Archives quotidiennes :

The Economies of Worth Model: Operating Principles and Ways to Apply It

Leslie Carnoye (2023)

In Rainer Diaz-Bone & Guillemette de Larquier (eds.), Handbook of economics and sociology of conventions. Cham: Springer, Online first

Abstract. The economies of worth framework is designed to address issues of coordination and legitimacy processes by studying the languages of justification on which actors rely. It allows to understand how disputes and conflicts can be overcome without degenerating into violence. Two key features of the model are its pluralism and its evolving capacity. Indeed, several polities, also called or principles of justification or orders of worth, can be mobilized to assert legitimacy. But a precise number of criteria must be met for an order of worth to be established. In other words, all polities correspond to the same grammar and the model relies on specific axioms. Originally, six polities were theorized by Boltanski and Thévenot, but two more were later included in the literature. In this chapter, the six plus two additional worlds are presented, as well as the axioms of the model and its dynamic. By referring to some examples of the model’s application in agro-food and environmental studies, the variety of ways in which the model has been used in social sciences research is then illustrated. This allows to discuss some of the challenges that the model has faced and present its main evolutions since the beginning of the 1990s.

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Visuals in History Textbooks – War Memorials in Soviet and Post-Soviet School Education from 1945 to 2021

Mischa Gabowitsch (2023)

Journal of Educational Media, Memory, and Society, 15(1), pp. 99-128. Open access

Abstract. This article is based on a bibliographical data set of over 2,600 history textbooks from the post-1945 Soviet Union and eleven out of its fifteen successor states, including books on international, national, and regional or local history. Among these, it analyzes the illustrations used in 450 books that cover the period of the Second World War. Arguing against a reduction of history-related visuals to a “narrative,” this article seeks to contribute to analyzing the visual grammar of history textbooks. It does so by drawing on notions of familiarity developed in French pragmatic sociology and identifies visual techniques used to make pupils approach war memorials in a mode of familiarity rather than critical analysis. Decontextualized presentations of monuments located outside the former Soviet Union turn them into timeless icons experienced via familiarity-as-recognition; monu- ments shown with surrounding landscapes or on maps turn them into intimately known markers of a Sovietized local identity.

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