Two EC related lectures in the “Social Research Colloquium”

“Kolloquium Sozialforschung” at the University of Lucerne, Switzerland (Autumn 2019)

Guy Schwegler (University of Lucerne)

During the autumn semester 2019, the bi-weekly colloquium at the University of Lucerne took place, which was organized by Rainer Diaz-Bone and Kenneth Horvath. The format features speakers from both academia as well as private and public research institutions to deal with the methodological challenges of social science in a broad way. The various presentations given this past autumn dealt with subjects such as bibliometric reviews (Isabel Steinhardt, University of Kassel), large data sets and maps (Timo Ohnmacht, Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts), or the question of representativeness in surveys (Stephanie Steinmetz, University of Lausanne). Furthermore, two researchers were also part of this semester’s program that relied heavily on convention theory (EC). For the very first presentation of the colloquium, Valeska Cappel (University of Lucerne) presented her PHD project’s perspective on the think-aloud-method. And for the very last one of the semester, Simon Schrör (Weizenbaum Institute Berlin) focused on the furniture industry. For his newly started PHD, he examines the role of conventions in the digital transformation of this industry.

These two latter presentations and their subsequent discussions will be summarized in this blog post.

Valeska Cappel:
“Die Think-Aloud-Methode: lautes Denken zur Erfassung impliziter kognitiver Wissensvorgänge” [Using the Think-Aloud Method to Grasp Implicit Cognitive Knowledge-Processes]

Valeska Cappel

In her PHD project, Valeska Cappel focuses on the digital classifications of health within software applications on smartphones (i.e. apps). She has been presenting her project in numerous forums already (see here for some reports on her presentation on this very blog). For her most recent presentation on the subject, she focused on a very specific part of her empirical work, namely the possible application of the think-aloud-method.

As Cappel put it, her project has three aims when it comes to health classifications in apps. First, there is a (more historical and general) side to the establishment of these digital classifications that she looks into. Here, she hopes to identify the equivalences and form-investments present. Second, she also will look at tensions, conflicts and non-intended consequences that result from the implementations of the classifications within and through the helath apps. Third, Cappel wants to examine closely the actual handling of the apps within specific situations, where users interact with the objects, the software and therefore the classifications. Although her three goals co-constitute each other and are somehow inseparable, she approaches each part with a different methodological emphasis. For her third aim—the handling of the apps within situations—Cappel sees the think-aloud-method fit to capture data about the cognitive processes the users bring forward in interaction with the apps.

After these introductory remarks, Cappel went on to introduce the method and different approaches to it. These approaches of the think-aloud-technique range from an “introspective” and immediate verbalization of the participants during process over to “retro-“ or post-process verbalizations, that can happen either just after a respective action or in a delayed manner. For Cappel, all of these approaches to the method promise ways to approach the peculiarities of people dealing with classifications in situations. The more immediate verbalizations, for example, seem to relate better to the ideas present in the regimes of engagement concept while the delayed approach seems more fit for justifications. The main challenge of the method, however, lies in the fact that its basic assumption lead to a psychological explanation of the underlying processes all too fast. A path to use the method in the context of EC concepts, in relation to the ideas of technologies of the self by Foucault, or with the symbolic interactionism in mind, as Cappel intends to, does not present itself easily.

The challenge was also at the heart of the discussion that followed the presentation. Here, however, participants stressed that a similar tension as in the method also lies in Cappel’s very subject, i.e. the knowledge category “health”. The idea of “cognition” with and through the category as a psychological process is connected to the sociological issue of the “handling” of the category. Various approaches to this tension then were discussed. One proposed solution was the idea to re-focus the method on the situation as only accessed by the talking participant (instead of focusing on the thinking participant). Another proposal was to apply the method in sessions with couples (and therefore two participants) or to create some sort of “crisis” experiments, and not just observe daily routines.

Simon Schrör:
“Digital-basierte Konventionen und Designmöbel. Transformation einer Industrie” [Digital based conventions and Design Furniture. Transformations of an Industry]

Simon Schrör

Simon Schrör only recently started with his PhD project that focuses on the digital transformation of the furniture industry and its related implications for modes of productions, justifications, and the likes. In Lucerne, he began his presentation with a little introduction of the Weizenbaum Institute, a joint venture project of Berlin’s universities that focuses on the digital transformation of the society, where Schrör is engaged as researcher. As part of one of the twenty research groups of the interdisciplinary institution, he especially focuses on the new governance forms and norms that result from digitalization.

