Sandra Hafner, Raffaella Simona Esposito & Regula Julia Leemann (2022)
Education Science, 12, pp. 1-20.
Abstract. In Switzerland, the baccalaureate school is an important pathway to university education, and the aspirations of families and students to enter baccalaureate school have grown. However, vocational education and training (VET) remains the predominant educational pathway and has a strong lobby. We investigate how in this context, the transition from primary education to baccalaureate school is governed and justified at the cantonal level. We study how two Swiss cantons try to meet the official or unofficial maximum baccalaureate quotas desired by educational policymakers through different selection procedures and admission criteria. Drawing on the Economics of Conventions, we conceptualize selection procedures as cantonal transition chains and show that the strategies, procedures, and instruments applied in governance are rooted in diverse principles of action. This causes tensions within cantons. Our analysis shows that agency and regulating effects in the governance of transitions must be understood as distributed among actors, technologies, and objects.
Abstract. Though Japanese tea has been traditionally differentiated by, for example, production processes, varieties, and environmental and cultural factors of production areas, positive elements related to place or environment are increasingly highlighted to add value to tea practices. Here, agricultural practice peculiar to the area can provide foods more in a sustainable way. The practice can be registered through institutional measures. Regions of tea production are applying multiple instruments, such as geographical indications (GIs), trademarks, organic standards, and regional heritage registrations. Thus, this study examined the potential effects of these quality elements on the producers and production regions and discuss the quality is multi-layered over discourse and practice. For the analysis, this study employed convention theory originating from French economic sociology to understand producers and related actors deciding product quality. This study investigated four tea types, all observable cases of Japanese tea GIs. The effective registration of GI depends on diverse conventional elements such as inclusion and exclusion, duration of the registration process, and the agreeable product standards. The registration of GI tea can be combined with other quality or environment-related registration, such as organic standards, environmentally friendly or tradition-related labeling, such as that in Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS).