In: Paolo Demartini, Lucia Marchegiani, Michela Marchiori & Giovanni Schiuma (eds.), Cultural Initiatives for Sustainable Development. Management, Participation and Entrepreneurship in the Cultural and Creative Sector. Cham: Springer, pp. 121-141.
Abstract. This chapter provides an original analysis of innovation in the performing arts, giving centrality to the practices that lead to original interpretations of the works of art that are organized and performed every day by performing arts organizations. In particular, the study examines interpretive innovation as emerging from evaluative practices in which multiple principles and performance criteria concur in the definition of value. Stark’s notions of heterarchy, lateral accountability, and creative friction are applied to analyze the development of an original interpretation in an Italian opera house. The analysis demonstrated how innovation emerges from the interplay of multiple performance criteria. These criteria are based not only on the different technical and discipline-specific requirements involved in the production of live performances (industrial principles) but also on a number of individual sensitivities (the inspiration principle). The analysis also demonstrated that a meaningful organization of diversity generates frictions that are productive of novel and unexpected interpretations. The chapter contributes to our understanding of innovation in the performing arts by highlighting the role of performing arts organizations in setting up complex evaluative processes that lead to a re-generation of cultural heritage and sustain its transmission.
Extract: “Stark, drawing mainly from John Dewey’s theory of valuation (1939) and Luc Boltanski and Laurent Thévenot’s economies of worth (2006), states that the interplay of diverse valuation principles generates perplexing and troubling situations that prompt search and innovation. Valuation principles, according to Boltanski and Thévenot (2006), are organizing mechanisms that allow individuals to assess and distribute value in real situations around a notion of the common good.” (p. 125)
International Review of Public Policy, 2(2), pp. 141-158. Open access.
Abstract. The article addresses the production of indicators as policy instruments in European public policy. It discusses the relevant literature on sociology of quantification and European public policy and applies this theoretical framework to the case of European judicial administration policy. Presenting the historical and institutional premises to the creation of two projects of judicial performance assessment by the Council of Europe and the European Commission, as well as their methodology, the article argues that the selection of indicators is a litmus test of debates over the strategies and institutional goals of the organisations proposing them. Connecting the previous analysis with the use of these instruments in the policy-making sphere, the article points out that evaluation tools in European policy, rather than serving merely as informative tools, produce empowerment side-effects in the policy arena for the organisations that developed them. In European judicial policy, indicators provide a sufficiently loose framework to solve vertical and horizontal cooperation problems at the international level, determine policy goals through the selection of areas of measurement and evaluation, and provide proof to influence local and national policy-makers over reforms either through lesson-drawing, persuasion or conditionality.
Extract: “The article is relevant for scholars in International and European public policy in at least three ways. First, following a flow of research in development studies and international relations (Davis, Fisher, Kingsbury, & Merry, 2012; Dixon, Hood, & Jones, 2008; Kelley & Simmons, 2015), the article links the diffusion of indicators with the development in European states of what has been called a Neo-Liberal governmentality, or New Public Management reforms (Christensen & Lægreid, 2011; Desrosières, 2011; Hood, 1991). […] Judicial indicators and European policy The sociology of quantification and technology of governance is a prism through which the elaboration of indicators on judicial systems as instruments serving the production of specific visions of the functioning, goals and rules of justice can be envisaged. A fundamental step in this perspective is to analyse the contexts and actors involved in their development in order to clarify the linkage between the knowledge that informed the production of indicators (Penissat & Rowell, 2014) and the knowledge that is to be produced through them. The latter influences political decision making and frames problems as well as solutions of policy that are not socially or politically neutral (Lascoumes & Le Galès, 2007), as they derive from a specific construction of reality that actors perform through statistics (Desrosières, 2011).” (p. 142/144)
Journal of Marketing Management, 36, pp. 1338-1365.
Abstract. Drawing on a longitudinal qualitative approach to corporate diversity policies in France, based on more than 80 in-depth interviews (N = 86), this paper examines the paradox conveyed within these policies by the rise of ‘raceless’ diversity concepts. This is what I term White diversity, exploring its construction and appropriation in the light of technologies of normalisation, referred to in English as standards. Building on a Foucauldian approach to normalisation, the paper engages with the case study of the French Diversity Label. It explores the ways in which market-based mechanisms of regulation have shaped the management of race difference. It demonstrates in particular how normalising antidiscrimination through voluntary social certification has contributed to upholding whiteness in organisations.
Extract. “Yet, these developments in framing diversity at the beginning of the 21st century should be recast within a broader tendency of late neoliberal capitalism towards ‘governing by standards’ – technical rather than legal (Thévenot, 1997, 2009; see also Guthman, 2007; Brown & Getz, 2008). According to Thévenot, at the turn of the century, traditional normativity, ensured by national law and the judiciary underwent a major change. With the overwhelming position granted to market co-ordination, market mechanisms are expected to inscribe into the ‘certified properties of things’ concerns for fundamental goods, such as safety, health, the environment, and now racial justice and equal opportunity.”
Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, 51(1), pp. 145-163.
Abstract.This paper uses subject positioning theory to explore how conflicts between autonomy and protection are managed in the justification of controversial care arrangements for patients with mental/neurological illness. Its basic argument is twofold: firstly, to justify or propose care arrangements at strategic or contentious moments, actors position illness as an actant and make it present in talk‐in‐interaction, exploiting alignments and misalignments between the there and then of reported events and the above and beyond of shared societal discourses to say what matters and what’s to be done here and now; secondly, the introduction of authoritative voices from elsewhere involves imbricating narrative and routine sequences in order to prioritise different subjectivities. Dilemmas opposing autonomy and protection may seem less intractable if we adopt a corresponding perspective interplay between narrative and routine situational readings.
Journal of Classical Sociology. Online first, pp. 1-7.
Introduction: “This book initially reads as relic of a dying breed: a weighty tome of ‘Theory’ duly delivered from the consecrated HQ of global theory development, Paris, by one of the world’s most distinguished social theorists, Luc Boltanski, alongside his co-author, Arnaud Esquerre. To offer extended discussions of enrichment and wealth with little corresponding attention to poverty, scarcity, stigma and exploitation flies in the face of the current ‘turn to inequality’, which has been the dominant social science trend over the past decade. The very style, and at times ponderous tone, of the book – with much theoretical speculation, many vignettes, but no systematic data analysis – appears out of keeping with our times. The impression of an old-fashioned theory book might be reinforced by a superficial browsing. Over 400 pages of dense text, packed with analytical elaborations and abstractions, coming to a head with a remarkable Appendix which systematizes the ‘Structures of Commodity Exchange’ in a set of algebraic formulations which most readers will find hard to fathom. Nonetheless, make no mistake, this is an arresting and impressive book which repays serious attention.”
When the teaching staff and professional partners work together to recruit internship students
Michel Le Nir & Sonia Lefeuvre (2021)
Sélections, du système éducatif au marché du travail : XXVIèmes journées du longitudinal, Toulouse, 12-13 novembre 2020. Céreq Echanges, pp. 85-96.
Extrait. “Nous rappellerons dans une première partie la manière dont la sélection est définie, mais surtout mise en pratique par les IUT. Nous indiquerons brièvement les modes d’actions privilégiés sur le marché du travail et la manière dont ils ont pu évoluer. Nous proposerons une rapide mise en perspective des pratiques au sein des deux environnements à la lecture de la typologie/cartographie proposée dans Façons de recruter (Eymard-Duvernay, Marchal, 1996).” (p. 86)
Extract: « In the first part, we will recall the way in which selection is defined, but above all put into practice by the IUTs. We will briefly indicate the preferred modes of action on the labor market and the way in which they may have evolved. We will propose a quick perspective on the practices within the two environments by reading the typology/mapping proposed in Façons de recruter (Eymard-Duvernay, Marchal, 1996). » (p. 86)
Leopold Ringel, Wendy Nelson Espeland, Michael Sauder & Tobias Werron (2021)
In: Ringel, Leopold/Espeland, Wendy Nelson/Sauder, Michael/Werron, Tobias (eds.), Research in the Sociology of Organizations 74: Worlds of Rankings. Bingley: Emerald
Abstract.Rankings have become a popular topic in the social sciences over the past two decades. Adding to these debates, the present volume assembles studies that explore a variety of empirical settings, emphasizing the importance of acknowledging that there are multiple “Worlds of Rankings.” To this end, the first part of the chapter addresses the implications of two modes of criticism that characterize much of the scholarly work on rankings and summarizes extant conceptual debates. Taking stock of what we know, the second part distinguishes three areas of empirical research. The first area concerns the activities of those who produce rankings, such as the collection of data or different business strategies. Studies in the second area focus on inter-organizational, field-level, or discursive phenomena, particularly how rankings are received, interpreted, and institutionalized. The third area covers the manifold effects that research has unveiled, ranging from the diffusion of practices and changes in organizational identities to emotional distress. Taken together, the contributions to this volume expand our knowledge in all three areas, inviting new debates and suggesting pathways forward.
Abstract. Social practices of quantification, or the production and communication of numbers, have been recognized as important foundations of organizational knowledge, as well as sources of power. With the advent of increasingly sophisticated digital tools to capture and extract numerical data from social life, however, there is a pressing need to understand the ethical stakes of quantification. The current study examines quantification from an ethical lens, to frame and promote a research agenda around the ethics of quantification. After a brief overview of quantification research and its uses in state and market organization, I discuss quantification in terms of three core subprocesses—capture, specification, and appropriation, illustrating and identifying ethical concerns around each process. Linking these processes to the performative effects of measures, I present a working model of quantification from which the discussion builds ideas for developing a research agenda around quantification.”
Extract: “Numbers Represent and Construct Social Life Quantification involves the articulation of aspects of people’s individual and collective lives as numerical quantities, an operation carrying complex problems and ambiguities (Mau 2019; Espeland and Stevens 2008). Numbers are often used to represent dimensions of objects in the world, but they can also be used to group together phenomena under a common metric to construct new social objects (Desrosières 1993).” (p. 3)
European Journal of Cultural and Political Sociology 7(4), pp. 452-476.
Abstract. The occupation of public space has become a key part of the repertoire of contention of contemporary social movements, at the heart of Occupy Wall Street, Indignados, Nuit Debout, and revolutionary movements of the Arab Spring. Despite the enormous resonance that these movements have had, they have also engendered criticism. Based on in-depth ethnographic fieldwork of two Occupy movements–Occupy Wall Street in New York and Occupy Utrecht in the Netherlands–we show how media and other outsiders accused protesters of being insufficiently politically motivated, and overly concerned with what they considered to be ‘private matters’ such as sleeping and partying. By analysing debates and negotiations between protesters and outsiders over their right to occupy public space, we show how these encampments put received ideas on what constitutes a legitimate ‘political’ act of protest to the test. We propose the notion of ‘test’ from pragmatic sociology as a useful methodological and conceptual tool for social movement studies.
Abstract.Inspired by French pragmatism and using Bourdieu’s notion of “refraction” as an indication of a field’s autonomy, we explore in‐depth what kinds of justifications visual artists deploy to legitimate their requests for government money. Based on 494 government grant proposals from visual artists between 1965 and 2015 in Belgium, we find six such justifications. The reputational, esthetic, and romantic justifications are grounded in autonomous criteria of worth, such as artistic CVs, the work of art itself, and a compulsive desire to make art. Since the 90s, social, academic, and entrepreneurial justifications bring in heteronomous criteria, or refractions of field‐external values. Artistic practices become increasingly legitimized through engagement with social/political issues, academic methods and terminology, and an entrepreneurial spirit. We empirically show how the refraction of governmental logics is multi‐faceted, yet always related to or combined with artistic concerns, which we interpret as characteristic for the artistic field’s persisting autonomy in the face of heteronomous pressures.
