & Thévenot 2010) as a combination of neostructuralist and neopragmatic approaches that open up perspectives for the problematizations cited (cf. Diaz-Bone et al. 2020).“ (p. 59)

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Producing decent work indicators: contested numbers at the ILO

John Berten (2022)

Policy and Society, Online first

Abstract. The article investigates the production of decent work indicators within the ILO, to demonstrate that developing measurement infrastructures in global policymaking requires political work. The concept of decent work responds to the perceived marginalization of the ILO in social and labor policy and was supposed to provide a new unifying normative framework for the organization. The article shows that creating decent work indicators encountered challenges due to its highly politicized production process. Proponents of quantification (mostly workers’ representatives) and opponents (mostly employers’ representatives) disagreed about the function of indicators: should they be country-specific or allow for universal assessment of progress from above. In effect, although indicators of decent work have been integrated into the Sustainable Development Goals—mostly as part of goal no. 8, many are still incomplete. As a result, the indicators did not establish a “framework of assessment,” which would have been guided by universal standards of progress allowing the ILO to “govern at a distance,” and could not initiate a paradigmatic policy shift, impeding the infrastructuralization of measurement. Theoretically, the article advances our understanding of policy formulation and design on the transnational level by showing the political foundation of knowledge-based instruments. Empirically, it rests on a Grounded Theory-based analysis of key ILO documents, including Governing Body minutes, conference and expert meeting reports, and official publications, mainly from the period from 1998 to 2015.

Extract: “Indicators usually make invisible how they are constructed (Merry, 2011, p. S86), but “standardization and evidence are both socially embedded and politically contested processes of knowledge creation” (Elgert, 2015, p. 342). According to Desrosières (2016, p. 184; emphasis in original), producing numerical knowledge “entails firstly, agreement, that is deciding on the conventions, choice of objects and modes of equivalence and then, once these conventions have been finalised, proceeding with the measurement operations proper.” However, to make something comparable is an “active” construction of similarity, requiring epistemic and political labor, including potential contestation […]” (p. 4)

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Bildung und Soziale Ungleichheit. Deutungen und Erfahrungen von Lehrer:innen an Gesamtschulen

Education and Social Inequality. Interpretations and Experiences of Teachers at Comprehensive Schools

Laura Behrmann (2022)

PhD thesis. Frankfurt: Campus

Über das Buch. Lehrer:innen sind zentrale Akteure im Bildungssystem: Sie vermitteln Inhalte, gestalten Bildungsprozesse und bewerten Leistungen. Aber spielen sie auch eine Rolle für die Reproduktion sozialer Ungleichheiten im deutschen Schulwesen? Dieser weitgehend ungeklärten Frage geht die vorliegende Grounded-Theory-Studie anhand von Interviews mit Lehrer:innen an drei Gesamtschulen in Ost- und Westdeutschland nach. Die ungleichheitsreproduzierenden und -transformierenden Handlungsstrategien der Lehrer:innen werden rekonstruiert und die soziokulturellen, organisationalen und biografischsozialisatorischen Bedingungen ihres Auftretens erläutert. Die Studie füllt nicht nur eine Leerstelle in der Bildung- und Ungleichheitsforschung, sondern sie hält auch den bildungspolitischen Bedingungen für ein chancengerechtes Handeln von Lehrer:innen einen Spiegel vor.

Auszug: “2.3.3 Deutungsmuster und Konventionen
[…] „An die Fragen nach den handlungsleitenden Orientierungen und Deutungen schließen sich nun im Rahmen der Etablierung der Konventionensoziologie einige neue, kleine Studien an. Die Soziologie der Konventionen hat […] auch in die Bildungssoziologie Eingang gefunden (Leemann/Imdorf 2019). Konventionen meinen dabei „kulturell etablierte Koordinationslogiken“, die als Wertlogiken dem handeln von Akteuren in verschiedenen Welten situationsübergreifend, Wertsysteme anbieten […]. Das „Herausfallen“ der Spannung von „Fördern und Selektieren“ führt zum einen an einer aus randständigen Hauptschule zu einem Orientierungsdilemma, das zu entscheiden Lehrer:innen (und Schüler:innen) beschädigt (Straehler-Pohl 2019), zum anderen, so in Interviews mit Lehrkräften (2016/2017), zu der „Unmöglichkeit“ des Umgangs mit Begabung innerhalb der gängigen Konventionen (Horvath 2018).“ (S. 37)“

About the book. Teachers are central actors in the education system: they teach content, shape educational processes, and evaluate performance. But do they also play a role in reproducing social inequalities in the German school system? This largely unanswered question is addressed in this grounded theory study based on interviews with teachers at three comprehensive schools in East and West Germany. The strategies of teachers that reproduce and transform inequality are reconstructed and the sociocultural, organizational, and biographical-socializational conditions of their occurrence are explained. The study not only fills a gap in educational and inequality research, but also holds up a mirror to the conditions of educational policy for teachers to act in a way that provides equal opportunity.

