Archives de l’auteur : GdL

The New European Political Arithmetic of Inequalities in Education: A History of the Present

Romuald Normand (2021)

Social Inclusion, 9(3), pp. 361-371. Open access.

Abstract. The article describes the emergence and development of positive epistemology and quantification tools in the dynamics of inequalities in education. It contributes to a history of the present at a time when datafication and experimentalism are reappearing in educational policies to justify the reduction of inequalities across international surveys and randomised controlled trials. This socio‐history of metrics also sheds light on transformations about relationships historically established between the welfare state and education that have shaped the representation of inequalities and social programs in education. The use of large‐scale surveys and controlled experiments in social and educational policies developed in the 1920s and 30s, even if their methods and techniques have become more sophisticated due to statistical progress. However, statistical reasoning is today no less persuasive in justifying the measurement of student skills and various forms of state intervention for “at‐risk” children and youth. With the rise of international organisations, notably the European Commission, demographic issues related to school population and the reduction of inequalities have shifted. It is less a question of selecting the most talented or gifted among working‐class students than of investing in human capital from early childhood to improve the education systems’ performance and competitiveness for the lifelong learning economy and European social investment strategy. This article attempts to illustrate this new arithmetic of inequalities in education at the European level.

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Mission Accomplished? Critique, Justification, and Efforts to Diversify Gifted Education

Arne Böker (2021)

Social Inclusion, 9(3), pp. 337-346. Open access.

Abstract. Research on gifted education demonstrates how these programs contribute globally to the reproduction of social inequalities. Despite these findings, gifted education has been remarkably successful in the 21st century. However, the need to equate the inclusion of women, first‐generation students, and students with a migration background in gifted education has simultaneously intensified. Both developments are embedded in profound transformations of the education system globally, especially in the social diversification of student populations and the concurrent demand for excellence in academic research. The German Academic Scholarship Foundation (Studienstiftung) is the largest gifted education program in Germany and one of the oldest worldwide. In recent years, the Studienstiftung has tried to diversify their students. Based on a discourse analysis, which uses the concepts of justification, critique, and regimes of justification, I examine official documents of the Studienstiftung between 1925 and 2018. In doing so, I show that the spirit of the Studienstiftung and their handling of social statistics raise doubts concerning the successful diversification of their students—as the Studienstiftung has claimed. Finally, I discuss several measures that might be useful to support social diversification in gifted education in the future.

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Kodieren als Beruf. Die Kodierfachkräfte, eine Beschäftigtengruppe des Krankenhauses im Spannungsfeld zwischen medizinisch-pflegerischen und betriebswirtschaftlichen Ansprüchen

Coding as a profession. The coding specialists, an employee group of the hospital in the area of conflict between medical-nursing and economic demands

Andreas Pfeuffer (2021)

PhD thesis. Kassel: University of Kassel.

