« Journées en l’honneur de Robert Salais » 19-20 Septembre 2019 (Cachan/Paris)

Organisé par Christian Bessy et Claude Didry

Programme provisoire

Mise à jour du programme : http://www.idhes.cnrs.fr/robert-salais/ 

Jeudi 19 Septembre (Après-midi)

13 h 30 : Accueil
14 h 00 : Introduction Générale
(Pierre-Paul Zalio, Michel Margairaz, Alain Trognon, Rainer Diaz-Bone)

15 h 40 : Pause

16 h 00 : Travail, Emploi et Chômage
(Bénédicte Reynaud, Hiromasa Suzuki, Alessandro Stanziani, Noel Whiteside)

17 h 40 : Pause
18 h 00 : Cocktail – Concert

Vendredi 20 Septembre

09 h 00 : Les Mondes de Production
(Frédéric Marty, Juergen Kaedtler, Pascal Petit, Michael Storper)

10 h 40 : Pause

11 h 00 : Rencontres
(Simon Deakin ?, Elisabeth Chatel, Jacques Léger, Joachim Nettelbeck, Jakob Vogel)

12 h 40 – 14 h 00: Lunch (buffet)

14 h 00 : Europe et Capacités
(Joëlle Affichard, Jean-Michel Bonvin, Bénédicte Zimmermann, Jean De Munck)

15 h 40 : Pause

16 h 00 : Quantification et Démocratie
(Florence Jany-Catrice, Ota De Leonardis, Martine Mespoulet, Laurent Thévenot)

18 h 00 : Conclusion Table-ronde
(Valérie Boussard, Olivier Favereau, Philippe Minard)

19 h 00 : Apéritif

Contact : gladys.germe@ens-paris-saclay.fr

Pour s’y rendre : ENS Paris-Saclay, 61 Avenue du Président Wilson, 94235 Cachan.

Salle Condorcet, Bâtiment d’Alembert, 2è étage

Gestaltung hybrider Entscheidungsarchitekturen zur Förderung kritischer Verbraucherkompetenzen

Jonathan Kropf, Jörn Lamla, Jan Marco Leimeister, Sarah Oeste-Reiß & Thorsten Weber (2019)

In: Internationale Tagung Wirtschaftsinformatik (WI), Workshop Digitaler Konsum: Herausforderung und Chancen der Verbraucherinformatik (Vol. 14). Siegen, Germany.

Abstract. Internetanwendungen, Soziale Medien, wirkmächtige KI-Algorithmen und Active‐Learning‐Technologien bilden heute bereits hybride Entscheidungsarchitekturen. Gemeint sind damit die oft unbemerkten Rahmungen innerhalb derer (Verbraucher-)Entscheidungen getroffen werden und die sich auf hybride Verbindungen von künstlicher und menschlicher Intelligenz verteilen. Die Gestalter solcher Architekturen werden dabei mit einer großen Machtfülle ausgestattet, deren Konsequenzen gegenwärtig nur schwer absehbar sind. Daraus ergibt sich für die Forschung die Frage, wie hybride Entscheidungsarchitekturen gesellschaftlich-wünschenswert gestaltet sein sollten, damit sie die kritischen Kompetenzen der Verbraucher erhalten und fördern, anstatt sie unbemerkt zu untergraben. Wir schlagen dafür ein hybrides Entscheidungsunterstützungssystem vor, das durch Erkenntnisse aus den Literaturbereichen der Rechtfertigungsordnungen, Mapping of Controversies sowie auf pädagogischen Aspekten zur Kompetenzförderung aufbaut. Methodisch folgen wir einem gestaltungsorientierten Vorgehen, dem sog. Design Science Approach.

Keywords: Hybride Entscheidungsarchitekturen, Verbraucherkompetenzen, Rechtfertigungsordnungen, Design Science, Mapping of Controversies

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A theory of predatory welfare state and citizen welfare: the French case

Philippe Batifoulier, Nicolas Da Silva & Mehrdad Vahabi (2019)

CEPN Working Papers, No 2019-03

Abstract. In this paper, we argue that the welfare state is an outcome of modern mass (total) warfare. The total war economy requires the participation of all citizens, erasing the difference between the military and citizens. Consequently, the war economy benefits from supporting the civilian population. The total war effect explains why a predatory state undertakes welfare programs. This is one of the contributions of the present paper. While welfare state is closely related to total warfare, social welfare is not. Fraternal social welfare in the United States preceded the New Deal and the rise of welfare state. Similarly, the French welfare system was born as citizen welfare and not state welfare. In fact, welfare programs were initiated in 1871 during the Paris Commune by workers under the name of la sociale, and it was established as a self-managed citizen welfare in 1945 before being displaced by government welfare programs. A second contribution of this paper is to explore the reappropriating effect or the way self-managed citizen welfare was transformed into a welfare state through a three stage process of reforms in 1946, 1967, and 1996.

Keywords: Citizen welfare; La Sociale; Predatory state; State reappropriation effect; Total war effect; Welfare state (search for similar items in EconPapers)

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Replications in quantitative and qualitative methods: a new era for commensurable digital social sciences

Dominique Boullier (2018)

Working paper to be published by the University of Siegen (D)

Abstract. Social sciences were built from comparison methods assembling field works and data, either quantitative or qualitative. Big Data offers new opportunities to extend this requirement to build commensurable data sets. The paper tells the story of the two previous quantification eras (census and polls) in order to demonstrate the need for a new agency to be considered as the target of this new generation of social sciences: that of objects as Actor Network Theory proposed and of replications that propagate all over the digital networks. The case study of Latour’s topofil of Boa Vista is revisited to explore how a qualitative method dedicated to comparison and an Actor Network Theory approach extended in a replication theory may offer new insights from any field study and may use the digital ressources to do so.

Excerpt. “It is necessary to note that a convention (Eymard-Duvernay and al., 2004) was formed between data producers from the state administrations and the emerging social sciences. Together they produced the entity society as the object to be tracked by the state for the purpose of governing and to be explained for scientific reasons. The result is the widely shared and obvious fact that society exists, and the methods that allow it to do so have no grounds to be questioned because they demonstrate both their scientific and their operational value: they are ‘tools of proof’ and ‘tools of government’ as Desrosières (2014) put it.”

(p. 4)

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An Overview of German New Economic Sociology and the Contribution of the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies

John Wilkinson (2019)

Cologne Max Planck Institute for the Studies of Societies

Abstract. New economic sociology (NES) in Germany has many similarities with economic sociology in the United States in its conscious efforts to institutionalize its presence within the broader sociology community, its promotion of a canon via handbooks, and its focus on the sociology of markets. At the same time, it differs in its stronger connections to the German classics, the greater vitality of a macrosociological tradition in Germany, the prior existence of a « bridging » generation of economic sociologists, and its later consolidation in a period of neo-liberal globalization, all of which have given NES in the German-speaking world a distinctive character. In addition, it has been influenced by successive waves of French economic sociology – Bourdieu, convention, and actor-network theory – and its bilingual academic tradition has ensured its integration into English-speaking NES. In its contribution to the sociology of markets, the fact that NES emerged later in Germany than in the US led to a greater concern with quality markets rather than commodity markets, and a concomitantly greater attention to issues of value and price. These latter themes, in their turn, establish a continuity with German economic sociology’s enduring concern with understanding the role of money. Not surprisingly, therefore, German NES is now making key contributions to discussions on the sociology of money and is increasingly situating its analysis within the broader dynamic of capitalism and current processes of financialization.

Keywords: German economic sociology, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies and economic sociology, new economic sociology

Excerpt: « From the point of view of economic sociology, Diaz-Bone has played the most important role in promoting French convention theory in Germany, both in his numerous articles, chapters, and books, and by promoting key convention authors in German publications. Diaz-Bone makes it clear that this current is not reducible to the figure of Boltanski30 alone, and that within a broadly shared framework many different lines of analysis have been developed – by Robert Salais and Michael Storper on models of industrial production, André Orléan on money, Alain Desrosières on statistics, François Eymard-Duverney on forms of coordination, Laurent Thévenot on the plurality of forms of engagement, and Olivier Favereau on conventions in economic theory. In addition, Diaz-Bone has made original contributions on the law and the economy from a convention perspective. His systematic presentation of the origins, development, and theoretical contributions of convention theory has been published as Die “Economie des conventions”: Grundlagen und Entwicklungen der neuen französischen Wirschaftssoziologie. »

(p. 16)

Link to the working paper

Fruitful cooperation: a supply chain perspective on food waste innovation

Brian van Alebeek (2018)

Master thesis. Nijmegen: Radboud University.

Abstract. This study explores the factors and contexts behind food waste generation within food supply chains, and comes with suggestions for the role of intermediary organisations to promote supply chain coordination and innovation. The study builds upon Supply Chain Management (SCM) approaches and connects them with strands of Convention Theory, Global Value Chains, and concepts of power and responsibility. The empirical data is obtained using a sequential mixed methods design, including a survey and interviews with SMEs in the agriculture and food sector. The research focuses specifically on intermediary organisation Food Waste Xperts, which operates from the Dutch town of Veghel. The study concludes that food waste innovation in existing food supply chains is difficult to achieve, due to high degrees of specialisation and efficiency, which render adaptations complex and costly. Besides, companies appear to take little responsibility for the contribution of their business operations to food waste generation in other segments of the supply chain. Therefore, intermediaries have a critical role in addressing individual firms’ problems, as well as in advancing systemic approaches to innovation, in order to identify common interests and leverage points among supply chain partners. They also play a role in connecting niche markets to mainstream developments.

“This research builds upon the work of two major strands in food-related research. On the side of supply chain collaboration and innovation, attention is given to modes of cooperation and coordination along the supply chain. These relationships are interpreted on the basis of Supply Chain Management approaches, and specifically look how supply chains are dynamically constituted, subsequently producing certain relations of power and responsibility among agents. On the side of routinised practices, recent development in the field of Convention theory are employed to analyse supply chain interactions. From this perspective, certain agreements and regularities emerge in supply chains over time, which relates to matters of power and responsibility on the side of supply chain management. However, these regularities in economic action are justified by making references to specific ‘orders of worth’, as they have been described in the work of French sociologists Laurent Thévenot and Luc Boltanski (Thévenot et al., 2000; Boltanski & Thévenot, 2006 [1991]). The orders of worth can also be used to analyse the urgency in companies to reduce food waste, as well as to assess whether or not reduction strategies will be accepted by other companies relatively easily. The orders of worth are also related to the literature on Alternative Food Networks (AFNs), which also appeal to food waste mitigation. The question is, however, whether food waste reduction is really something that can only be addressed in alterity, or if there are also feasible leverage points to incorporate food waste reduction in conventional food systems. Furthermore, both theories were approached from a relational perspective, which means that network and supply chain relations were not conceived as being stable and fixed entities, but rather they are dynamic and constantly (re)constructed in relation with a wide variety of actors.”

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Die Auswirkungen rechtlicher Unsicherheit auf Produktionskonventionen in der Low-Budget Musikindustrie

Simon Schrör (2019)
Organized Creativity Discussion Paper No. 19/1

Zusammenfassung. Akteure in der Low-Budget Musikindustrie haben heute durch die Digitalisierung der Musik-branche weitreichende Möglichkeiten, mit geringem finanziellen und organisationalen Auf-wand professionelle Musikprodukte herzustellen und zu veröffentlichen. Fremdreferenziell arbeitende Musiker, etwa im Hip-Hop sind jedoch zusätzlich mit der komplexen und biswei-len unklaren Rechtslage konfrontiert. Die Majorlabels sind in der Lage, auf diese Herausfor-derungen einzelfallbezogen und präzise mit eigenen Rechtsabteilungen und großen finanziel-len Mitteln zu reagieren, um die rechtlichen, künstlerischen und wirtschaftlichen Unsicher-heiten abzufedern. Dieselben Anforderungen gelten jedoch auch für die Akteure in der Low-Budget Musikindustrie, die nicht über die Ressourcen verfügen, so präzise zu reagieren. Die-se Arbeit stellt dar, wie unterschiedlich sich diese Unsicherheiten auf Produktionskonventio-nen auswirken. Das eine Artefakt wurde im Sinne einer rechtlich abgesicherten, einverständ-nisbezogenen Konvention produziert und verzichtet somit auf die Kulturpraxis des freien Samplings. Das andere Artefakt entstand unter einer, das Recht bewusst ignorierenden Pro-duktionskonvention und nimmt bei großer künstlerischer Freiheit hohe rechtliche Risiken in Kauf.

The Impact of Legal Uncertainty on Conventions of Production in the Low-Budget Music Industry

Abstract. The digitization of the music industry allows Actors in the low-budget music industry far-reaching opportunities to produce and publish professional music products with low financial and organizational effort. Musicians who use samples, for example in hip-hop, are addition-ally confronted with the complex and sometimes unclear legal situation. The big music cor-porations are able to respond to these challenges with accuracy on a case-by-case basis with their own legal departments and large financial resources to cope with the legal, artistic and economic uncertainties. However, the same requirements also apply to actors in the low-budget music industry who do not have the resources to react and respond so accurately. This work shows how different these uncertainties affect conventions of production. The one artifact was produced under a legally secured, consent-based convention and thus dispenses with the cultural practice of free sampling. The other artifact was created under a production convention deliberately ignoring the law and, with great artistic freedom, accepts great legal risks.

Keywords: Sampling, Creativity, Copyright, Music Production, Conventions, Uncertainty, Hip-Hop
Kreativität, Urheberrecht, Musikproduktion, Konventionen, Unsicherheit

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The transformations of conventions for patent use and the role of legal intermediaries

Christian Bessy (2019)

HAL Id: halshs-01872163

Abstract. Today, the patent system is facing a paradox. It has never been so successful, yet at the same time it has attracted severe criticism, such as the call to return to the « commons ». This article argues that the success of the patent at the ‘macro’ level is linked to the proliferation of the ways it is used at the ‘micro’ level: as a tool for the protection and diffusion of innovations, as an instrument of market power and technological valorisation, as a signal and instrument of negotiation, as a valuable corporate asset. These uses would somehow be superimposed since the genesis of the patent system, without cancelling the previous ones. This article proposes an analysis of the contemporary evolution of this legal institution by distinguishing different conventions for patent use as well as legal intermediaries which contribute to their definition, diffusion, and transformation, in particular patent attorneys. Although this explanatory outline draws mainly on the case of France, it can be extended to other countries.

Keywords JEL: O31 – Innovation and invention: processes and incentives, O34 – Intellectual property rights, L15- Information and product quality, K49 – Legal procedure

Link to HAL

Economics of convention as a complex pragmatist institutionalism

Seminar session given by Rainer Diaz-Bone at the University of Grenoble 12 February 9.30-11.30

Spécaliste de l’économie des conventions, et principal relais à l’international de cette école théorique, Rainer Diaz-Bone nous fera part des perspectives de cette approche théorique, en particulier sur la question des institutions et de la connaissance. Il présentera également certaines pistes sur la façon de mobiliser l’économie des conventions dans le domaine de l’économie territoriale

Lien vers le laboratoire Pacte

The cultural logics in the field of scientific policy advice in France. Analyzing the justifications in the organizational identity of think tanks

Thomas Laux (2018)

Working Paper n°139, Paris: MSH.

Abstract. The number of think tanks in environmental and energy policies has rapidly grown since the 1990s in France. The study analyzes the ways think tanks legitimate themselves and how they qualify their expertise in order to explore the field of scientific policy advice in environmental and energy policies. Based on the analysis of 59 mission statements, the study shows that six of Boltanski and Thévenot’s orders of worth are used to gain legitimacy and to characterize the expertise of the think tanks. The inspired and the ecological order of worth take up the greatest share in the mission statements.

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A Conventionalist Perspective On Information Security Policies in Organisations

Dominik Zellhofer (2018)

Association for Information Systems, AIS Electronic Library (AISeL), Research-in-Progress Papers, 15.

Abstract. Concern for information security is a major driver for policy implementation, and with new regulations like the General Data Protection Regulation, almost all types of organisations face the challenge of implementing and applying information security policies. Information security standards guide these processes, but the challenge of ensuring compliance is still a major issue, despite extensive information security research in this aspect. The lack of versatility in theoretical approaches led to calls for sociological approaches to contribute to the literature, but they were only partly addressed. The proposed framework of convention theory can serve as a fruitful approach, providing a pragmatic and contextualized perspective and a strong theoretical foundation from sociology. By adopting a conventionalist view of information security policies, attention is focused on issues of legitimacy without limiting the analysis to a solely structuralist perspective. This research in progress tries to take first steps in building a conventionalist framework for case-based research by introducing some of the main concepts of convention theory and illustrates possible implications for information security research and practice.

Keywords: Information Security Policy, Convention Theory, Compliance, Legitimacy.

Link to AIS eLibrary

Towards a comprehensive understanding of new regional industrial path development

Robert Hassink, Arne Isaksen & Michaela Trippl (2018)

Papers in Economic Geography and Innovation Studies

Abstract. New regional industrial path development is a key concept in economic geography, as it contributes to explaining regional economic inequalities and forms the basis for place-based innovation policies. So far, particularly scholars within the Utrecht school of evolutionary economic geography have pioneered research on this topic. In this paper, we critically discuss their work and conclude that their understanding of path development is too narrow. We develop a future research agenda, which stresses the need to develop a multi-actor and multiscalar approach, to integrate the future into analyses of path development and to offer a broader view on inter-path relations.

Excerpt: « Third, expectations, visions and conventions are key to analyze in future research on new path development. How do shared expectations, visions and conventions come into place and what role does colocation play in that process? How do they influence new path development? Why do shared expectations, visions and conventions in some cases contribute to new path development and why do they in other cases block new path development? In answering these questions, EEG scholars can, as suggested by Steen (2016b), draw on the literature from socio-technical transitions and the sociology of expectations (Borup et al., 2006). »

Keywords: new regional industrial path development; multi-actor approach, multiscalar approach, inter-path relations.

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Des critiques populaires aux critiques populistes

Julien Charles (2018)

CriDIS Working Papers n°73

Cette étude prend pour point de départ les critiques émises par les ouvriers à l’égard de leur management au sein d’une usine du groupe Caterpillar. Elle s’intéresse aux types de communauté qui soutiennent différentes modalités d’expression du doute, en portant attention à leur articulation aux discours syndicaux.
Capitalisant sur cette analyse, l’auteur propose quelques comparaisons avec les critiques formulées par les plusieurs mouvements populistes (en Finlande, en Italie et aux Etats-Unis). Cette confrontation permet d’ouvrir des pistes de réflexion autour de la provocation comme forme commune aux critiques populaires et populistes, imposant par là un décalage important avec les analyses classiques du populisme en termes de comportements électoraux ou corpus idéologiques.

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Digital platforms and the new spirit of capitalism: A study into the digital game industry

Luiz Ojima Sakuda (2018)

Abstract. Digitization and an enhanced creative component change industry dynamics. One of the most visible recent phenomena is the strengthening of multilateral platforms in traditional industries, a process known as “uberization.” Based on the Theory of Conventions (TC), this text aims to understand the logic of values related to platforms, highlighting how these adhere to the Convention of Projects, characterized by permanently encouraging activities, maximizing flexibility and mobility. The author surveyed the digital game industry, at once digital and creative, in three countries (Brazil, South Korea, and Finland). Resorting to mixed methods, this analysis illustrates how platforms follow the project logic, typical of the new spirit of capitalism. This article discusses contradictory potentialities and research needs of the economy of culture and other industries: precarization of labor and increased platform power coexist with the commercial viability of niche producers and cultural resistance; the transparency of assessments and algorithms increase predictability for suppliers and customers and can, at the same time, raise higher barriers for new players.