Extract: “The questions about action-guiding orientations and interpretations are now being joined by some new, small-scale studies in the context of the establishment of the sociology of conventions. The sociology of conventions has […] also found its way into the sociology of education (Leemann/Imdorf 2019). Here, conventions mean “culturally established logics of coordination” that, as value logics, offer value systems to the actions of actors in different worlds across situations […]. The “falling out” of the tension of “promoting and selecting” leads, on the one hand, at an from marginalized Hauptschule to an orientation dilemma that damages to decide teachers (and students) (Straehler-Pohl 2019), on the other hand, according to interviews with teachers (2016/2017), to the “impossibility” of dealing with giftedness within the established conventions (Horvath 2018).” (p. 37)

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Ausbildungsqualitäten – andersartig, aber gleichwertig? Ein Vergleich konkurrierender Gesundheitsausbildungen in der Schweiz

Training qualities – different, but equivalent? A comparison of competing healthcare training programs in Switzerland

Raffaella Simona Esposito (2022)

PhD thesis. Wiesbaden: Springer VS. Open access

ABOUT THIS BOOK. Am Beispiel zweier konkurrierender allgemein- und berufsbildender Gesundheitsausbildungen – die Fachmittelschule mit Berufsfeld Gesundheit und die berufliche Erstausbildung Fachfrau/-mann Gesundheit – zeigt diese Open Access Studie, wie Qualität von Bildung sozial konstruiert wird. Die Ergebnisse veranschaulichen die Andersartigkeit der Lehr- und Wissenskulturen und tragen damit zur Erklärung ausbildungsprogrammspezifischer Bildungsverläufe sowie stark differierender Übergangsquoten in tertiäre Bildungsgänge bei. Ausgehend davon wird die Frage der Gleichwertigkeit allgemein- und berufsbildender Gesundheitsausbildungen in den Fokus gerückt und die daraus resultierenden Herausforderungen für die Rekrutierung des Fachkräftenachwuchses in verschiedenen Gesundheitsberufen diskutiert. Konzeptionell schlägt die Studie eine neue Perspektive auf die institutionelle Segregation von Allgemein- und Berufsbildung vor. Mit dem theoretischen Originalbeitrag der empirischen Rekonstruktion einer feldspezifischen Ausdifferenzierung der häuslichen Konvention wird das Konzept der Qualitätskonventionen im Hinblick auf den Bedarf einer konventionensoziologisch angeleiteten (Berufs-)Bildungsforschung weiterentwickelt.

About this book. Using the example of two competing general and vocational health education programs – the Fachmittelschule with Berufsfeld Gesundheit and the initial vocational training Fachfrau/-mann Gesundheit – this open access study shows how quality of education is socially constructed. The results illustrate the diversity of teaching and knowledge cultures and thus contribute to the explanation of educational trajectories specific to educational programs as well as strongly differing transition rates to tertiary educational programs. Based on this, the question of the equivalence of general and vocational health education is brought into focus and the resulting challenges for the recruitment of the next generation of specialists in various health professions are discussed. Conceptually, the study proposes a new perspective on the institutional segregation of general and vocational education. With the original theoretical contribution of the empirical reconstruction of a field-specific differentiation of the common convention, the concept of quality conventions is further developed with regard to the need for (vocational) education research guided by the sociology of conventions.

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L’expropriation par le droit. Propriété intellectuelle, valeur et travail

Expropriation by law. Intellectual property, value and work

Christian Bessy (2022)

Paris, Éditions de l’École des hautes études en sciences sociales

A propos du livre. De quoi la prolifération des droits de propriété intellectuelle est-elle le nom ? Telle est la question à laquelle tâche de répondre Christian Bessy en se plaçant au croisement de l’économie, du droit et de la sociologie. Fort d’un important travail d’enquête, il montre comment des choses jugées jusqu’ici inappropriables, y compris des éléments du vivant, sont devenues des « biens », des valeurs, objet d’un droit de propriété, au moyen d’une codification juridique rampante.Mais aussi combien cette extension donne lieu à de nouvelles formes d’expropriation de la richesse produite.
Les brevets sont en effet au coeur du développement économique des multinationales, des start-ups et de l’essor des nouvelles technologies. Cette croissance entraîne la naissance d’une vaste compétition où l’on croise inventeurs, souvent salariés, investisseurs, intermédiaires, avocats et juges qui bataillent sur le terrain flottant d’une juridiction internationale soumise à d’intenses contradictions.
En dessinant les contours de l’appropriation de la création intellectuelle et de la nouvelle classe de juristes qui y participe, l’auteur dresse le portrait en creux du capitalisme contemporain, où l’emprise du droit menace les travailleurs de l’innovation.

Extrait: “[…] il est nécessaire de présenter quelques éléments analytiques autour de la notion de « convention de valorisation » des DPI [droits de la propriété intellectuelle], notion qui permet d’examiner les pratiques ou les usages du droit en la matière, ainsi que leur évolution. […] 
Notre hypothèse est que les acteurs concernés par la procédure d’enregistrement ou de revendication des droits, par la délivrance des titres et par leurs différents usages, en particulier l’exploitation commerciale ou les différentes transactions (cession ou licence), cherchent à coordonner leur action en fonction d’un certain usage des DPI considéré comme légitime.
La notion de « convention de valorisation » est introduite afin d’éclairer cette coordination et la réduction de l’incertitude sur le comportement de tous les praticiens au cours des différentes phases de leur activité. La notion de « convention » est comprise ici au sens d’un accord inter-subjectif informel et auto-émergent, une acception proche de celle utilisée par Douglass North qui met l’accent par ailleurs sur le fait qu’une même règle juridique peut faire l’objet de plusieurs conventions d’interprétation. Par contre, elle se distingue du concept développé par David Lewis pour lequel le trait distinctif d’une convention est que, parmi un ensemble de choix possibles dans un jeu de coordination, un seul est implémenté de façon régulière au sein d’une population d’individus, comme celui de conduire un véhicule à gauche ou à droite de la chaussée. Nous considérons pour notre part que plusieurs conventions de valorisation peuvent coexister à la même époque, même s’il y a une convention dominante ou encore un langage dominant, car c’est bien de langage et de la diffusion de ce langage dont il s’agit.” (pp. 49-50)

About the book. What is the proliferation of intellectual property rights all about? This is the question that Christian Bessy tries to answer by placing himself at the crossroads of economics, law and sociology. Based on extensive research, he shows how things considered inappropriate until now, including elements of the living, have become “goods”, values, the object of property rights, by means of a creeping legal codification, but also how this extension gives rise to new forms of expropriation of the wealth produced.
Patents are indeed at the heart of the economic development of multinationals, start-ups and the rise of new technologies. This growth leads to the birth of a vast competition where inventors, often employees, investors, intermediaries, lawyers and judges battle on the floating terrain of an international jurisdiction subject to intense contradictions.
By drawing the contours of the appropriation of intellectual creation and the new class of lawyers who participate in it, the author draws a portrait of contemporary capitalism, where the grip of law threatens the workers of innovation.

Extract: “[…] it is necessary to present some analytical elements around the notion of “convention of valuation” of IPRs [intellectual property rights], a notion which allows to examine the practices or the uses of the law in this matter, as well as their evolution. […] 
Our hypothesis is that the actors concerned by the procedure of registration or claim of rights, by the delivery of titles and by their different uses, in particular commercial exploitation or different transactions (assignment or license), seek to coordinate their action according to a certain use of IPR considered as legitimate.
The notion of “convention of valuation” is introduced in order to shed light on this coordination and the reduction of uncertainty on the behavior of all practitioners during the different phases of their activity. The notion of “convention” is understood here in the sense of an informal and self-emerging inter-subjective agreement, a meaning close to that used by Douglass North, who also emphasizes the fact that the same legal rule may be the subject of several conventions of interpretation. On the other hand, it differs from the concept developed by David Lewis, for whom the distinctive feature of a convention is that, among a set of possible choices in a coordination game, only one is implemented in a regular way within a population of individuals, such as driving a vehicle on the left or right side of the road. For our part, we consider that several conventions of valuation can coexist at the same time, even if there is a dominant convention or even a dominant language, because it is indeed language and the diffusion of this language that is at issue.” (pp. 49-50)

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Sous les catégorisations, de l’allure du nouveau venu à la « culture » de l’étranger. Éléments d’une sociologie pragmatique de la phénoménalité de l’arrivant

Underneath the categorizations, from the allure of the newcomer to the “culture” of the stranger. Elements of a pragmatic sociology of the phenomenality of the newcomer

Joan Stavo-Debauge (2022)

SociologieS, Online and open access.

Résumé. Afin de mieux décrire l’acuité perceptive à l’œuvre dans l’hospitalité, ce papier introduit le concept d’« allure », qui vise à saisir les modes d’apparition du nouveau venu au sein d’un environnement équipé et parmi une communauté d’usagers dont il n’est pas familier. Le site d’investigation est fourni par une coopérative de logements pour étudiants à Genève, proche du mouvement squat qui fut très actif dans cette ville. En décrivant les embarras sensori-moteurs qui criblent les mouvements de l’étranger qui vient à la communauté, le présent texte invite à aller en deçà des catégorisations de sa provenance afin de mieux comprendre à quelles occasions elles sont mobilisées.

Extrait: “Après l’épreuve d’attribution, voyons comment l’étrangéité du nouveau venu se signale dans les espaces communs. Son allure y prend des tours spécifiques et il ne peut manquer d’en prendre conscience, ajoutant à son trouble initial. Il y a en effet une physionomie propre aux mouvements de quiconque se trouve dans la situation d’un nouveau venu : soit celui qui doit prendre part à un environnement qui a été apprêté par d’autres que lui et a pris forme avant son arrivée. Si ceux qui l’ont précédé ont dû eux aussi explorer cet environnement, ils sont depuis intervenus sur son aménagement. Ils l’ont non seulement équipé à leur convenance, mais ils y ont aussi laissé les marques d’une appropriation : « le geste d’exploration est aussi un mouvement d’appropriation, la curiosité finit par laisser une empreinte familière sur le lieu » (Breviglieri, 2015). Ils bénéficient d’une « familiarité » (Thévenot, 1994) avec les choses, qui fait défaut au nouveau venu. Avant tout problème inter-humain, c’est d’abord dans ses démêlés avec les choses qu’il se révèle. Très souvent « bricolées » avec des bouts de ficelles, piochées dans des bennes, ou « glanées » sur des chantiers, les choses qui peuplent la maison ne sont généralement « pas aux normes » : le nouveau venu qui s’apprête à en avoir l’usage ne peut donc compter sur les gestes routiniers qui conviennent à une « utilisation normale ». Pour parvenir à faire marcher un bon nombre d’appareils du Clos Voltaire, il faut une habileté spécifique. Les « accommodements » et ravaudages réalisés par les premiers occupants tendent à « singulariser le rapport à l’objet par des aménagements propres autant que par des gestes particuliers d’adaptation, des petits trucs qu’il y a à savoir pour le faire fonctionner » (Thévenot, 1994, p. 92) »

Abstract. In order to better describe the perceptual acuity at work in hospitality, this paper introduces the concept of « allure », which aims at capturing the modes of appearance of the newcomer within an equipped environment and among a community of users with which he is unfamiliar. The site of investigation is provided by a student housing cooperative in Geneva, close to the squat movement that was very active in that city. By describing the sensory-motor embarrassments that riddle the movements of the stranger who comes to the community, the present text invites to go underneath the categorizations of his origin in order to better understand on which occasions they are mobilized.

Extract: “After the test of attribution, let us see how the strangeness of the newcomer signals itself in the common spaces. His appearance there takes on specific turns and he cannot fail to become aware of it, adding to his initial confusion. There is indeed a physiognomy proper to the movements of anyone who finds himself in the situation of a newcomer: that is, one who must take part in an environment that has been prepared by others and has taken shape before his arrival. If those who preceded him also had to explore this environment, they have since intervened in its development. They have not only equipped it to their liking, but they have also left the marks of an appropriation: “the gesture of exploration is also a movement of appropriation, curiosity ends up leaving a familiar imprint on the place” (Breviglieri, 2015). They benefit from a “familiarity” (Thévenot, 1994) with things, which the newcomer lacks. Before any inter-human problem, it is first of all in his unraveling with things that he reveals himself. Very often “cobbled together” with bits of string, taken from skips, or “gleaned” from building sites, the things that populate the house are generally “not up to standard”: the newcomer who is about to have the use of them cannot therefore count on the routine gestures that are appropriate to a “normal use”. Getting many of the Clos Voltaire devices to work requires a specific skill set. The “accommodations” and adjustments made by the first occupants tend to “singularize the relationship to the object through their own arrangements as much as through particular gestures of adaptation, little tricks that one needs to know to make it work” (Thévenot, 1994, p. 92).”

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