Zusammenfassung. Gegenstand der vorliegenden Arbeit ist das 2003 in Deutschland eingeführte Abrechnungssystem von Krankenhausleistungen nach Fallpauschalen, die auf den Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) basieren. Die arbeits- und berufs- bzw. professionssoziologische, organisations- sowie medizinsoziologische Fragestellungen verknüpfende Arbeit, geht auf der Grundlage semi-standardisierter Leitfadeninterviews mit Beschäftigten unterschiedlicher Kategorien öffentlicher Krankenhäuser und Mitarbeiter*innen des Medizinischen Dienstes der Krankenversicherung (MDK) sowie teilnehmender Beobachtung und Analyse von Fachpublikationen der Frage nach, was in der Praxis in und zwischen den Bereichen des Krankenhauses sowie darüber hinaus im Umgang mit dem MDK formell wie informell (Rightcoding und Upcoding) geschieht, wenn eine Krankenhausbehandlung im Rahmen des DRG-Systems „abgerechnet“ werden soll. Dabei werden die Perspektiven der verschiedenen am Behandlungs- (medizinisch-pflegerische Trajektorie) und Abrechnungsprozess (DRG-Trajektorie) und damit an der «Fabrikation» der jeweiligen DRG eines Falles beteiligten Berufsgruppen auf das Abrechnungssystem, ihr praktischer Umgang damit, aber auch die zwischen diesen Berufsgruppen herrschende Arbeitsteilung, die Auseinandersetzungen um jurisdictional claims (Abbott) und die damit verbundenen Konflikte genauer in den Blick genommen. Die Ärzteschaft reagiert in Bezug auf die ihr obliegenden Dokumentationsverpflichtung vorwiegend vermeidend, wenn sie nicht gelernt hat, das Fallpauschalensystem «auszubeuten» (Werner Vogd). Der Pflegedienst, der lange Zeit Opfer des nicht zuletzt durch das Fallpauschalensystem initiierten Stellenabbaus gewesen ist, hatte ungeachtet dessen zunächst eine durchaus positive Haltung gegenüber dem System und den ihm zukommenden bürokratischen Aufgaben, etwa dem Kodieren im Rahmen der Pflegekomplexmaßnahmen (PKMS), entwickelt, was mit der Hoffnung, die Arbeit der Pflege gegenüber der ärztlichen Tätigkeit aufzuwerten und «sichtbarer» zu machen, als Anerkennungskampf interpretiert wird. Im Zentrum der Arbeit steht aber die Genese und Berufspraxis der Tätigkeitsgruppe der Kodierfachkräfte, die in den meisten Krankenhäusern für die Kodierung der Fälle im Rahmen des Abrechnungsprozesses nicht de jure, aber faktisch zuständig sind. Anhand der Kontrastierung der Berufsverläufe der Personen aus dem Untersuchungssample ergibt sich ein recht buntes Bild an unterschiedlichen vorangegangen Tätigkeiten, Ausbildungen (ehemalige Pflegekräfte, Medizinische Dokumentar*innen, Arzthelferinnen, Stationsassistentinnen) und Motiven für den Wechsel ins Medizincontrolling. In arbeitssoziologischer Perspektive werden auf der Basis der Interviews sowie teilnehmender Beobachtung der Arbeit auf den Stationen sowie des Kodierprozesses mit Patientenakte und „Grouper-Software“ die konkreten Arbeitssituationen und Arbeitsbedingungen, aber auch die Konflikte in den Interaktionen mit den Angehörigen des ärztlichen Dienstes dargestellt, bevor dann in Form einer Fallkontrastierung unterschiedliche Deutungsmuster, professionelle Dispositionen und Praktiken von Kodierfachkräften herausgearbeitet werden. Schließlich wird als letzte Phase der DRG-Trajektorie das Verhältnis der Organisation Krankenhaus zum Kontrollorgan der Krankenversicherungen, dem MDK beleuchtet. Aufgrund von realen oder vermeintlichen Fällen von Missbrauch und Abrechnungsbetrug herrscht ein Misstrauensverhältnis zwischen der Organisation Krankenhaus und den Kostenträgern, das in Form des Auftrags der Abrechnungsprüfungen an den MDK institutionalisiert ist. Hier wird am Beispiel eines öffentlichen Krankenhauses dessen Medizincontrolling als organisationale «Grenzstelle» gefasst, die mit der Organisationsumwelt (Krankenkassen, MDK) ein Vertrauensverhältnis zu etablieren bemüht ist.

Abstract. The subject of this PhD thesis is the billing system for hospital services based on Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG), which was introduced in Germany in 2003. The sociology of work and occupation resp. On the basis of semi-standardized guideline interviews with employees of different categories of public hospitals and employees of the Medical Service of the Health Insurance (MDK) as well as participant observation and analysis of professional publications, the study, which links sociological and professional, organizational and medical sociological questions, pursues the question of what happens in practice in and between the areas of the hospital as well as beyond that in dealing with the MDK formally as well as informally (rightcoding and upcoding), when a hospital treatment is to be « accounted for » within the framework of the DRG system. In this context, the perspectives of the various professional groups involved in the treatment (medical-nursing trajectory) and billing process (DRG trajectory) and thus in the « fabrication » of the respective DRG of a case on the billing system, their practical handling of it, but also the division of labor prevailing between these professional groups, the disputes about jurisdictional claims (Abbott) and the conflicts associated with them are examined more closely. The medical profession reacts in a predominantly avoidant manner with regard to the documentation obligations incumbent upon it, if it has not learned to « exploit » the per-case flat rate system (Werner Vogd). The nursing service, which has long been a victim of the downsizing initiated not least by the fee-per-case system, had, notwithstanding, initially developed a thoroughly positive attitude toward the system and the bureaucratic tasks incumbent upon it, such as coding within the framework of the nursing complex measures (PKMS), which is interpreted as a struggle for recognition with the hope of upgrading the work of nursing vis-à-vis that of physicians and making it more « visible. » However, the focus of the paper is on the genesis and professional practice of the activity group of coding specialists, who in most hospitals are not de jure but de facto responsible for coding cases as part of the billing process. By contrasting the career histories of the persons in the study sample, a rather colorful picture of different previous activities, training (former nurses, medical documentalists, physician assistants, ward assistants) and motives for the change to medical controlling emerges. From the perspective of the sociology of work, the concrete work situations and working conditions, but also the conflicts in the interactions with the members of the medical service are presented on the basis of the interviews and participant observation of the work on the wards as well as the coding process with patient files and « grouper software », before different patterns of interpretation, professional dispositions and practices of coding specialists are then worked out in the form of a case contrast. Finally, as the last phase of the DRG trajectory, the relationship of the hospital organization to the controlling body of the health insurance companies, the MDK, is illuminated. Due to real or alleged cases of abuse and billing fraud, there is a relationship of mistrust between the hospital organization and the payers, which is institutionalized in the form of the assignment of billing audits to the MDK. Here, using the example of a public hospital, its medical controlling is conceived as an organizational « borderline unit » that strives to establish a relationship of trust with the organizational environment (health insurers, MDK).

