Archives mensuelles : octobre 2022

La bataille de la Sécu. Une histoire du système de santé

The battle of the Sécu. A history of the health care system

Nicolas Da Silva (2022)

Paris: La Fabrique

Extrait: “La convention de qualité des soins industrielle n’est pas un problème en soi. […] Le grand échec de l’industrialisation des soins provient de son instrumentalisation par l’État. L’enjeu de l’industrialisation n’a pas été la promotion de la convention de qualité industrielle mais l’utilisation de cet imaginaire pour imposer un contrôle sur le travail visant à réduire les dépenses de soin. […] Non seulement l’État s’est réapproprié la sécurité sociale, mais il s’est aussi réapproprié la définition du travail de soin – au détriment des professionnels et des patients.”

Excerpt: “The industrial care quality convention is not a problem in itself. […] The great failure of the industrialization of care comes from its instrumentalization by the state. The issue of industrialization was not the promotion of the industrial quality convention but the use of this imaginary to impose control over work in order to reduce the cost of care. […] Not only has the state reappropriated social security, but it has also reappropriated the definition of care work – to the detriment of professionals and patients.”

Lien / Link

Economics/Sociology of Conventions: An Interdisciplinary Workshop for Methods and Theory Development (with Special Focus on Education)

Leibniz University Hannover 15th and 16th September 2022

Report by Laverne Iminza Chore (University of Innsbruck)

The Leibniz University Hannover recently hosted the 12th Economics / Sociology of Conventions (EC/SC) workshop for methods and theory development with a particular focus on education. Christian Imdorf, Arne Böker & Christian Schneijderberg jointly organised the event held on the 15th and 16th of September 2022, which received support from the Fritz Thyssen Foundation. The workshop saw scholars from German-speaking countries (Germany, Austria, Switzerland), France, and Sweden come together to advance the EC/SC discourse in the field of education and beyond.

Romuald Normand (University of Strasbourg), whose research spans international comparison of education policies, the European construction of lifelong learning, globalization and transformations of higher education, and actors and policies of innovation in education accepted the invitation for a keynote. In his talk, he proposed to renew the critique of neoliberalism in the field of education and analyzed how EC/SC and European sociologies in education could engage in constructive and reflexive dialogue for this purpose. Romuald Normand showed how the use of EC/SC can offer possibilities for extending the critique of neoliberalism by analyzing plural modes of coordination and evaluation in quality and accountability policies in education systems and the underlying grammar.

The congregated scholars addressed social and educational inequalities, educational governance, skilling, sustainability and change, and the COVID-19 pandemic. The two presentations centered on inequalities included Kenneth Horvath’s (University of Teacher Education, Zürich) work on educational inequalities and Leonie Bisang’s (University of Lucerne) early career project on social inequality. In his presentation “The conundrum of how to test for talent”, Kenneth Horvath posed the critical question of whether French pragmatic sociology offers a novel perspective on racism. His session clarified that talent and merit are impossible to test. He elaborated on why it is challenging to test for talent by pointing out the ambiguities, potentialities, plurality and contextuality that engulf it. Kenneth Horvath’s work proposes that instead of testing for talent, research should concern itself with inquiring about racism. The paper is still in the formative phase, but the potential outcomes for EC/SC and how it influences perceptions on tests is something to anticipate. Leonie Bisang, in her presentation on “Social inequality in the transition from school to university: university or university of applied sciences?” posited that social backgrounds play a significant part in shaping the educational trajectory of young people. She highlighted a possible connection of Pierre Bourdieu’s approach with EC/SC using the example of the transition from upper secondary to tertiary education. From her work, two approaches are conceivable: If one takes situationalism seriously, the question arises regarding situations in which habitus is an active support. If, on the other hand, one considers the habitus as the primary explanatory principle, actors only come into situations through this. It is intriguing how the conceptualization fits the empiric as this early career project unfolds.

The second stream of sessions revolved around the governance of educational transitions with presentations by Raffaella Simona Esposito (University of Teacher Education FHNW) and Regula Julia Leeman & Sandra Hafner (University of Teacher Education FHNW). In her presentation, Raffaella Esposito showed how, in the transition from compulsory to post-compulsory upper secondary education, the supply of and access to vocational middle schools is steered (in an active/passive and direct/indirect way) employing targeted strategies and instruments. Using the example of two cantonal case studies, she showed that both cantons studied restricted these school-based vocational programs, not least because this allows the balance of power between company-based vocational education and training (VET) and school-based VET to be maintained and company-based VET to be reproduced and stabilized as an unquestioned standard within the Swiss VET system. The discussion after this presentation revolved around possible elements of a power analysis guided by conventional theory. Regula Leemann, Sandra Hafner and Raffaella Esposito presented the first results of a study on the importance of key indicators in the political governance of educational transitions and a related traffic light system in a selected canton in Switzerland. Based on documents and interviews, they demonstrated that the construction of the indicators is based on different common goods, providing the responsible actors with a map for orientation and a warning system to cope with uncertainties in governance and enable legitimacy of governance towards the taxpaying public. At the same time, these indicators unfold as standards of normative power typically oriented towards a statistical average of, e.g., the historical development of reference entities like other cantons or Switzerland as a whole. Therefore, key indicators not only support responsible actors in reaching a common good but also restrict their views and way of action as they are narrowed down to the measurable indicator and target, reducing the plurality of modes of engagement to quantifiable outputs. In the discussion, Romuald Normand pointed out that these indicators, which are oriented toward the civic convention, can counter market logics that influences many national education systems. Kenneth Horvath suggested that the limitations and restrictions in the coordination of action by indicators need to be reviewed critically.