This chapter is based on the PhD thesis “Plataformas como novo tipo de governança de cadeias globais de valor: estudo na indústria de jogos digitais” (Platforms as a new type of global value chain governance: study into the digital gaming industry), directed by Afonso Fleury and defended in 2016 in the framework of the graduate study program in Production Engineering of the Escola Politécnica, University of São Paulo.

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Demographic change as dystopia. Contemporary German discourses on ageing, between science and politics

Reinhard Messerschmidt (2017)

In: Loffeier, Iris/Majerus, Benoît/Moulaert Thibauld (eds.)(2017): Framing age. Abingdon: Routledge.

Abstract. Embedded in a long tradition of demographic dystopias, which Spanish demographer Andreu Domingo (2008) examined in the popular literature of the last two centuries, contemporary discourses of demographic change raise a variety of questions. Over 20 years ago, gerontologist Stephen Katz stated that ‘popular and professional discourses which currently accentuate the demographic features of aging populations are characterized by their alarmism’ and named this phenomenon ‘alarmist demography’ (1992, p. 204). He situated such alarmism in governmental narratives on the aged sub-population and its collective dependency, where popular media and think tanks ‘depict the elderly emptying the coffers of the welfare state and creating a tax burden beyond the means of the labour force to support’, giving the appearance that ‘the growing aging population is threatening to create an economic crisis with profound consequences for healthcare systems, social security programmes, industrial and intergenerational relations’ (ibid., pp. 203–204). This chapter will resituate in the present what he could see so clearly in the past. 1 Demographic change, typically understood as the ageing of the population (Schimany, 2003) with respect to its subsequent shrinkage (Kaufmann, 2005), has become commonplace in German social-science and mass-media discourse since the turn of the millennium. Although the ‘fear of population decline’ ebbed and flowed over the past century, according to Teitelbaum and Winter (1985, p. 1), ‘depending both upon demographic realities and perceptions of the links between population change and economic, social, and political power’, the ‘flow’ of contemporary discourses should be understood in the context of strategies of governmentality addressing individual and population ageing. In fact, the current flow can be interpreted as resulting from the prevailing economization of the social (Bröckling, 2007) and embedded in specific programmes of governmentality, such as the growing entrepreneurship of the self(s), which can no longer expect social care from the state. Declarations that social security systems are endangered and consequently need to be increasingly privatized are legitimized by demographic claims to knowledge of the future, which we will refer to as ‘future knowledge’ (Hartmann & Vogel, 2010). This can be interpreted as being part of contemporary ‘neosocial governmentality’ 20 (Lessenich, 2008) or the ‘neosocial market economy’ (Vogelmann, 2012). As this chapter will show, privatization of benefits (for insurance companies, the financial market, and the ‘silver economy’ driven by the rising consumption by older people and for age-specific needs) contrasts with the socialization of costs (e.g. prolonged working life/later retirement, ‘active’ and productive ageing, direct or indirect cuts in social insurance). Nevertheless, governmental programmes and associated governments of the self are not necessarily successful (Bröckling et al., 2010), because individuals can always partially or entirely reject the related discourses.


Furthermore, Alain Desrosières discussed the problem of tension between realism and conventionalism specifically regarding the criteria for quality in official statistics and concluded that differentiation based on structuralism-inspired compromise solutions10 can help people to ‘understand the often obscure debates and controversies triggered by statistical arguments, both in the public arena and in the social sciences’ (2009, p. 321). With respect to central demographic concepts, such a debate would only be obscure if consequential reflection upon the boundaries of this construction is neglected. This differentiation is compatible with the epistemological position that Ian Hacking (2002) described as ‘dialectical realism’. It accommodates the specific character of demographic (future) constructs as discursive games of truth intertwined with power relations, avoiding the trap of epistemic relativism.

Link to the book