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Números Emergentes: Temporalidade, Métrica e Estética da Pandemia de Covid-19

Emerging Numbers: Temporality, Metrics and Aesthetics of the Covid-19 Pandemic

Alexandre de Paiva Rio Camargo, Eugênia de Souza Mello Guimarães Motta, Victor Luiz Alves Mourão (2021)

Mediações – Revista de Ciências Sociais, 26(2), pp. 311-332. Open access

Resumo. O artigo apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa em curso sobre as estatísticas de Covid-19 durante o primeiro ano da pandemia (março de 2020 a fevereiro de 2021) na qual se investigou a relação recíproca entre os números sobre a doença e a própria pandemia como experiência coletiva, com ênfase no caso brasileiro. Na análise são privilegiados três aspectos: a estética, as temporalidades e as controvérsias. A periodização proposta considera a forma como os números são apresentados e participam na construção da pandemia, a existência de três momentos, com características distintivas entre si. A noção de emergência serve para salientar a articulação entre o momento de crise e o afloramento das formas de quantificar. Demonstra-se que a pandemia, longe de infligir uma ruptura inteiramente nova na experiência social, constitui uma articulação original entre elementos que já existiam antes de sua eclosão, envolvendo, entre outros aspectos, as tensões opondo vida e economia, a complexificação do circuito de produção de dados e a retroação dos números públicos sobre a agência social.

Abstract. The article presents the results of an ongoing investigation on Covid-19 statistics during the first year of the pandemic (March 2020 to February 2021) in which the reciprocal relationship between disease numbers and pandemic itself was investigated as a collective experience, with an emphasis on the Brazilian case. In the analysis, three aspects are privileged: aesthetics, temporalities and controversies. We propose a periodization that considers, based on the way the numbers are presented and participate in the construction of the pandemic dynamics, the existence of three moments, each one with distinctive characteristics in relation to the others. The notion of emergency serves to highlight the link between the moment of crisis and the emergence of ways of quantifying. It is demonstrated that the pandemic presents a new articulation between elements that already existed before its outbreak, such as the tensions opposing life and economy.

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Uma Brecha Crítica na “Cidade Garantida”? Espaços Intermediários e Arquiteturas de Uso

The Guaranteed City: The Ruin of Urban Criticism?

Marc Breviglieri (2021) – Tradução de Yolanda Gaffrée Ribeiro

Revista Antropolítica, 52, pp. 375-416, Open Access.

Resumo. Este texto consiste na análise de uma dinâmica subterrânea de resistência. Essa dinâmica não surge como uma máxima agressiva, mas sugere a afirmação de uma alternativa àquela que o urbanismo tenta – atualmente em uma escala internacional – controlar, regular e orientar, apoiando-se sobre o princípio de uma cidade garantida, a mesma que gostaria de assegurar a qualidade de suas características, afirmando estar preocupada em compartilhar formas de avaliação. Essa cidade daria, assim, a garantia do que se considera “geralmente” uma circulação fluida, uma qualidade patrimonial, uma boa variedade de comércios, serviços eficazes, um grau de rentabilidade satisfatório aos investimentos etc. Ao oferecer ao citadino um espaço de escolha, essas propriedades da cidade garantida contribuem para o empoderamento (empowerment) do indivíduo, destinado a encontrar os meios de reforçar suas capacidades de autodeterminação. No entanto, a formatação de um espaço referencial e informacional que sustenta a construção da cidade garantida, tende a lhe retirar algumas de suas qualidades sensíveis. A metrópole contemporânea altera, neutraliza e esteriliza os ambientes mais desqualificados, os menos traduzíveis, o gênero daqueles que poderiam dar às cidades uma profundidade perturbadora, tonalidades afetivas cambiantes e oportunidades do desvio sem referenciais.

Extract: “Contudo, uma questão se coloca: como compreender este “indiscutível” e a sentença experimentada pela crítica, de modo a enfrentar esta autoridade estabelecida de forma potente? É preciso agradecer à Laurent Thévenot por ter voltado, explicitamente, a esse ponto que, geralmente, não está presente na crítica ao neoliberalismo e à globalização. Ou seja: a revelação dos seus fundamentos normativos não é suficiente e deve ser acompanhada de “uma viagem mais longa para desvendar os mecanismos inibidores do senso crítico” (THÉVENOT, 2013). Essa viagem supõe analisar, então, um “conjunto de dispositivos normalizadores e autoridades de regulação, ditas independentes e que fogem ao olhar do político e à sua crítica” e, ainda, se veem metabolizados e instrumentalizados em uma verdadeira “governança pelo objetivo” (THÉVENOT, 2013). Nas palavras desse autor, tal governança “reivindica o incontestável”, difundindo a prática de avaliação e o recurso aos indicadores que “qualquer pessoa seria obrigada a aceitar por realismo”, especialmente no caso de um formato bastante consensual: o objetivo mensurável a ser alcançado.” (p. 400)

Abstract. This text focuses on analysing an underground resistance dynamic. This dynamic does not emerge in the form of aggressivity, but rather suggests an alternative to what urbanisation is now trying, on an international scale, to control, regulate and direct by employing the principle of the guaranteed city, that is, a city that seeks to assure us of the quality of its properties and claims to share the evaluation of them. Such a city thus supposedly guarantees what is ‘generally’ thought to be free-flowing traffic, heritage architecture, a good selection of shops, efficient public services, satisfactory profitability for investments and so on. Provided for citizens in a given space, these properties of the guaranteed city contribute to the empowerment of individuals, who are supposed to find there the means of reinforcing their ability to make choices. However, the creation of a referential and information space which underpins the building of the guaranteed city tends to remove from it some of its palpable qualities. Contemporary cities change, neutralise and render bland the most indefinable and most untranslatable of atmospheres, atmospheres that could give cities a disturbing deepness, changing emotional tones, opportunities for wandering without knowing where you are going.

Extract. “However, a question arises: how to understand this « indisputable » and the sentence experimented by the critique, so as to confront this established authority in a potentious way? Laurent Thévenot must be thanked for having returned, explicitly, to this point that is not usually present in the critique of neoliberalism and globalization. That is: the revelation of its normative foundations is not enough and must be accompanied by « a longer journey to uncover the mechanisms inhibiting critical sense » (THÉVENOT, 2013). This journey presupposes the analysis, then, of a « set of normalizing devices and regulating authorities, so-called independent and that escape the gaze of the politician and his critique » and, furthermore, see themselves metabolized and instrumentalized in a true « governance by objective » (THÉVENOT, 2013). In the words of this author, such governance « claims the uncontestable, » spreading the practice of evaluation and the use of indicators that « anyone would be obliged to accept out of realism, » especially in the case of a fairly consensual format: the measurable objective to be achieved. » (p. 400)

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L’inventaire d’un petit monde. Étudier un groupe socio-professionnel à la fin du Moyen Âge. L’exemple des bouchers de Rome au xve siècle

Inventory of a small world. Studying a socio-professional group in the late Middle Ages. The example of the butchers of Rome in the 15th century

Cécile Troadec (2021)

Rives méditerranéennes, 62, pp. 87-101. Open Access.

Résumé. Comment constituer, ou reconstituer, le corpus documentaire propre à l’étude d’un groupe socio-professionnel ? C’est tout l’enjeu de l’enquête prosopographique lorsqu’elle s’intéresse à une profession. Plutôt que de se demander selon quels critères l’historien peut définir les contours du groupe, afin d’y inclure, ou d’en exclure, les multiples individus rencontrés au cours des dépouillements, il s’agit ici de prendre en compte le groupe tel qu’il est constitué par l’archive et les pratiques de l’écrit. À travers l’exemple des bouchers de Rome, connus grâce aux archives de la douane du xve siècle, on se propose de réfléchir sur la « cohésion de cet ensemble flou » qu’est le groupe socio-professionnel, pour reprendre une analyse de Luc Boltanski dans son essai sur les cadres.

Abstract. How to constitute, or reconstitute, the documentary corpus specific to the study of a socio-professional group? This is what is at stake in a prosopographical study of a profession. Rather than asking what criteria the historian can use to define the contours of the group, in order to include or exclude the many individuals encountered in the course of the research, the aim here is to take into account the group as it is constituted by the archive and the practices of writing. Through the example of the butchers of Rome, known thanks to the archives of the customs of the fifteenth century, we propose to reflect on the « cohesion of this blurred whole » that is the socio-professional group, to take up an analysis of Luc Boltanski in his essay on executives.”

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Data-driven remote governance of sparsely populated areas: measurement and commensuration of wildcat gold mining in French Guiana

Matthieu Noucher, François-Michel Le Tourneau & Pierre Gautreau (2021)

GeoJournal, Open Access.

Abstract. The increase in the price of gold, due to a shift to safe investments during the global economic crisis, has led to a rapid expansion of gold production. Alongside legal gold mines, wildcat gold mining has developed in French Guiana since the early 2000s. This phenomenon, with its social, environmental and economic consequences, is at the heart of the environmental governance of this territory. However, its difficult quantification is the subject of multiple controversies. Environmental governance is increasingly dependent on metrological regimes aimed at quantifying political action in order to objectify it. This article examines the role of metrology in implementing environmental policies in sparsely populated regions via the example of wildcat gold mining in French Guiana. Based on the study of two observatories, one managed by public authorities, the other by an NGO, we deconstruct their maps and counter-maps of wildcat gold mining. To do so, we make a distinction between measurement, commensuration and its diffusion. This focus on “measurement-commensuration-diffusion” allows us to identify three key phases in the production of nature statistics. We argue that the critical analysis of metrological processes through this three-step framework reveals methodological controversies that reflect different and even divergent political visions. The article also shows that metrological systems for environmental protection are the focus of targeted political disputes. It reports on the current disagreements—not only between the State and NGOs but also within the State itself—on the proposed solutions for fighting the impacts of wildcat gold mining in French Guiana and the broader issues of data production in Amazonia.

