Archives par étiquette : food sector

Changes in protected designations of origin in the Spanish wine sector: Movements between worlds of production

Samuel Esteban Rodríguez (2017)

Boletín de la Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles 74, pp. 483-513.

Abstract. This study is a comparative analysis of the Spanish Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) wine-producing regions between the production years of 2001–2002 and 2012–2013. The worlds of production theory was used as a framework for the classification of the different PDO regions based on their production characteristics and their target market. Use was made of a series of quantitative indicators related to technology and market type. Once the classification was made, it was verified whether this adjusted to the concepts of the theoretical model, and a subsequent analysis was performed on the results of each production year and the evolution taking place in the industry. Between 2001–2002 and 2013–2013 an increase was reported in product specialization and customization in a large number of PDO regions, which have shifted to become a part of the interpersonal world of production. In spite of this, among the PDO regions that had retained their model within the industrial world of production, adjustments were observed directed at improving their position by means of competitive pricing. The market world and the innovation world are less extended, despite legislative changes encouraging diversity within the industry.

Article in Spanish

Article in English (without reference list)

 

Why coffee and not honey – untangling the limits and opportunities for certifying the ‘moral quality’ of products, by Jan-Christoph Janssen

PhD thesis defended the 29th may 2017, under the supervision of Sigfrid Quack and Christine Trampusch, Universität zu Köln

Why did Fair Trade take momentum in some industries within certain national contexts and not in others? In this thesis, I apply the arguments of H. C. White, Tilly, Fligstein and McAdam in order to understand the success and failure of applying similar standards to various product markets through one certificate. Four national settings and seven product categories are compared – coffee, cocoa, bananas, sugar, rice, wine, and honey in Austria, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the USA are chosen and analyzed between the years 2002 and 2011. The effects of the discourse and structural preconditions (i.e. oligopolies) are analyzed in concert through the application of fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA). I investigate the role of firms and social movements in the process of change. Two equifinal paths to change in markets are theorized and analyzed. One of those paths is driven by institutional entrepreneurship, the other by social movements. The findings of the fsQCA back the perspective of social movements and institutional entrepreneurship as substitutive drivers of change in markets and the two paths. Less successful attempts to penetrate markets though certification lack the discourse and the focus of single firms or entrepreneurs within the discourse. In addition, the evidence pinpoints to changing processes over time and the need to move beyond static analyses. This study contributes to the current state of the art by offering a comparative perspective on the effect of social movements and institutional entrepreneurship on mature markets. In this vein, fsQCA is applied deductively and the concepts and paths are disentangled in a compelling manner. INUS conditions are theorized as constitutive parts of paths to change. Finally, this study compares the opportunities and fallacies of penetrating markets through certification in general – and Fair Trade certification in particular.

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Convention theory in the Anglophone agro-food literature: Past, present and future

Stefano Ponte (2016)

Journal of Rural Studies, 44, pp. 12-23.

Abstract. In the past two decades, convention theory has been applied in various branches of agro-food studies, providing analytical and theoretical insight for examining alternative food networks, coordination and governance in agro-food value chains, and the so-called ‘quality turn’ in food production and consumption. In this article, I examine convention theory applications in the Anglophone literature on agro-food studies through the review of 51 relevant contributions. I highlight how CT has helped explain different modes of organization and coordination of agro-food operations in different places, and how it has provided new venues of approaching quality – in view of understanding how exchange of agro-food products takes place and with what social and power dynamics. I trace two main analytical streams of this literature: one focussing on agro-food adaptations of the ‘worlds of production’ framework (Salais and Storper, 1992; Storper and Salais, 1997); and another applying the ‘orders of worth’ approach of Boltanski and Thevenot (1991[2006]) and further elaborations of ‘quality conventions’. After tracing broad trajectories and the significance of new developments in this literature, I highlight its current limitations and suggest some directions for future research.

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La théorie des conventions en géographie économique : un éclairage apporté par l’application à l’industrie espagnole du vin

Eugenio Climent-López &  José Luis Sánchez-Hernández (2015)

Géographie, économie, société, 17, p. 25-50.

Le cadre théorique des conventions et des mondes de production permet de comprendre les tendances actuelles dans le système agroalimentaire. La conceptualisation de la qualité des aliments, l’émergence de réseaux alimentaires alternatifs et les processus d’innovation dans le système agroalimentaire ont tous été étudiés à partir de la typologie des conventions et des mondes de production. Cette littérature est essentiellement qualitative et repose sur des études de cas. Cet article présente une approche quantitative permettant de mesurer les conventions et de situer les producteurs de denrées alimentaires dans les différents mondes de production. La base empirique est un échantillon de douze AOC viticoles espagnoles. En utilisant des sources de données officielles ou ouvertes, vingt-huit indicateurs ont été définis pour mesurer les six types de conventions dans chaque AOC, et dix-huit ont été choisis pour identifier les mondes de production. Cette méthode montre la contribution de l’analyse quantitative, face au discours qualitatif dominant et suggère que d’autres études comparatives peuvent servir aux entreprises agroalimentaires pour soutenir leurs décisions stratégiques.