A further group of sessions falling under the theme of sustainability and change was led by Sarah Lenz (Hamburg University), and Eltje Gajewski (University of Duisburg-Essen) & Simon Schrör (Weizenbaum-Institute/Humboldt University). In her presentation, Sarah Lenz addressed the question of how the theory of social worlds and arenas – the US-American pragmatist approach – can contribute to the study of conventions. Starting from the emerging discourses about the mutual effects of digitalization and sustainability, she argues that the pragmatistic-interactionist theory of social worlds and arenas is much more concerned about the micro-sociological preconditions in light of heterogeneous perspectives. Analyzing how actors of different interests collide within arenas as zones of conflict, defending, contesting their positions, negotiating, manipulating, or even excluding others, provides direct insight into “power in action” and the emergence of inequalities and new paradoxes. Taking the example of a collaboratively developed “action plan for sustainability in the digital age”, she shows how actors create objects they can all refer to together without denying their positions. Such boundary objects allow – in contrast to how the sociology of conventions would suggest – also “compromises without consensus”. Thus, from the perspective of the sociology of conventions, it is worthwhile to examine such boundary objects and the normative infrastructures they stabilize. Elte Gajewskis and Simon Schrör’s research looks at the ecological reconfiguration of product presentation by empirically investigating drugstore products. They demonstrate how standard products are enriched through varied analytical and narrative forms of presentation with a promise of sustainability. The theoretical argument draws from Luc Boltanski and Arnaud Esquerre’s view of the economics of enrichment. The take-home message from the discussion was that their work appears to be a robust scheme to apply to further empirical research. At the same time, an emphasis on the mechanisms behind the enrichment strategies, especially on meta price, could help develop an in-depth middle-range theory that integrates the presentation and the price-setting of sustainable products. Christian Schneijderberg (University of Kassel) conducted a presentation that addressed accreditation, audit and evaluation regimes in higher education and provided an integrated approach and analytical framework to study them as effective long-term governance means or higher education policy tools. Drawing from Thévenot, he emphasized that when studying organizational procedures, multiple conventions apply during the process, primarily industrial but also domestic, inspired and civic conventions. The complex situation could be analytically divided into several sub-situations in a study on investments in form. For example, organized procedures legitimized by civic action (situation 1, e.g., law-making by parliament about the accreditation of universities), which are adapted in law-applying by legitimate representative bodies of actors (situation 2, e.g., accreditation council, including representatives of the academic profession, students, etc.), which decide on regulations (e.g., accreditation criteria) to guide the work of organizations (situation 3, e.g., accreditation agencies and expert groups (i.e., another collective of actors in the law-application)), etc. After analyzing all sub-situation separately, the “overall” picture of organized procedures could be constituted by comparatively looking at specificities (e.g., differences) and commonalities (e.g., similarities) reflected in the ideal types of conventions/orders of worth. Christian Schneijderberg further elaborated on this with the following commentary: “EC/SC is very much “stuck” on analyzing the micro- and/or macro-levels, including the micro-macro link. The responses to my presentation make it clear that the sociological meso-level – addressing organizational behavior and organized procedures – seemingly needs to become more present in theory and methods development and application”.

Two presentations focused on positioning EC/SC in other established fields, such as HRM and organization studies. In her presentation of a soon-to-be-published book, Julia Brandl (University of Innsbruck) questions why human resource management has yet to catch up with the EC/SC approach. She highlights common themes and questions that both fields touch on and illuminates how labor conventions provide a rich avenue for exploring how employment practices influence employee behavior and enable coordination at the workplace. Julia Brandl relates EC/SC to the pluralist HRM paradigm that acknowledges the coexistence of conventions and how that is a condition for democracy. The presentation culminates with a prescription of how the sociology of conventions may enrich human resource management research. Simon Weingärtner, Monika Hasenbruch and Juan S. Guse (Leibniz University Hannover) also touched on EC/SC and sociology/organization studies. Their paper presentation on “organized justification” gave an insight into their findings on merit-based selection procedures for “gifted” people in different organizations. Building on ethnographic observations, they argued for expanding Boltanski’s and Thévenot’s regime theories of action or “engagement”, which takes into account formal organization as an independent context of justification processes and stresses the role of “compromise objects”. The presentation was remarked on by Lisa Knoll (University of Paderborn), who agreed that the organization phenomenon deserves more attention in EC/SC analyses. Her critique focused on what she perceived as an essentialist notion of organization which she views as incompatible with methodological situationalism. Her comment was followed by a lively discussion about the role of organizations within the EC/SC framework.

In the session “Telemedicine during the Covid-19-pandemic: conventions, competencies, and collaboration – the case of Covid-19-teleconsultations”, Karolin Kappler (FernUniversität in Hagen) presented three scenarios of teleconsultations-uses, which she and the team in Hagen around Stefan Smolnik worked out from interviews with intensive care physicians who used Covid-19-teleconsultations. During the vivid discussion, the attendees emphasized the importance of focusing on the negotiation processes and the upcoming moments of conflicts and negotiation between different stakeholders involved in the acceptance, adoption and use of teleconsultations. Furthermore, for the ongoing research on the implementation of teleconsultations for further indications (such as heart failure or rare diseases), possible research questions and methodological approaches were discussed. This presentation was part of the pandemic and crisis theme that was also dominant in the show-and-tell sessions featuring Karolin Kappler’s “Corona as an Accelerator of Digitization-border-work in times of home-office, home-schooling, and home-everything”, Sarah Lenz’s “Society at Risk-Sociality as Risk. Situational Experience and Coping with Uncertainty during the First Lockdown” and Valeska Cappel’s “Corona-Apps-once familiar data is given a new purpose, regimes turn into conventions”.

When comparing lifelong learning systems across Europe, Swedish vocational education and training has been heralded as representing a universal regime with a strong emphasis on solidarity, egalitarianism and social citizenship. However, the introduction of higher vocational education (HVE, yrkeshögskolan), a post-secondary training form mandated to train people to meet local labor market needs, complicates these composite descriptions. Rebecca Ye (Stockholm University) expounded on the questions about the Swedish VET as representing a universalist, statist and school-based ideal type. Building theoretically on the sociology of conventions, the paper probes the plural worlds of higher vocational education participation beyond simplistic understandings of human capital accumulation or universalistic welfare. Drawing on interviews with trainees and archival material, the project examines forms of justifications evoked by ordinary actors engaged in this training form. The analysis reveals that HVE participants do not enroll merely to “get work” or “get ahead”. Instead, their participation is described as a response to constraints in terms of geographical and social proximity to challenging the difficult circumstances they encounter in the labor market. Or their enrolment is a result of contingency and vacancy chains. Taken together, she suggests that HVE serves as a mode of governing vocational knowledge through operating as a projective institution within reach that offers compromises between a plurality of interests. “From the lively discussion that followed after the presentation of our working paper, comments received from esteemed members of the EC/SC workshop spurred us to consider how we can discuss these findings, and the popularization and transformation of a skilling regime in Sweden, concerning the temporality of welfare conventions. Moreover, there were suggestions for our analysis to go further to identify and locate the common good. As we progress our work, we will also embark on a more in-depth discussion on the implications of projective institutions for the contemporary governance of vocational knowledge and competencies” Rebecca Ye commented.

Early career project presentations at this workshop also included Martin Gehrig’s “Coordination of Action in Curriculum Development”. After his presentation, Martin Gehrig remarked that the feedback was pivotal in highlighting that he still needs to find a way out of the mess of the social negotiation processes in the curriculum project. In his own words: “Against the background of the EC/SC, I now want to tell a story of my own about the project – a story that doesn’t ignore the uncertainties and conflicts and traces the role of conventions and objects in stabilizing it”. Sandro Stübi in his dissertation project presentation “Recognition of prior learning in Switzerland’s collectively organized skill formation system” found the workshop a valuable springboard for idea exchange and advancing one’s questions.

To wrap up what had been a stimulating workshop, Rainer Diaz-Bone and Ken Horvath shared their latest thoughts on how EC/SC could be a foundation for the sociology of social research and for the sociology of quantification, more specifically. In their presentation entitled “On data worlds, social research and convention theory”, they emphasized that measurement, which is key for linking social theory and quantification, is organized by a plurality of conventions and epistemic values in different data worlds. EC/SC could therefore address several issues that have been foreclosed in much social research, spanning from the social problems to which the development of methods provides answers over the application of established methods in different situations to the loss of their acceptability and relevance. This presentation inspired interesting questions and conversations for the future directions of EC/SC and marked a culmination of the workshop.

We are very grateful to the Fritz Thyssen Foundation for the generous support provided for the EC/SC workshop and the Leibniz University Hannover for hosting this year’s edition.

La société anonyme sportive : une nouvelle approche de gestion des clubs de football au Maroc

The sports limited company: a new approach to the management of football clubs in Morocco

Achraf Berqi & Mounia Cherkaoui (2022)

International Journal of Accounting, Finance, Auditing, Management and Economics, 3(5-2), p. 226-239

Résumé. Tout évènement sportif engendre passion et intérêt. Or, depuis ses origines olympiques, le sport a beaucoup évolué et s’est développé d’une manière impressionnante pour devenir un miroir de notre société. Le sport professionnel est un extraordinaire champ d’expérimentation pour l’application de la théorie économique. Il n’en demeure pas moins que le sport professionnel, comparativement à l’économie en général, présente diverses caractéristiques qui rendent sa gestion particulière. Cela nous amène à poser la question suivante : pourquoi réaliser des recherches sur le fonctionnement et l’organisation d’un établissement sportif tout en mobilisant les diverses sciences de gestion ? Au regard de notre formation académique et sportive, nous avons été intéressés de comprendre comment un club sportif peut-être géré comme une société. Ainsi, les autres questions se sont posées : quel est l’intérêt pour les clubs sportifs de mettre en place un système de gestion et contrôle comme celui des entreprises ? Comment peuvent-ils le faire ? Nous avons alors réalisé, qu’après le lancement du professionnalisme ; l’un des chantiers ouverts saison 2009/2010 ; la gestion de nos clubs d’élite reste loin des exigences de management des clubs professionnels, et l’absence d’une stratégie réelle dans nos associations, ainsi que la fragilité marquée par une instabilité au niveau de l’équipe dirigeante, les complexités environnementales qui règnent autour des clubs constituent un handicap considérable dans la bonne marche de leur activité. En effet, nous nous interrogeons sur les principales raisons de cet échec ? Y’a-t-il une sortie favorable à cette crise en passant en SA ? Comment peut-on proposer un modèle managérial pour un club marocain et quels sont ses constituants ? Nous supposons que l’échec est dû principalement à plusieurs paramètres à commencer par la constituante elle-même, un système défaillant qui a démontré ses limites tant au niveau organisationnel, structurel que managérial. Face à cette impasse, nous pensons que la solution serait de revoir toute structure (Fédérations, ligue, clubs…) liée à la discipline en prenant compte de redéfinir les priorités, notamment en accordant un peu plus d’importance à la structure et gestion.

Abstract. Any sport event generates passion and interest. However, since its Olympic origins, sport has evolved a lot and developed in an impressive way to become a mirror of our society. Professional sport is an extraordinary field of experimentation for the application of economic theory. The fact remains that professional sport, compared to the economy in general, has various characteristics that make its management unique. This leads us to ask the following question: why carry out research on the operation and organization of a sports establishment while mobilizing the various scientific management ? With regard to our academic and sports training, we were interested in understanding how a sports club can be managed like a company. Thus, other questions have arisen: what is the benefit of sports clubs of setting up management and control system like that of companies? How can they do it? We then realized that after the beginning of professionalism; one of the construction sites opened for the 2009/2010 season; the management of our elite clubs remains far from the management requirements of professional clubs, and the absence of a real strategy in our associations, as well as the fragility marked by instability at the level of the management of teams , environmental complexities that prevail around the clubs constitute a considerable handicap in the smooth running of their activity. Indeed, we wonder about the main reasons for this failure? Is there a favorable way out of this crisis by going to AC (anonymous companies) ? How can we propose a managerial model for a Moroccan club and what are its constituents? We assume that the failure is mainly due to several parameters starting with the constituent itself, a failing system that has demonstrated its limits on the organizational, structural and managerial level. Faced with this impasse, we believe that the solution would be to review any structure (federations, league, clubs, etc.) related to discipline, taking into account the redefinition of priorities, in particular by giving a little more importance to structure and management.

Extrait: “La théorie des conventions est un mouvement transdisciplinaire, dont l’innovation consiste à créer un lien entre une économie institutionnaliste et une sociologie pragmatique. Un ensemble de chercheurs s’accorde à penser que la théorie des conventions est efficace pour décrire le fonctionnement des organisations et pour diagnostiquer ou expliquer les problèmes que rencontrent les organisations concrètes. En sciences de gestion, l’intérêt d’une théorie est de pouvoir rendre compte de la compréhension d’un phénomène afin de pouvoir mieux l’analyser et le maitriser voire le prescrire dans un second temps. Tout courant théorique doit ainsi intéresser l’action, l’acteur, le comportement et/ou la décision au sein d’une organisation. La théorie des conventions instruit de façon pertinente le champ des sciences de gestion, car elle propose un prisme innovant s’intéressant notamment aux processus organisationnels dans leurs aspects routiniers et mimétiques. Elle présente également l’intérêt d’avancer des propositions de compréhension des changements organisationnels à travers les acteurs-clés des organisations.
Dans notre étude, il s’agit bien ” d’alternatives stratégiques” propres à un club sportif et de la dynamique de ces dispositifs collectifs dans le temps. Les mécanismes de régulation produits par les conventions baliseraient les pratiques de gestion et orienteraient les pratiques managériales. De natures explicites ou implicites, internes ou externes, ces conventions gagnent en légitimité auprès de l’ensemble des parties prenantes et acquièrent une influence réelle sur le management stratégique du club.” (p. 232)

Extract: “Convention theory is a transdisciplinary movement whose innovation consists in creating a link between institutionalist economics and pragmatic sociology. A group of researchers agree that convention theory is effective in describing the functioning of organizations and in diagnosing or explaining the problems encountered by concrete organizations. In management sciences, the interest of a theory is to be able to give an account of the understanding of a phenomenon in order to be able to better analyze and control it, or even prescribe it in a second stage. Any theoretical current must therefore be of interest to the action, the actor, the behavior and/or the decision within an organization. The theory of conventions is relevant to the field of management sciences, because it offers an innovative prism that focuses on organizational processes in their routine and mimetic aspects. It also has the advantage of putting forward proposals for understanding organizational changes through the key actors in organizations.
In our study, it is indeed a question of “strategic alternatives” specific to a sports club and of the dynamics of these collective devices over time. The regulation mechanisms produced by the conventions would mark out the management practices and would orient the managerial practices. Whether explicit or implicit, internal or external, these agreements gain legitimacy among all stakeholders and have a real influence on the club’s strategic management” (p. 232).