Résumé. Au cours de son histoire, le Séminaire de Québec acquiert des œuvres d’art par voie d’achats, de dons ou d’importants legs des collections personnelles des prêtres qui en sont des membres agrégés. Qu’elles soient des objets de consultation personnelle, de collections d’étude pour l’Université Laval – institution d’enseignement fondée par le Séminaire en 1852 – ou des éléments de décor des espaces communs, certaines images se démarquent par le sujet qu’elles représentent et appellent une réflexion sur les valeurs qu’elles peuvent constituer au sein de l’institution. La forte représentativité de Rome dans les collections d’estampes s’est imposée comme un questionnement au vu de la démultiplication des objets. Ce constat est également contemporain de l’accroissement de la circulation des prêtres vers la Ville éternelle au cours de la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle. Les récits de voyages de ces derniers permettent de situer les perceptions qu’ils ont de Rome, de ses monuments, ses musées, ses églises, sa religiosité et ses mœurs. De ces récits, générateurs d’images mentales, se démarque le journal de voyage de l’archevêque de Québec, Mgr Joseph-Octave Plessis, tenu en 1819-1820, un document qui permet d’assoir des hypothèses sur la préparation du voyage des prêtres à Rome au XIXe siècle. Tout aussi pertinent, celui de l’abbé Benjamin Pâquet, rédigé entre 1863 et 1866 durant ses études de doctorat en théologie au Collège romain, est une source à partir de laquelle des faits concrets guident la définition de la visualité de Rome, comprise comme un ensemble urbain et un lieu idéal et mythique. À partir des descriptions des expériences sensorielles que les prêtres voyageurs font des lieux et des objets, les images physiques représentant Rome conservées au Séminaire et à l’Université prennent de la valeur et du sens. La concordance des objets et des commentaires génère un corpus représentatif d’une visualité de Rome et du Vatican au Séminaire et à l’Université durant la période ciblée. À ce titre, des œuvres graphiques de monuments romains par Giuseppe Vasi ou Giovanni Battista Piranesi, des portraits de prélats de la curie romaine et du pape par le peintre Vincenzo Pasqualoni et des albums de gravures ou de photographies souvenirs, participent à créer un ensemble de références pour l’institution dont la portée visuelle et culturelle repose sur des faits et une phénoménologie du sensible. L’entretien de rapports diplomatiques entre le Saint-Siège et les membres de l’institution est une constance qui ressort à l’analyse des sources textuelles. À la même époque que le voyage de l’abbé Pâquet, le pape poursuit l’application de stratégies pour consolider son autorité morale et symbolique, alors que son autorité temporelle est affaiblie par les bouleversements politiques en Italie. Ces stratégies se caractérisent, entre autres, par des décrets dogmatiques, le financement de chantiers archéologiques, la restauration de monuments, des commandes artistiques et des rééditions d’estampes à Rome, lesquelles ont influencé le développement de la bibliothèque et des collections du Séminaire. Pour analyser ces modes de correspondance à la fois physique (objets), symbolique (images), spirituel et politique, nous avons fait appel aux règles du monde commun domestique définies par Luc Boltanski et Laurent Thévenot (1991) qui se caractérisent par le respect et la reconnaissance de l’autorité et de la filiation. Celles-ci permettent de comprendre le fonctionnement de la vie en commun auprès d’une micro-société comme le Séminaire; des règles qui influencent également le système de valeurs de celle-ci. Un arrimage intellectuel sur les valeurs idéologiques, humanistes et artistiques, promues par le Saint-Siège explique les formes que peuvent prendre la présence du pape et d’œuvres célèbres du Vatican dans l’imaginaire du Séminaire. La culture visuelle de Rome et du Vatican, dans les collections de l’institution, se trouve ainsi définie par la présence de l’autorité papale garante des humanités classiques, qui s’incarne à travers des actions et des esthétiques valorisant le patrimoine romain antique christianisé, l’historicisme, le purisme et le raphaélisme.
Abstract. Throughout its history, Séminaire de Québec acquired works of art by way of purchases, donations, and legacies from the personal collections of priests who are members of the religious community of the institution. Whether these were objects of personal consultation, study collections for Université Laval – founded by the Séminaire in 1852 – or decorative artefacts in common spaces, some images stand out for the subject they represent and call for a reflection on the values that they can constitute within the institution. The strong representativeness of Rome in the collection of prints imposes a questioning on the multiplication of objects on the same subject. This observation is also contemporary to the increase of the long-stay of priests in the Eternal City during the second half of the 19th century. Their travel reports allow them to state their perceptions of Rome, its monuments, its museums, its churches, its religiosity and its customs. From these stories, themselves generators of mental images, stands out the travel diary of the Archbishop of Quebec, Mgr. Joseph-Octave Plessis. Written in 1819-1820, this document allows to formulate hypotheses on the preparation of the journey of priests in Rome in the 19th century. Equally relevant, the travel diary of Abbot Benjamin Pâquet, written between 1863 and 1866 during his doctoral studies in theology at the Roman College, is a source from which concrete facts guide the definition of the visuality of Rome, understood as a urban ensemble and as an