Convention theory in economic geography: a perspective provided by the application to the Spanish wine industry

The theoretical framework of conventions and worlds of production provides useful support to understand the current trends in the agro-food system. The conceptualization of food quality, the emergence of alternative food networks and the innovation processes in the food system have all been addressed by using the typologies of conventions and worlds of production. This body of academic literature is mostly qualitative and based on case studies. This article discusses a quantitative approach to the measurement of conventions and the allocation of food producers to different worlds of production. The empirical support comes from a sample of twelve Spanish PDO wine districts. By using official or open-data sources, twenty-eight indicators have been designed to measure the six kinds of conventions in each wine district, and eighteen ones have been chosen to identify worlds of production. This methodology shows the contribution of quantitative analysis to the prevailing qualitative discourse and suggests that further comparative studies may be useful for food cluster partners to support strategic decisions.

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Approche économique de la qualité d’un bien intermédiaire : application à la filière rizicole malgache, par Tiana Rakotondramanitra

Thèse soutenue le 3 décembre 2014 sous la direction d’Olivier Favereau

Madagascar souffre d’une insuffisance chronique en riz, aliment de base de la population. La filière peine à sortir de la dépendance aux importations et encore moins à développer les exportations. Nous tentons de voir en quoi ces contre-performances reflètent une « crise de la qualité » dans les échanges à l’aide du modèle de marché de Harrison White (2002) qui analyse la notion de viabilité des échanges autour des questions de qualité. Celle-ci passe par l’existence d’un ordre de qualité du riz (paddy ou blanchi) fondé sur les perceptions ressenties par les acteurs. Pour cela, les intermédiaires de la filière ont à définir une orientation de leurs activités en amont ou en aval selon la localisation de la plus grande incertitude sur la qualité du riz, pour saisir, et être en accord avec, les perceptions de la qualité par les acteurs concernés. L’analyse des échanges dans l’Alaotra-Mangoro donne les résultats suivants. 1/ Trois circuits de commercialisation du riz sont théoriquement viables. Le circuit « dominant » et le circuit « à la marge » sont dominés respectivement par une convention de qualité « domestique » basée sur la qualité nutritive du paddy et une autre « industrielle » basée sur la qualité esthétique du riz blanchi. Sur le circuit « transitionnel », coexistent les deux conventions de qualité, « domestique » en amont et « industrielle » en aval. 2/ L’ordre de qualité sur ce circuit résulterait d’un compromis entre conventions matérialisé par un référentiel de qualité esthétique et nutritive du riz (paddy et blanchi). 3/ La reconnaissance de ces deux conventions de qualité et de la nécessité d’un compromis entre celles-ci rendrait les échanges viables et lèverait l’actuelle « crise de la qualité » au sein de la filière.

Economic Approach of Input Quality : application to the rice value chain in the Alaotra-Mangoro region (Madagascar)

Madagascar suffers from a chronic insufficiency of rice, the staple food of the population.The value chain is struggling to emerge from dependence on imports and even less to develop exports.We try to see how these poor performances reflect a “quality crisis” in rice exchanges by means of themarket model of Harrison White (2002) and its concept of market “viability” based on quality issues.To be viable, market needs to be governed by an order of quality defined by perceptions on ricequality from actors at play. The intermediaries have then to orient upstream or downstream theiractivities depending on where the greatest uncertainty on quality is in order to take into accountquality perceptions by the actors involved. Rice exchanges analysis in the Alaotra-Mangoro gives thefollowing results. 1 / Three rice marketing channels are theoretically viable. The “dominating”marketing channel and the “marginal” one are respectively ruled by a “domestic” quality conventionaround the nutritious quality of paddy and an “industrial” one around the esthetic quality of milledrice. Both quality conventions exist on the “transitional” channel: the “domestic” convention is sharedby upstream and the “industrial” one by downstream. 2 / The order of quality on this last marketingchannel would be a compromise between the two existing conventions and is materialized by areferential of esthetic and nutritious quality. 3 / The recognition of these two quality conventions andof the need for compromise between them would enable rice exchanges to be viable and then wouldend the “quality crisis” at the origin of the poor performances of the Malagasy rice value chain.