Lien / Link

New Technologies Supporting the Shift to User-Led Approaches in Social Services: A Study of the Implementation of Baromètre

Sébastien Carrier, Opale Robichaud, Pierre-Luc Bossé, Alexandre Farrese & Annie Lambert (2022)

Journal of Technology in Human Services, 40(2), pp. 181-200

Abstract. User-led approaches are increasingly common in the field of social services and call for significant change in social service culture and practices. This research aims to study the implementation process of a new technology tool, Baromètre, as a socio-technical tool contributing to a culture shift in social services. We used a qualitative approach and a multiple case method in four implementation practice settings. We carried out individual interviews and focus group interviews with services users and professionals from which we reconstructed case histories. Using the convention theory and logics of action, we identified three types of social compromises that influence conditions of implementation: the inflexion compromise, the scheduling compromise, and the libertarian compromise. The results show us that the use of technology is relevant but cannot be the only vector of change in social work practices.

Lien / Link

How university rankings are made through globally coordinated action: a transnational institutional ethnography in the sociology of quantification

Gary R. S. Barron (2022)

Higher Education. Online first

Abstract. The sociologies of quantification, university rankings, and infrastructure are a loosely connected set of scholarly endeavors. Research in these areas typically examines production of certain types of quantification, their effects, and institutionalization. Despite these commonalities, scholars have noted a lack of conceptual coherence, debates on how to study quantification, a need to examine their socio-epistemological prerequisites, and research that crosses organization and national boundaries. In this paper, I argue that institutional ethnography—an alternative sociology for people—provides a unifying ontology for the sociology of quantification and studies of rankings and metrics in higher education. Institutional ethnography examines socio-epistemological prerequisites of quantification and facilitates a collaborative transnational project due to its focus on the extra local coordination of action. I also share results of the first transnational institutional ethnography of university rankings and related metrics, demonstrating coordinated action across several junctures of what has been called a global university ranking surveillance assemblage.

Lien / Link

Une lecture conventionnaliste de l’évolution des pratiques de comptabilité carbone relativement aux transactions du marché carbone, en absence de normalization

A conventionalist reading of the evolution of carbon accounting practices in relation to carbon market transactions, in the absence of standardization

Etienne Clermont (2022)

PhD thesis. Montréal: Université du Québec à Montréal

Résumé. Dans le contexte des changements climatiques, plusieurs nations ont choisi les marchés du carbone comme mécanisme pour forcer une réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre par les sociétés polluantes. De plus en plus de ces sociétés polluantes doivent maintenant adhérer aux marchés du carbone impliquant aussi qu’elles doivent choisir une méthode de comptabilité carbone, car ces mécanismes ont amené de nouvelles transactions à comptabiliser (quotas d’émission de carbone, obligations liées à la remise de ces quotas) et ce en l’absence de norme comptable spécifique sur le sujet. Dans cette thèse nous nous intéressons au développement des pratiques comptables en l’absence de norme de comptabilité financière spécifique. Pour comprendre les modalités de création d’un accord en matière de comptabilité carbone, une méthodologie en trois volets est utilisée. Dans le volet 1, nous analysons l’évolution des pratiques de comptabilité carbone d’un groupe de 87 émetteurs assujettis du Global Fortune 500 sur cinq années durant la période de 2005 à 2018. Une analyse de contenu de 431 rapports annuels est faite pour répertorier les méthodes comptables des émetteurs assujettis de l’échantillon. Le volet 2, s’intéresse aux prises de position des participants à la normalisation durant le processus de normalisation comptable internationale et américaine ayant eu lieu en parallèle. Dans le volet 3, nous mettons les résultats des volets 1 et 2 en relation pour en extraire les conditions pouvant affecter les pratiques étudiées dans le volet 1. Le normalisateur comptable international (l’IASB) a travaillé depuis 2003 pour élaborer une norme de comptabilité carbone, mais sans succès. Partant du postulat que la pratique vient avant la norme, la théorie des conventions a été utilisée comme cadre théorique. La théorie des conventions permet d’étudier le processus de normalisation comptable en plaçant le préparateur d’états financiers à l’avant-plan du processus. L’utilisation de la théorie des conventions et de la dynamique conventionnelle, selon Amblard (2003a; 2003b; 2004), a permis d’établir les conditions du développement d’une pratique conventionnée. L’analyse documentaire des rapports annuels des émetteurs assujettis et des documents des normalisateurs et de grands cabinets d’audit a permis de constater qu’une pratique conventionnée se développe sous trois conditions : (1) sur la base d’un ancrage; (2) de manière cohérente avec le système comptable utilisé et (3) à partir de la légitimé que lui accordent des acteurs influents. Ces conditions du développement d’une pratique comptable conventionnée représentent notre principale contribution. Les résultats montrent aussi une pratique conventionnée différente selon l’usage qui est fait des quotas d’émission de carbone. Les deux usages répertoriés sont la détention à des fins de conformité et la détention à des fins de spéculation. Pour un usage à des fins de conformité, les résultats montrent une adhésion forte pour une comptabilité carbone au coût historique. Les résultats pour cet usage montrent aussi, sur la période de 14 ans étudiée par la thèse, un rejet graduel de la comptabilité carbone à la juste valeur. Pour un usage à des fins de spéculation, les résultats montrent une adhésion forte pour une comptabilité carbone à la juste valeur. Ces résultats, qui montrent l’émergence d’une pratique de comptabilité carbone différente selon l’usage, n’apparaissent pas dans la littérature sur les pratiques de comptabilité carbone ou sur la normalisation comptable. Ceci représente aussi une contribution importante de cette thèse.

Abstract. In the context of climate change, many nations have chosen carbon markets as a mechanism to force a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by polluting companies. More and more of these polluting companies must now adhere to carbon markets, which also implies that they must choose a carbon accounting method, because these mechanisms have brought new transactions to be accounted for (carbon emission allowances, obligations related to the delivery of these allowances) and this in the absence of a specific accounting standard on the subject. In this thesis, we focus on the development of accounting practices in the absence of a specific financial accounting standard. In order to understand how a carbon accounting agreement is created, a three-part methodology is used. In Component 1, we analyze the evolution of carbon accounting practices of a group of 87 Global Fortune 500 reporting issuers over five years during the period 2005-2018. A content analysis of 431 annual reports is conducted to identify the accounting practices of the reporting issuers in the sample. Part 2 focuses on the positions taken by standard-setting participants during the parallel international and US accounting standard-setting process. In Section 3, we relate the results of Sections 1 and 2 to extract conditions that may affect the practices studied in Section 1. The international accounting standard-setter (IASB) has been working since 2003 to develop a carbon accounting standard, but without success. Based on the premise that practice comes before the standard, convention theory was used as a theoretical framework. Convention theory allows for the study of the accounting standard setting process by placing the financial statement preparer at the forefront of the process. The use of convention theory and convention dynamics, according to Amblard (2003a; 2003b; 2004), allowed for the establishment of the conditions for the development of a conventional practice. The documentary analysis of the annual reports of reporting issuers and of the documents of standard setters and major audit firms has shown that a conventional practice develops under three conditions: (1) on the basis of an agreement; (2) in a manner consistent with the accounting system used; and (3) on the basis of the legitimacy accorded to it by influential actors. These conditions for the development of a conventional accounting practice represent our main contribution. The results also show that conventional practice differs according to the use made of carbon emission allowances. The two uses identified are holding for compliance purposes and holding for speculation. For compliance use, the results show strong support for historical cost carbon accounting. The results for this use also show, over the 14-year period studied by the thesis, a gradual rejection of fair value carbon accounting. For speculative use, the results show a strong support for fair value carbon accounting. These results, which show the emergence of a different car-bone accounting practice depending on the use, do not appear in the literature on carbon accounting practices or accounting standardization. This also represents an important contribution to this thesis.

Lien / Link

Skizze einer Theorie der Relation

Sketch of a theory of relation

Christian Papilloud & Eva-Maria Schultze (2022)

Wiesbaden: Springer VS

Auszug: “Wenn man Konventionen im Unterschied zu Max Weber nicht als streng sittliche Verfasstheit eines bestimmten „Kreises von Menschen“ versteht, deren verhaltensmäßige Achtung/Missachtung Sanktionen durch die Gruppenmitglieder nach sich zieht (Weber 1972, 187, 191), sondern sie der Economie des conventions folgend als „interpretative Rahmen“ respektive als plurale Rechtfertigungsordnungen begreift, „die durch Akteure entwickelt und gehandhabt werden, um die Evaluation von und die Kooperation in Handlungssituationen durchführen zu können“ (Diaz-Bone 2010, 4; vgl. auch Boltanski und Thévenot 2007), dann steht außer Frage, dass strukturelle Determinanten prinzipiell die Rolle von Konventionen für Akteure spielen können, denen sie in reflexiver Weise folgen. In diesem Sinne tragen auch Konventionen zur sozialen Arbeit von Akteuren an Ketten der Form Kollektiv – Verkettungsarbeit – Zirkulation bei und zwar dadurch, dass sie einen Unterschied zwischen Bereichen einführen, bei denen diese Arbeit teilweise sparsamer durchgeführt werden kann – Konventionen werden befolgt – und Bereichen, bei denen diese Arbeit intensiver durchgeführt werden muss, weil Konventionen entweder nicht vorhanden oder weil sie der Situation unangemessen sind (vgl. dazu Thévenot 1984, 2001; Boltanski und Thévenot 1987, 2007). Anders gesagt, führen strukturelle Determinanten in Form von Konventionen eine Umstellung der sozialen Arbeit ein, die zwar zur Umstellung der Position der Akteure führt, nicht aber zur Umstellung der Position innerhalb einer Hierarchie, sondern vielmehr in Bezug auf diese soziale Arbeit. Eine solche Umstellung der Positionen von Akteuren bereitet die Grundlage für die Umstellung ihres Widerstandes und somit für die weitere Verbreitung ihrer Erwartungsstruktur im Zuge des möglichen Wechsels der Sequenzen oder aber der Relationsstrukturen (z. B. dazu Thévenot and Boltanski 2009).” (S. 153-154)

Extract: “If, in contrast to Max Weber, conventions are not understood as the strictly moral constitution of a certain “circle of people” whose behavioral respect/misrespect entails sanctions by the group members (Weber 1972, 187, 191), but rather, following the economie des conventions, they are understood as “interpretative frameworks” or plural orders of justification, “which are developed and handled by actors in order to be able to carry out the evaluation of and cooperation in situations of action” (Diaz-Bone 2010, 4; cf. also Boltanski and Thévenot 2007), then there is no question that structural determinants can in principle play the role of conventions for actors to follow in a reflexive manner. In this sense, conventions also contribute to the social work of actors on chains of the form collective – chaining work – circulation, and they do so by introducing a distinction between domains where this work can be done more sparingly in some cases – conventions are followed – and domains where this work must be done more intensively, either because conventions are not present or because they are inappropriate to the situation (cf. on this Thévenot 1984, 2001; Boltanski and Thévenot 1987, 2007). In other words, structural determinants in the form of conventions introduce a rearrangement of social work that leads to the rearrangement of the position of actors, but not to the rearrangement of the position within a hierarchy, but rather in relation to this social work. Such a rearrangement of actors’ positions prepares the ground for the rearrangement of their resistance and thus for the further diffusion of their structure of expectations in the course of the possible change of sequences or else of relational structures (e.g., on this Thévenot and Boltanski 2009).” (p. 153-154)

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Qualifications et prises en charge de la précarité énergétique. Une analyse économique institutionnaliste

Qualifications and management of fuel poverty. An institutional economic analysis

Adèle Sébert (2022)

PhD thesis, university of Lille

Thèse soutenue à l’université de Lille, le 18 octobre 2022
Sous la direction de Florence Jany-Catrice et Benoît Lallau
Jury: Nathalie Lazaric, Franck-Dominique Vivien, Nicolas Postel et Patrick Jolivet

Résumé. Cette thèse porte sur les difficultés de certains ménages à accéder à l’énergie. Tantôt dénommées « précarité énergétique », tantôt « pauvreté énergétique », ces difficultés d’accès à l’énergie se laissent difficilement saisir par un seul terme. La co-existence de plusieurs termes fait écho à la diversité des thématiques auxquelles l’accès à l’énergie renvoie, en particulier celle de la justice sociale et des inégalités environnementales. S’agit-il de désigner par « accès à l’énergie » une question purement technique en lien avec les activités de production, distribution et fourniture ? Mais dans ce cas, comment interpréter le déploiement d’une action publique ne portant pas seulement sur ces activités ? Que penser de la notion de précarité énergétique, actuellement mobilisée en France pour désigner une partie de l’action publique ? La précarité énergétique est définie en France depuis loi Grenelle II de 2010 comme une situation dans laquelle une personne ne parvient pas « à disposer de la fourniture d’énergie nécessaire à la satisfaction de ses besoins élémentaires en raison de l’inadaptation de ses ressources ou de ses conditions d’habitat ». Elle s’enracine dans un ensemble institutionnel plus ancien qui se structure dans les années 1970-1980 et qui est l’un des symptômes du passage du capitalisme fordiste au capitalisme néolibéral. La précarité énergétique est-elle une catégorie particulière d’action sociale ou une nouvelle catégorie au croisement des questions sociale et écologique ? Cette thèse interroge les processus par lesquels les difficultés d’accès à l’énergie des ménages sont « mis en problème » sur les plans social et écologique. En nous appuyant sur la littérature académique, professionnelle et législative, nous montrons dans un premier temps que recourir à la précarité énergétique comme catégorie d’action publique constitue une façon de matérialiser une réponse collective à certaines difficultés d’accès à l’énergie pour les ménages. Elle est cependant insuffisante pour comprendre l’organisation de l’action collective. En effet, elle renvoie soit à une collection de dispositifs dans plusieurs catégories d’actions (fourniture d’énergie ; accès aux droits et lutte contre l’exclusion ; rénovation du logement), soit à une situation de risque définie de manière incomplète. Nous proposons d’enrichir la notion de précarité énergétique avec celle de vulnérabilité afin de penser les situations des ménages avec des difficultés d’accès à l’énergie comme un continuum à partir duquel les risques sont évalués et les situations qualifiées de « précarité énergétique ».
Nous nous appuyons sur les travaux d’Olivier Godard et de Robert Salais, pour comprendre d’une part les liens entre les formes de coordination pour définir et prendre en charge un problème social et environnemental, et pour exprimer d’autre part l’articulation des différents acteurs institutionnels et économiques. À partir de l’analyse des conditions énergétiques et financières d’existence des ménages, opérée avec les outils de la statistique sur l’enquête Statistiques Ressources et Conditions de Vie (2017), nous montrons qu’il existe des formes d’insécurité pour les ménages, insécurités (re)qualifiées sur le plan institutionnel. Cette pluralité des situations institutionnelles des ménages est examinée à partir de l’analyse d’entretiens semi-directifs réalisés auprès d’acteurs institutionnels et économiques se réclamant de la « lutte contre la précarité énergétique ». Nous montrons qu’il existe deux formes de coordination à partir desquelles les acteurs institutionnels et économiques évaluent les difficultés d’accès à l’énergie des ménages, se distribuent les ménages qu’ils qualifient de « précaires énergétiques » et organisent leurs activités économiques. Les logiques de ces deux formes reposent sur un  compromis marchand civique fondé sur la figure du consommateur solvable et sur un compromis industriel-civique fondé sur la figure du consommateur responsable.
Mots-clés : précarité énergétique, vulnérabilité, action publique, socioéconomie, Économie des conventions

Abstract. This thesis deals with the difficulties of certain households in accessing energy. Sometimes referred to as “energy insecurity”, sometimes as “energy poverty”, these difficulties in accessing energy are difficult to grasp by a single term. The co-existence of several terms echoes the diversity of issues to which access to energy refers, in particular that of social justice and environmental inequalities. Does “access to energy” refer to a purely technical issue related to production, distribution and supply activities? But in this case, how can we interpret the deployment of public action that does not only concern these activities? What about the notion of fuel poverty, currently used in France to designate part of the public action? Fuel poverty has been defined in France since the Grenelle II law of 2010 as a situation in which a person is unable “to obtain the energy supply necessary to satisfy his or her basic needs because of the inadequacy of his or her resources or housing conditions. It is rooted in an older institutional set-up that took shape in the 1970s and 1980s and is one of the symptoms of the transition from Fordist capitalism to neoliberal capitalism. Is fuel poverty a particular category of social action or a new category at the intersection of social and ecological issues? This thesis questions the processes by which households’ difficulties in accessing energy are “problematized” on social and ecological levels. Drawing on academic, professional and legislative literature, we first show that using fuel poverty as a category of public action is a way of materializing a collective response to certain difficulties of access to energy for households. However, it is not sufficient to understand the organization of collective action. Indeed, it refers either to a collection of measures in several categories of action (energy supply; access to rights and the fight against exclusion; housing renovation), or to a risk situation that is incompletely defined. We propose to enrich the notion of fuel poverty with that of vulnerability in order to think of the situations of households with difficulties in accessing energy as a continuum on the basis of which risks are assessed and situations qualified as “fuel poverty”.
We rely on the work of Olivier Godard and Robert Salais to understand the links between the forms of coordination used to define and deal with a social and environmental problem, and to express the articulation of the different institutional and economic actors. Based on the analysis of the energy and financial conditions of existence of households, carried out with the tools of the Statistics Resources and Living Conditions survey (2017), we show that there are forms of insecurity for households, insecurities (re)qualified on the institutional level. This plurality of households’ institutional situations is examined through the analysis of semi-structured interviews with institutional and economic actors claiming to be involved in the “fight against fuel poverty”. We show that there are two forms of coordination by which institutional and economic actors assess the difficulties of access to energy for households, distribute the households that they qualify as “energy insecure” and organize their economic activities. The logics of these two forms are based on a civic market compromise based on the figure of the solvent consumer and on an industrial-civic compromise based on the figure of the responsible consumer.
Keywords: fuel poverty, vulnerability, public action, socioeconomics, economics of convention

Session on Education and Conventions held at the German Sociological Association’s 2022 conference in Bielefeld (Germany)

Christian Imdorf (Leibniz University Hannover) & Kenneth Horvath (University of Teacher Education Zurich)

At the occasion of the German Sociological Association’s (DGS) bi-annual conference, held in Bielefeld, Germany, 26-30 September 2022, a session on education and conventions has been organised. The session “Bildung und Konventionen: Aktuelle Schwerpunkte, Entwicklungslinien und Herausforderungen im Überblick [Education and Conventions: An overview of current focal points, lines of development and challenges]” was chaired by Christian Imdorf (Leibniz University Hannover) and Kenneth Horvath (University of Teacher Education Zurich). The multifaceted field of French pragmatic sociology offers innovative explanatory and analytical approaches for a number of current processes in education and challenges in the sociology of education such as standardization, quantification and datafication of education, conflicts and controversies over educational quality and equity, or the interplay of science, politics and practice in the establishment and transformation of educational arrangements. The session aimed at discussing the potentials and findings, but also the challenges and desiderata of a “pragmatic” sociology of education and its further development. The following set of questions framed the session: How can convention theory help approach current topics and questions in the sociology of education more convincingly and productively than with “traditional” theoretical offers? How can we employ concepts of pragmatic sociology (such as school worlds, educational regimes, justification orders, tests/examinations, etc.) in order to deal with current research problems? How can understandings of meritocracy and (increasingly ambiguous and uncertain) processes of assessment in educational contexts be analyzed? What methodological challenges and consequences arise for the empirical implementation of such a theory-driven research perspective? How can the relationship between scientific research and educational practice be rethought and reshaped?

In their introduction to the session, Kenneth Horvath and Christian Imdorf outlined the theoretical and methodological characteristics of a pragmatic sociology of education and presented a short overview of the current research landscape. They highlighted the significant already existing research output especially in the field of post-compulsory education sector, more precisely in vocational education and training and in higher education, which, however, has hardly been internationally comparative so far. Further, some first research on school education points to future opportunities for the sociology of conventions to examine questions of inequality and quality (and their transformations) in compulsory education. The session then included four presentations:

Walter Bartl (Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg) in his paper “Räumliche Bildungsungleichheiten durch Zahlen regieren: Information über und Allokation von Schulinfrastruktur [Governing spatial educational inequalities through numbers: Information about and allocation of school infrastructure]” asked what role numbers play in the governance of spatial educational inequalities and why there is only few data in Germany about spatial educational inequalities. Referring to Alain Desrosières’ work on quantification as a process of standardising information he asked how spatial inequality is measured and how school infrastructure governed by indicators is allocated. Bartl pointed to the lack of standardised indicators of spatial educational inequality in research and its quantification by expert judgement. He identified two mechanisms of governing spatial inequality through numbers in Germany, the standardisation of information and the regulation of allocation decisions, as well as four ideal types of a (situational) use of numbers and their problems (discretionary, bureaucratic, epistemic and calculative quantification). The paper concluded that long-term data on spatial inequality is currently lacking because there has not yet been a standardisation of information, but that the “theorising” of spatial inequality and of spatial justice as a concept is developing, as are attempts to measure it in and for spatial planning.

The contribution of Raffaella Simona Esposito (FHNW University of Teacher Education) and her co-authors Sandra Hafner and Regula Julia Leemann titled “Steuerung von Bildungsübergängen im Schweizer Bildungssystem – Komplexe Handlungskoordination innerhalb des bildungspolitischen Zielkorsetts [Managing educational transitions in the Swiss education system — Complex coordination of action within the education policy target]” analysed how the supply and access to vocationally oriented secondary schools in Switzerland is being coordinated in an interplay of education policy, education administration, academia and practice. Despite the education policy goal in Switzerland that 95% of all 25-year-olds shall have a qualification at upper secondary level, little is known about how the necessary educational transitions are managed by the cantons in terms of education policy, i.e. how they are regulated, organised, reformed and legitimised. Referring to the sociology of conventions, the research group has investigated how the actors involved in these processes coordinate their actions, by means of which strategies and instruments they do so, how educational policy objectives with regard to vocationally field-oriented secondary schools are targeted and realised in practice, how justification logics are mobilised by the relevant actors and what tensions, frictions and conflicts arise in the coordination of action. Based on a case study of a German-speaking canton and the analysis of documents and expert interviews Esposito et al. were able to reconstruct a compromise of domestic (individual fitting solution, guidance of young people), inspired (motivation, interests, inclinations, vocation, passion) and industrial (efficient educational transitions, no unnecessary educational loops, few drop-outs) steering logics in the management of educational transitions. In practical terms, an inherently normative ICT-based guidance tool for youths was implemented which serves as an object of compromise (intermediary object) to stabilise, format and handle the steering of educational transitions.

 

The presenters of the session on education and conventions at the DGS congress 2022: Walter Bartl (top left), Raffaella Esposito (top right), Luisa Junghänel and Bettina Ülpenich (bottom left), and Arne Böker (bottom right)

Bettina Ülpenich and Luisa Junghänel Krause (Heinrich-Heine-Univ. Düsseldorf) in their study “Studienabbrüche prognostizieren. Zur Rechtfertigung von Leistungsvorhersagen im Studium [Predicting study dropouts – On the justification of performance predictions in higher education]” accompany a project to develop a local system of performance prediction in higher education studies with a focus on the requirements of a respective performance prediction system. Embedded in the sociology of conventions and based on 35 expert interviews with university staff in computer science and social sciences, the two authors reconstruct performance prediction in higher education as a multidimensional ordering process with two underlying perspectives of how to interpret academic success. From the institution-centred perspective of the university, success translates to the completion of studies in the standard period and followed by entry into a profession (efficient and cost-sensitive regulation of university studies). In contrast, from a student-centred interpretative perspective, academic success can be linked to concepts of self-efficacy and self-determination, the achievement of individual goals and the accomplishment of problem-solving skills in the context of lifelong learning (studying as inspiration and a project). The authors concluded with some thought on the dilemma of the sought-after “Responsible Academic Performance Prediction” tool, which needs to conceive of study drop-out as a hybrid object and integrate a project-shaped convention of studying in the economisation and rationalisation of study processes at universities.

Finally, Arne Böker (Institut für Hochschulforschung Halle-Wittenberg) gave a presentation titled “Bildungsorganisationen unter Druck – Zu Potentialen und Herausforderungen einer pragmatischen Bildungssoziologie der Kritik [Educational Organisations under Pressure – On the Potentials and Challenges of a Pragmatic Sociology of Education Critique]”. Embedded in the (educational) sociology of critique (orders of justification) and the sociology of knowledge, he presented findings of two research projects both focusing on the justification of the promotion of the gifted (Begabtenförderung): The first study reconstructed the change in the justification arrangement of the German Study Foundation (Studienstiftung) which was shifting from a more economic towards a civic justification. Thereby the Study Foundation used a creative approach to produce and interprete social statistics which allowed for telling a successful story of how it contributed to equal opportunities in the education system. The second, ongoing study focuses so-called state preparatory colleges (staatliche Studienkollegs), an institutional path in Germany which prepares international students for higher education (an example of diversification of university access routes and study preparation). As an empirical illustration, Böker presented the debate in North Rhine-Westphalia in the mid-2000s on closing the state-run study preparatory colleges after the educational institution had seen a year-long criticism and change of justification, moving from equal opportunities towards privatisation and educational excellence. Using the example of the justification order of equal opportunities the author showed how student representatives criticised the Studienkolleg, that is how an educational institution geared at promoting the gifted was problematised, criticised and what alternative solution were proposed. On the whole the two studies exemplified both the potentials (e.g. the strength to analyse situations of crisis and insecurity, the plurality of social orders, the interplay between criticism and justification, compromises and their tensions) as well as the challenges of an educational sociology of critique.

All in all, the presentations of this session at the DGS 2022 conference in Bielefeld showed convincingly, first, how a pragmatic sociology of education offers new perspectives on and insights in education and educational processes. Second, the contributions highlighted how educational values are materialised and implemented by different technologies and devices such as educational statistics, self-governance or academic performance prediction tools. The years and decade(s) to come will show whether the sociology of convention will have the power to become a game changer in the sociologies of education, a field which is still somewhat stuck between a ‘holistic’ sociology in the line of Durkheim and Bourdieu and an ‘individualistic’ model of actors and society in the aftermath of Boudon’s theory of rational decision making, at least in the German-speaking world.