ideal and mythical place. From the descriptions of the sensory experiences that traveling priests make of places and objects, the physical images representing Rome kept at the Séminaire and at the Université acquire value and meaning. Concordance of objects and comments generates a corpus representative of a visualization of Rome and the Vatican at the Séminaire and at the Université during the targeted period. As such, graphic works of Roman monuments by Giuseppe Vasi or Giovanni Battista Piranesi, portraits of prelates of the Roman curia and of the Pope by the painter Vincenzo Pasqualoni, and albums of prints or souvenir photographs, create a set of references for the institution whose visual and cultural significance is based on facts and on a phenomenology of the sensitive experience. The fostering of diplomatic relations between the Holy See and the members of the Séminaire is a constancy that emerges from the analysis of textual sources. Around the same time of Abbot Pâquet’s journey, the Pope continued to apply strategies to consolidate his moral and symbolic authority, while his temporal authority was weakened by political upheavals in Italy. These strategies were characterized, among other things, by dogmatic decrees, the funding of archaeological sites, the v restoration of monuments, artistic commissions, and reissues of prints in Rome, which influenced the development of the library and of the collections of Séminaire de Québec. To analyze these modes of correspondence which are both physical (objects), symbolic (images), spiritual and political, we have used the rules of the “common domestic world” defined by Luc Boltanski and Laurent Thévenot (1991) which are characterized by respect and recognition of authority and filiation. These make possible to understand the functioning of a life in common within a micro-society, like at the Séminaire; rules also influence its system of values. An intellectual link with the ideological, humanist and artistic values promoted by the Holy See explains the forms that the presence of the Pope and famous Vatican works can take in the imagination of the priests of the Séminaire. The visual culture of Rome and the Vatican, in the collections of the institution, is thus defined by the presence of a papal authority, guardian of the classical humanities, which is embodied through actions and aesthetics valuing Christianized ancient Roman heritage, historicism, purism and Raphaelism.
“Hiring someone like myself…”. Discourse and Discrimination in recruitment and selection processes in large firms in Chile
Camila Cárdenas Neira & Javier Hernández Aracena (2020)
Discurso & Sociedad, 14(4), pp. 790-822.
Resumen. Este artículo busca analizar críticamente los discursos que emergen para legitimar los modos en que se desarrollan los procesos de reclutamiento y selección de personal en empresas de sectores clave ubicadas en Chile. Para abordar este interrogante se analizan 35 entrevistas realizadas entre 2017 y 2019 a profesionales a cargo de esta labor en 35 empresas asociadas a sectores de la industria. Este análisis se apoya en contribuciones teórico-metodológicas de los Estudios Críticos del Discurso (Van Dijk, 1993a), y prioriza enfoques lingüísticos y sociocognitivos para dar cuenta de dos fenómenos: 1) la construcción y validación de conocimiento experto, y 2) la clasificación y categorización de personas. Los resultados muestran que las estrategias discursivas empleadas favorecen la formulación de estereotipos sobre perfiles y habilidades deseadas, por un lado, y de prejuicios basados en la pertenencia de clase y género, por el otro. Así, las posturas abiertamente discriminatorias son a menudo disimuladas, pero de manera implícita surgen contradicciones y sesgos ideológicos que no logran encubrirse del todo.
Extract: “Dichos procedimientos constituyen procesos más amplios de evaluación y valuación de personas, en tanto se califican determinados atributos como criterios de calidad, de potencialidades laborales e incluso de merecedores de confianza (Marchal, 2013). Cada proceso supone elegir, en base a variados criterios y a través de sucesivos pasos a una persona en desmedro de otras. Esto pone de relieve un aspecto central de la desigualdad: si las jerarquías son inherentemente desiguales, ¿bajo qué principio se justifican? Boltanski & Thévenot (2006) indican que todo régimen desigual necesita de un modo de justificación en virtud del cual las personas que aparecen subordinadas o perjudicadas acepten o toleren esa posición. En lo que respecta a las organizaciones, no solo hay gente que es excluida mientras otra es incluida, sino que también persiste una asimetría tanto en términos de responsabilidades y poder, como de salarios y otras condiciones afines.” (p. 795)
Abstract. This article problematizes the issue of legitimation of said procedures when recruitment and selection often involve discriminatory attitudes and decisions. For this purpose, 35 in-depth interviews, performed between 2017 and 2019, with practitioners involved in recruitment and selection working in 35 different firms are analyzed. This analysis is grounded on Critical Discourse Studies (CDS) as proposed by Van Dijk (1993a). This focuses on linguistic and socio-cognitive approaches in order to deal with two issues: 1) construction and validation of expert knowledge, and, 2) classification and categorization of people. The results show that discursive strategies followed by practitioners support stereotypes about profiles and skills valued, on the one hand, and prejudices related to class and gender, on the other hand. Therefore, openly discriminatory positions are often dissimulated, but they still reveal some contradictions and ideologically-driven biases.