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Quantified Desistance: A Scoping Review of Conventions in the Scientific Literature

Marichelle Leclair, Ann-Pierre Raiche, Marjolie Latulippe, Théo Lepage-Richer, Yanick Charette, Laurence Roy & Anne Crocker  (2021)

Crime & Delinquency. Online first.

Abstract. This paper adopts a conventionalist approach to shed light on the measurement and reification problems that underlie the quantification of desistance from crime in the scientific literature. Analysis of 100 papers spanning three decades indicates that approaches based on theoretical classification have recently lost ground in favor of more sophisticated techniques aimed at empirically identifying subgroups. These techniques convey the impression of objectiveness among statistics users and consumers and, as a result, the classification “desisters” and “persisters” are increasingly reified. Findings suggest that the quantification of desistance is intimately linked to the maintenance of a classification system that constitutes delinquency as a stable category and contributes to “making” up new kinds of people over which institutions can legitimately intervene.

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La dynamique démocratique de l’économie sociale : une approche institutionnaliste de l’émergence et de l’évolution historique des organisations de l’économie sociale dans le capitalisme en France (1790-2020)

The democratic dynamics of the social economy : an institutionalist approach to the emergence and historical evolution of the social economy organisations in the French capitalism (1790-2020) – PhD thesis

Sylvain Celle (2020)

Thèse soutenue le 02-12-2020 à l’université de Lille , École doctorale SESAM, Clersé, sous la direction de Florence Jany-Catrice et de Agnès Labrousse.

Résumé. Notre thèse porte sur la dynamique de l’économie sociale dans le capitalisme français, du XIXe siècle à aujourd’hui. Les organisations de l’économie sociale (coopératives, mutuelles, associations, etc.) constituent des systèmes de règles originaux au sein des économies capitalistes. Une des originalités de ces organisations est d’articuler les activités d’une entreprise au service d’un projet associatif. On peut retenir trois principales règles constitutives des organisations de l’économie sociale qui les différencient des autres entreprises : la non-lucrativité, la solidarité et la démocratie. Afin de préserver la spécificité de leurs règles organisationnelles dans un environnement institutionnel capitaliste, les organisations de l’économie sociale ont formé leur propre espace qui apparait comme un système de règles méso relativement autonome. Mais les organisations et l’espace de l’économie sociale restent soumis à une pluralité de sources de régulations, endogènes et exogènes, qui peuvent fragiliser leurs spécificités. Une des hypothèses de cette thèse est que la démocratie, en tant que règle constitutive, favorise le pouvoir d’agir des acteurs de l’économie sociale sur les règles organisationnelles et institutionnelles. Cette démocratie joue ainsi un rôle déterminant dans les processus d’innovation, de différenciation et d’autonomisation de l’économie sociale par rapport aux régulations du capitalisme. A contrario, l’affaiblissement démocratique serait une cause déterminante de banalisation de l’économie sociale dans le capitalisme. Pour questionner cette hypothèse, nous nous appuyons sur le cadre théorique de l’économie politique institutionnaliste, à la confluence de la théorie de la régulation et de l’économie des conventions, afin de contribuer à la construction collective d’une approche institutionnaliste de l’économie sociale. Cette approche s’est appuyée sur une importante enquête historique, principalement à partir de méthodes qualitatives, sur l’économie sociale. Nous avons à la fois mobilisé des sources primaires (archives, entretiens, observations, etc.) et secondaires (littérature pluridisciplinaire). Trois études de cas approfondies sur des organisations de l’économie sociale en Picardie ont été réalisées : le Familistère de Guise (1840-1968), l’Union coopérative d’Amiens (1892-aujourd’hui) et les Ateliers de la Bergerette (1969-aujourd’hui). Une analyse des grandes évolutions de l’espace de l’économie sociale en France a également été menée en distinguant trois principaux compromis institutionnels d’économie sociale : un compromis libéral (1790-1880), un compromis républicain (1880-1970) et un compromis néolibéral (1970-aujourd’hui). Enfin, un dernier terrain a porté sur le développement de l’impact social qui témoigne de mutations profondes dans le compromis néolibéral d’économie sociale. En croisant les échelles d’analyse (micro, méso et macro) et les temporalités (court, moyen et long terme), ce travail de recherche permet d’approfondir notre connaissance historique et analytique de l’économie sociale. Il met notamment en lumière le rôle de la démocratie dans l’autonomisation et la différenciation de certaines organisations et certains espaces plongés dans des systèmes capitalistes.