Statistics and political management during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic in Argentina

Claudia Daniel, Natalia Romero Marchesini & Cecilia T. Lanata-Briones (2022)

Sociologias, 24(60), pp. 16-49. Open access

Abstract. The Covid-19 pandemic triggered the generation as well as the ample circulation of health statistics. This article examines the role that Covid-19 statistics acquired in the management of the Argentine health emergency. Argentina adopted lockdown measures early and initially had a strict social confinement with subsequent relaxations that became a coordination challenge in a society in crisis. This research followed a qualitative methodological strategy supported by systematic analysis of regulations, government reports, press articles, and presidential press conferences. On the one hand, the article explores the institutional structure behind the elaboration of Covid-19 statistics, focusing on statistical classifications, and underlines the tensions to which it was exposed. On the other hand, it shows how statistics were used to bestow legitimacy to the decisions of the political authority, staged in true rituals of quantification, as they were a means through which that authority was exercised. In addition to attributing meaning to a shared experience, statistical indicators became a device for coordinating action at a distance and from the center, restricting the margins of discretionary action of the subnational authorities and operating as an external and impersonal mechanism of regulation in a society disrupted by an exceptional.

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Covid crisis, mainstream economics and economics of conventions

Online-Lecture (via Zoom) given by Philippe Batifoulier (via Zoom) at the Social Research Colloquium (University of Lucerne, Switzerland). 19 October from 16:15 -17:00 (afterwards discussion).

The institutional approach of economics and sociology of conventions (EC/SC) has developed a transdisciplinary movement in social sciences.  Health issues are one of the most active research topics in EC/SC’s approach in order to analysis health as social phenomenon and cover wide range of topics: professional ethics, doctor-patient interaction, health democracy, inequalities, industrialization, funding priorities, health insurance, hospital management, liberal medicine, digitization and quantification of health, health capitalism, etc.  Challenging mainstream health economics, EC/SC provides a theory of the plurality of values that are mobilized during the patient-doctor encounter but also in the making and elaboration of health policies. EC/SC in the field of healthcare has expanded conceptions of normativity to propose a finer mapping of coordination and regulation

The communication will seek to present some of the key lessons of EC/SC in the field of healthcare, taking into account the lessons of the health crisis. Then we propose a conventionalist way of thinking about neoliberal policy in health care and health capitalism.

A Transdisciplinary Approach to Hospitality and Habitability in Healthcare Settings

Luís Gouveia, Catarina Delaunay & Rita Morais (2022)

Transdisciplinary Journal of Engineering & Science, 13(3), pp. 77-93. Open access.

Abstract. This article intends to contribute to the theoretical work concerning the relationship between spaces/settings and user’s wellbeing in the context of healthcare organizations. Using a transdisciplinary approach anchored in psychosociology, the article stems from the conceptual contributions of Environmental Psychology – namely, Ulrich’s Theory of Supportive Design – and articulates it with the Sociology of engagements. Namely, the aim is to combine the conceptual patrimony from both fields to more acutely identify and differentiate the plurality of evaluative frameworks patients/users mobilize concerning how clinical spaces/settings should be configurated to safeguard their psychological well- being. Namely, two specific concepts from Sociology are integrated into the analysis: hospitality and habitability. We intend, thus, to elaborate a first proposal of a more nuanced conceptual model on person-environment relations that allows mitigating ambiguities identified when analyzing users’ evaluations of clinical spaces/settings. A deeper understanding of these relations can, in turn, favor patients’ resilience and health organizations’ sustainability.

Extract: “The effort to expand and advance the analytical scope of this theory is made through the articulation with contributions from the theoretical framework commonly known as Sociology of Engagements. Namely, the aim is to infuse two concepts developed within the orbit of this conceptual structure, concerning how social actors relate to their surrounding environment: hospitality and habitability.” (p. 78)

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Legitimating collaboration, collaborating to legitimate: Justification work in “holistic” services for long-term unemployed persons

Magnus Paulsen Hansen, Singe Elmer Christensen & Peter Triantafillou (2022)

Journal of Social Policy, Online first

Abstract. To address complex social problems, such as long-term unemployment, local authorities in many countries are developing “holistic” or “integrated” services, where multiple actors and professions collaborate with a view to better meet the needs of the individual citizen. By breaking with existing practices and regulations, collaborative services must be legitimized in new ways so as to appear acceptable not only in the eyes of the public and politicians, but also to caseworkers and the long-term unemployed persons. This article examines the multifarious and sometimes neglected efforts to make these collaborative services legitimate in the eyes of this plurality of stakeholders on multiple levels of governance. Our study indicates three distinct but mutually interrelated spheres of audience that require partly conflicting justification work. We also find that the narrow pursuit of justification work to ensure legitimacy with one audience may potentially jeopardize the justification work in the other two.

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The Industrialization of Healthcare and Its Critiques

Nicolas Da Silva (2022)

In Rainer Diaz-Bone & Guillemette de Larquier (eds.), Handbook of economics and sociology of conventions. Cham: Springer, Online first

Abstract. Reforms of healthcare systems around the world since the 1980s have essentially led to analyses in terms of commodification. This chapter focuses on the parallel phenomenon of industrialization of healthcare. Industrialization refers to the historical process of moving from an inspired/domestic convention of healthcare labor to an industrial convention. While historically the health professions, in particular but not only physicians, were built on the necessary creativity and proximity of the caregiver to the patient, the industrial convention of care labor values the respect of impersonal standards to improve the global performance of the healthcare system. After defining the phenomenon, this chapter proposes an overview of the industrialization of healthcare and the criticisms it encounters. Indeed, under the influence of the industrial convention, health care professionals tend to treat diseases more than patients.

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Socio-economics of Quantification and Value: The Perspective of Convention Theory

Anaïs Henneguelle (2022)

In Rainer Diaz-Bone & Guillemette de Larquier (eds.), Handbook of economics and sociology of conventions. Cham: Springer, Online first

Abstract. This chapter studies statistics, indicators, and quantification operations. It shows that numbers are socially constructed and rely in particular on numerous conventions, which are both measurement conventions and value conventions.
Indeed, to be able to count (a population, wealth, delinquency, etc.), it is necessary to go through two main stages, as Alain Desrosières, a French convention theorist, has argued. First, one must rely on “measurement conventions,” i.e., define precisely the phenomenon being quantified. Once it has been agreed on, one can move on to the measurement stage. Both steps pose their own difficulties. However, these categorization and coding operations are often forgotten afterwards, when the figure is produced. There is a certain reification of the figure, which can be compared to a value convention: the worth of numbers seems to be self-evident, no matter how it has been constructed in the first place.
This chapter therefore proposes to examine the social construction of figures both from a theoretical and from an empirical point of view. It looks at numerous empirical studies that exist in this prolific field, and chooses to explore two examples in particular, those of unemployment and of so-called delinquency figures.

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