Extract. « These procedures constitute broader processes of evaluation and assessment of people, insofar as certain attributes are qualified as criteria of quality, of moral potential and even of trustworthiness (Marchal, 2013). Each process involves choosing, on the basis of various criteria and through successive steps, one person over another. This highlights a central aspect of inequality: if hierarchies are inherently unequal, under what principle are they justified? Boltanski & Thévenot (2006) indicate that any unequal regime needs a mode of justification by virtue of which the people who appear to be under- or disadvantaged accept or tolerate that position. As far as organizations are concerned, not only are some people excluded while others are included, but also an asymmetry persists both in terms of responsibilities and power, as well as in terms of salaries and other related conditions. » (p. 795)
Book description. In the same realm as social ecology, industrial ecology and the circular economy, a new interdisciplinary field is growing: territorial ecology. Based on the analysis of the metabolism of human societies at a local level, it helps us diagnose a socio-ecosystem. This diagnostic is not only based on what is circulating, but also on how it is organized and why. Who is at the origin of a flow? What are their motivations? Who has the power to make decisions about it? This methodology, taking into account both the material description of human societies and the analysis of decision-making processes, might also be relevant for territorial diagnostics. It leads us to a systemic view of the consequences of individual and collective actions on the sustainability of local socio ecosystems. Socio-ecological transition implies a substantial evolution of human societies. Innovation, be it technological, organizational or social, is intrinsically involved in this evolution. However, if transition calls for disruptive rather than incremental innovations, we must also assess these innovations with a systemic view of their consequences.
Positioning Territorial Ecology in the Scientific and Institutional Context.
Main Methodologies Developed Around.
A Wealth Creation Approach for a Territorial Diagnosis Methodology.
Territorial Ecology and the Challenges of the Socio-ecological Transition: Metabolism, Capacity and Resilience.
Principles for Innovative Territorial Projects. 5.1. Conventional regimes and principles 5.1.1. Conventions 5.1.2. Conventional values and reference points 5.1.3. Conventional regimes 5.2. From the dominant conventional regime to a more sustainable one 5.2.1. The basis of the dominant conventional regime 5.2.2. What might the characteristics be of a sustainable
European Journal of Cultural and Political Sociology, 8(1), pp. 81-107
Abstract. This article examines meaning making among actors engaged in the ‘conflict over family’ in Slovakia. The conflict between progressive supporters of gay rights and neo-conservative advocates of the ‘traditional family’ reflects the transnational backlash against the LGBTQ+ rights recognition. Utilising a combination of pragmatic and cultural sociology, I explore how civically engaged actors from both sides make sense of their civic engagement. The analysis of qualitative interviews shows that, despite striving for different goals, all participants make sense of their work as helping. Helping discourse plays a crucial role in everyday meaning making, because it enables actors to justify their engaged work with respect to the common good in concrete terms, and it also contributes to the formation of personal attachments to the work. Civically engaged actors articulate helping discourse in narrative accounts, which elicit feelings of moral duty, satisfaction, and empowerment, thus helping them persevere in their engagement.
European Journal of Cultural and Political Sociology. Online first
Abstract.The article investigates how ordinary citizens establish the worth of unemployed persons when discussing politics. It analyses data from two deliberative forums held in Copenhagen, Denmark and Birmingham, UK at which citizens discussed welfare policies. It uses core concepts from French pragmatic sociology in an attempt to grasp the moral complexity of such discussions. Contrary to the moral singularity found in the majority of existing analyses—distinguishing ‘negative’ from ‘positive’ perceptions of the unemployed—the article emphasises the plurality of coexisting normative standards that people turn to when establishing the (lack of) worth of the unemployed. It finds that three normative standards are most important in both countries but being applied in quite different ways: an industrial standard of worth, measuring worth in terms of competences; a domestic standard of worth, measuring worth in terms of behaviour; and a market standard of worth, measuring worth in terms of money.