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Abstract. This thesis focuses on the dynamics of the social economy in the French capitalism from the 19th century until today. Social economy organisations (cooperatives, mutual societies, associations, etc.) develop original rule systems within capitalist economies. One of the originalities of these organisations is to articulate the activities of a firm in the service of an associative project. Three main constitutive rules of social economy organisations differentiate them from other firms: non-profit, solidarity-based and democratic rules. In order to preserve the specificity of their organisational rules in a capitalist institutional environment, the social economy organisations have formed their own social economy space, which appears as a relatively autonomous system of rules at the meso-level. But despite their relative autonomy, the organisations and the space of the social economy are subject to a plurality of sources of rules, both endogenous and exogenous, which can undermine their specificities. One of the hypotheses of this thesis is that democracy, as a constitutive rule, facilitate the power of social economy actors to change organisational and institutional rules. Democratic rules thus play a determining role in innovation, differentiation and empowerment of the social economy processes in relation to the rules of capitalism. On the other hand, a democratic weakening would be a determining cause of the normalisation of the social economy in capitalism system.To question this hypothesis, we rely on the theoretical framework of the institutionalist political economy, focusing on the convergences between the Regulation Theory and the Economics of convention, in order to contribute to the collective construction of an institutionalist approach to social economy. The research is based on an important historical survey, using mainly qualitative methods. We have mobilised both primary sources (archives, interviews, observations, etc.) and secondary sources (multidisciplinary literature).Three in-depth case studies on social economy organisations in Picardy have been carried out: “Le Familistère de Guise” (1840-1968), “L’Union coopérative d’Amiens” (1892-present) and “Les Ateliers de la Bergerette” (1969-present). A survey on the major evolutions of the space of the social economy in France has also been carried out: three main historical institutional compromises of the social economy are highlighted: a liberal compromise (1790-1880), a republican compromise (1880-1970) and a neoliberal compromise (1970-today). A final field work focuses on the development of social impact on the social economy over the last decade: it epitomises profound changes in the neoliberal compromise of the social economy. By intersecting different levels of observations (micro, meso and macro) and temporalities (short, medium and long term), this research work contributes to deepening our historical and analytical knowledge of the social economy. It also helps to demonstrate the role of democracy in the empowerment and differentiation of certain organisations and spaces such as the social economy in relation to capitalist rules.

Site thèses.fr

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Demokratie stabilisieren und Bürger*innen stärken – zwei Seiten derselben Medaille?

Stabilizing democracy and empowering citizens – two sides of the same coin?

Reinhold Hedtke (2021)

PraxisForschungLehrer*innenBildung, Bd. 3 Nr. 3

Abstract. Der Beitrag diskutiert die politische Repräsentation und Partizipation von Kindern und Jugendlichen und den allgemeinen Zustand der politischen Bildung. Er thematisiert die Spannung zwischen sozialer und politischer Ungleichheit und dem Gleichheitsversprechen der Demokratie und begründet eine Akzentverschiebung hin zu einer interessenpolitischen Bildung für junge Menschen. Der Text unterstreicht die Kritikaufgabe der Wissenschaft, fordert ein Aufgreifen der Kritik der Leute und die Parteinahme der Fachdidaktik für Kinder und Jugendliche. Schließlich plädiert er für das Leitbild der schwierigen, unbequemen und gegenüber ungerechtfertigter Ungleichheit unnachgiebigen Bürger*innen.

“Die Kritik der Leute kann die Demokratie stabilisieren und stärken, wenn es so gelingt, sie zu verändern und zu verbessern. Der Soziologe Luc Boltanski und die Soziologin Ève Chiapello haben in ihrem Werk Der neue Geist des Kapitalismus die Macht der Kritik analysiert (Boltanski & Chiapello, 2003). Sie zeigen, wie Zyklen von Kapitalis-muskritiken immer wieder Transformationen des Kapitalismus angestoßen haben – Erneuerungen, die im Ergebnis das Überleben des Kapitalismus sichern. Renitente und radikale Kritik wird – so ist zu hoffen – auch die Demokratie zu Selbsterneuerungen zwingen, sie beim Überleben stützen und sie besser und womöglich anders werden lassen.” (p. 94)

Abstract. This paper discusses the political representation and participation of children and youth and the general state of civic education. It addresses the tension between social and political inequality and the promise of equality in democracy, and argues for a shift in emphasis toward interest-based political education for young people. The text emphasizes the critical task of science, calls for taking up the critique of the people and the partisanship of subject didactics for children and young people. Finally, it argues for the model of difficult, uncomfortable citizens who are unyielding in the face of unwarranted inequality.

« The critique of the people can stabilize and strengthen democracy, if it thus succeeds in changing and improving it. Sociologist Luc Boltanski and sociologist Ève Chiapello have analyzed the power of critique in their work The New Spirit of Capitalism (Boltanski & Chiapello, 2003). They show how cycles of critiques of capitalism have repeatedly triggered transformations of capitalism-renewals that, as a result, ensure capitalism’s survival. Renitent and radical critique, it is hoped, will also force democracy to self-renew, sustain it in its survival, and make it better and possibly different. » (p. 94)

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Roda de Conversa com Laurent Thévenot sobre o livro “A Justificação: sobre as economias da grandeza (2020)” será realizada no canal do InEAC no YouTube

Conversation with Laurent Thévenot about the book « Justification: on the Economies of Greatness » will be held on the InEAC YouTube channel

No próximo dia 24 de agosto de 2021, das 11h às 13h, será realizada uma Roda de Conversa com o professor Laurent Thévenot sobre o seu livro em parceria com o professor Luc Boltanski, intitulado: “A justificação: sobre as economias da grandeza”, cuja tradução foi recentemente publicada pela editora da UFRJ e traduzido por Alexandre Werneck.
Na oportunidade serão abordadas as contribuições e inspirações a partir do livro “A Justificação” e a sociologia dos “regimes de engajamento” nas ciências sociais no Brasil e diferentes lentes e abordagens das mesmas em estudos empíricos em diferentes campos disciplinares.

On August 24, 2021, from 11am to 1pm, a round of conversation will be held with Professor Laurent Thévenot about his book in partnership with Professor Luc Boltanski, entitled: « On Justification: on the economies of grandeur », whose translation was recently published by the UFRJ publishing house and translated by Alexandre Werneck.
The opportunity will address the contributions and inspirations from the book « The Justification » and the sociology of « regimes of engagement » in the social sciences in Brazil and different lenses and approaches to them in empirical studies in different disciplinary fields.

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Kunst en klimaat: een hedendaags dilemma

Art and climate: a contemporary dilemma

Lynn van Ewijk (2021)

MA thesis. Nijmegen: Radboud University

De opkomst van het cultureel ondernemerschap heeft de culturele sector veranderd. Naast de focus op de culturele en maatschappelijke missie die een culturele instelling vervult, wordt er ook aandacht besteed aan de zakelijke waarden. In dit onderzoek staan drie Nederlandse musea centraal die een eigen invulling hebben gegeven aan het cultureel ondernemerschap door relaties te onderhouden met bedrijven uit de fossiele brandstofindustrie. Dit is een sector waar maatschappelijke kritiek op wordt geuit omdat zij op een negatieve manier bijdragen aan de klimaatproblematiek. In de media wordt er aandacht besteed aan de relaties tussen culturele instellingen en de fossiele brandstofindustrie, maar ook activisten, zoals Fossil Free Culture NL, steken hun mening niet onder stoelen of banken. Medewerkers van drie musea, het Groninger Museum, het Drents Museum en NEMO, zijn geïnterviewd over de keuzes die zij maken, de waarden die zij belangrijk vinden en de manier waarop zij omgaan met de kritiek.

“Een belangrijk onderdeel van het uitvoeren van dit onderzoek is het toepassen van de Wereldentheorie van de sociologen Luc Boltanski en Laurent Thévenot (2006). Deze theorie biedt een theoretisch kader om de balans tussen de culturele en de zakelijke belangen van de casussen in kaart te brengen. De verschillende werelden kunnen toegepast worden om de legitimering van de culturele instellingen te verwoorden en duidelijkheid te scheppen over welke waarden belangrijk zijn. Om deze theorie toe te kunnen passen, wordt deze in een apart hoofdstuk uiteengezet en worden de verschillende elementen geïntroduceerd die van belang zijn voor het bepalen van de manier waarop de musea hun keuzes legitimeren.
De analyse aan de hand van de theorie van Boltanski en Thévenot wordt in dit onderzoek in eerste instantie gebruikt om de balans tussen de culturele en de zakelijke belangen van de musea in kaart te brengen. De werelden van de inspiratie, de domestieke wereld en de civiele wereld kunnen ingezet worden om de culturele belangen van de musea in kaart te brengen. De markt en de wereld van de industrie belichamen de zakelijke belangen van de musea. De wereld van de faam kan ingezet worden om zowel de culturele als de zakelijke belangen in kaart te brengen.” (p. 20-21)

Abstract. The rise of cultural entrepreneurship has changed the cultural sector. In addition to the focus on the cultural and social mission that a cultural institution fulfills, attention is also paid to business values. This study focuses on three Dutch museums that have given their own interpretation to cultural entrepreneurship by maintaining relationships with companies in the fossil fuel industry. This is a sector that has been socially criticized for contributing in a negative way to the climate issue. The media focus on the relationships between cultural institutions and the fossil fuel industry, but activists, such as Fossil Free Culture NL, do not hide their opinions either. Employees of three museums, the Groninger Museum, the Drents Museum and NEMO, were interviewed about the choices they make, the values they consider important and the way they deal with the criticism.

Extract: “An important part of conducting this research is applying the Theory of worlds of sociologists Luc Boltanski and Laurent Thévenot (2006). This theory provides a theoretical framework to identify the balance between the cultural and business interests of the cases. The different worlds can be applied to articulate the legitimacy of the cultural institutions and clarify which are important values. To apply this theory, it is outlined in a separate chapter and introduces the different elements that are important in determining how the museums legitimize their choices.
The analysis based on Boltanski and Thévenot’s theory is primarily used in this study to identify the balance between the cultural and business interests of the museums. The worlds of inspiration, the domestic world and the civic world can be used to map the cultural interests of the museums. The market and the world of industry embody the business interests of the museums. The world of fame can be deployed to map both cultural and business interests. » (p. 20-21)

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Lost and found: transforming assistance at digital Deutsche Bahn

Jörg Potthast (2021)

DFG-Sonderforschungsbereich 1187 « Medien der Kooperation »
Working Paper. Siegen: Universität of Siegen.

Abstract. Paying close attention to the intricacies of the episode below, this paper sets out to reflect in situ a shift to digitizing “lost and found” services. Foreshadowing a more extensive study on a contemporary redistribution of assistance at Deutsche Bahn, it refers to a pragmatist tradition concerned with preserving the condition of voice. Following this vein, it faces a purist critical attitude – epitomized in the practice of economics (Orléan 2014), which defends market forces (“exit”) as a way to outperform voice in any situation of decline, decay or dissatisfaction (Hirschman 1970). Anti-elitist suspicions, brought to perfection by another branch of social sciences, have become a powerful ally of this position. Rather than criticizing elitism and privilege, however, the present contribution draws on ethnographic research which displays the ambiguity of privileged users’ encounters with assistants. Exploring ambiguous patterns in the practice of assistance, it seeks for a politics of pity which has been largely absent from current appraisals of digital sociality.

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Governar pelas Normas

Laurent Thévenot (2021)

Tradução de Daniela Velásquez Peláez
[Translation of « Governer par les normes ». In: Conein, Bernard/Thévenot, Laurent (1997), eds, Cognition et information en société (Raisons Pratiques 8). Paris: EHESS, pp 205-241]

Revista Antropolítica, 52, p. 36-69.

Resumo. Para dar conta de uma forma de governança fundamentada nos standards de qualidade e, mais geralmente, da política da informação formal, Laurent Thévenot reconsidera as noções de norma e de informação. A maneira na qual é regulamentada a qualidade e na qual são fixados os standards excede a distinção habitual entre as normas sociais, standards técnicos e normas de verdade. O autor diferencia os tipos de normalização em função dos “formatos de informação”, que são, eles mesmos, relacionados a diversos regimes de envolvimento e a diversas formas de coordenação. Se origina assim um fundamento novo para criticar a standarização.

Abstract. To account for a form of government embedded on quality standards and, more generally,  formal  information  politics,  Laurent  Thévenot  reconsiders  the  notions  of  norm  and  information. The way in which quality and standards are regulated and fixated exceeds  the usual distinction between social norms, standard techniques and true norms. The  author  distinguishes  different  types  of  normality  according  to  “information  forms”,  which  are,  themselves,  related  to  different  engagement  regimes  and  coordination  approaches.  It  is  originated  then  a  new  ground  for  criticizing  standardization.

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Addressing Moral Concerns Raised by the Market. Review of “Élodie Bertrand, Marie-Xavière Catto and Alicia-Dorothy Mornington (eds), Les limites du marché – La marchandisation de la nature et du corps »

Review of « The Limits of the Markets – Commodification of Nature and Body »

Christian Bessy (2021)

Oeconomica 11(2), pp. 349-364.

Extract: « By questioning the construction of common values that allow one to call for justice, Picavet’s reflection can also be linked to the justification model developed by Boltanski and Thévenot (2006), who participated in the development of the economics of convention approach in France (Eymard-Duvernay, 2006; Diaz-Bone and Salais, 2011). These authors distinguish between different ways of constructing the “common good” (of “moving from the parts to the whole”), following a pluralist theory of justice that transcends communities. These principles of justice are in competition with each other, in the sense that in each justification, the other “common goods” are reduced to particular goods. Commitment to one common good has the consequence—as a kind of sacrifice—of limiting investment in other common goods. Thus, investment in the “market good” implies a constant search for commercial profit, without ever relying on tradition or on personal attachments specific to the “domestic good”. “Market logic”, in reference to Adam Smith’s political philosophy, allows the two concepts of “good” to be confused. The opportunism of the rich, through the business they do, contributes greatly to competition. Luxury thus benefits everyone, and the rich find selfish happiness not only in the enjoyment of their “goods”, but also in the multiplication of opportunities to trade, a multiplication considered as a “good” in the ethical sense. » (p. 360)

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