After this introduction of the institute and its focus, Schrör went on to present design furniture and the changes that present themselves with the digitalization of this field. For him, the furniture objects resemble an interesting case for the digital changes. Consequences in legal, technical, as well as social norms and regulation here find their way into a specific and material object—the ways to coordinate in the digital realm are present in the furniture. Taking a step back further, Schrör then went on to present the wider societal change since 70ties as described by Andreas Reckwitz with the term late-modernity (“Spätmoderne”, see Reckwitz 2017/2020) again as mirrored in the design furniture field. Here, the former idea of design as a process inherent to mass production has been flipped on its head and the changes resulted in a questionable new role of the once standardized furniture. Now, design furniture are presented as luxury objects and a form of singularity. At the same time, however, they are being copied and cheaply manufactured by a mass market with instant and global availability.

To grasp these changes in a more systematic way, Schrör presented the concepts of the four commodity structures respectively forms of valorization that Boltanski and Esquerre introduced in Enrichment (“les formes de mise en valeur”, 2017/2020). With these four characteristics alongside the quality conventions, he went on to describe the differentiated practices to produce furniture present in the industry today. According to Schrör, furniture producers can be grouped with regard to three licensing regimes, each with respective (but non-exclusive) characteristics of goods and valorization. First, a license-based furniture production focuses on luxurious “design” furniture. Here, especially the collection form (“forme collection”) is present while a justification follows the convention of inspiration. Although emblematic of the current societal situation (singularities, enrichment), the licensed-based regime is especially challenged by processes of digitalization—and by the second type of furniture manufacturers. In this second regime type, companies have become specialized in an unlicensed production of the former regime’s products, e.g. “copying” the design products. Here, the digitalization enabled the companies to access the global distribution chains of Amazon and the likes that guarantee a certain amount of safety due to globalization (and lack of regulation). And, of course, this resulted into more and more difficulties for the license-based companies to track down their “copy-cat” counterparts. The companies under the unlicensed regime operate with the standard as well as the trend form (“forme standard/tendance”) for their goods, and justify their actions with the grammar of the civic regime. The second regime type seems to be profiting from the changes made possible through digitalization in an unapologetic manner. The third way of producing furniture, on the other hand, resemble a genuine “post-digital solution”. This regime is based on the Open Source idea, where licenses are available publicly on various online channels. These licenses then are forwarded to local producers (again, via specific channels or “platforms”). Here again the standard form becomes present, with promises to an asset form (“forme actif”), while a domestic justification organizes the production.

For Schrör, the approach of value setting in Enrichment as well as the EC in general enables the researcher to look at processes like the ones happening in digitalization from a more structural viewpoint while at the same time never losing sight of actual practices—and their possible contradictory effects (see also Boltanski and Esquerre 2017:495ff). As a first empirical idea, Schrör presented a possible chain of production that he’d like to follow and where the respective conventions should be identified. According to Schrör, an artefact analysis becomes central in following this chain of production.

During the discussion that followed his presentation, the participants of this last colloquium of the semester talked about three distinctive issues. First, the idea of following the design furniture as artefacts was discussed. Schrör presented the fabrication process in an ideal type model. Participants then pointed out that the situations of “production”—and their respective qualities and justification—shouldn’t be pre-fixed, but rather emerge in empirical work. What the actual “furniture” as an artefact is then should be questioned within various situations. The second subject discussed was the issue of digitalization. In a similar manner as with the first issue of the production process and its “artefacts,” participants pointed out that digitalization as a process also need to be specified empirically: in what function and form does the digital manifest itself, and what are the problems actors try to solve with these novelties? As a third discussion point, some weaknesses of convention theory were addressed. On the one hand, the commodity structures introduced by Boltanski and Esquerre seems to be focusing primarily on actual goods and their consumptions. Non-productive industries, the service sector and their respective “goods,” however, are not yet easily placed within the framework. On the other hand, it was pointed out, that the exact identification of a certain convention or justification in a systematic way has never been laid out—and remains a challenge both in Schrör’s project as well as in EC research in general.

References

Boltanski, Luc and Arnaud Esquerre (2017) Enrichissement. Une critique de la marchandise. Paris: Gallimard.
Boltanski, Luc and Arnaud Esquerre (2020, forthcoming) Enrichment. A Critique of Commodities. Cambridge, UK; Medford, MA: Polity.
Reckwitz, Andreas (2017) Die Gesellschaft Der Singularitäten: Zum Strukturwandel Der Moderne. Berlin: Suhrkamp.
Reckwitz, Andreas (2020, forthcoming) Society of Singularities. Cambridge, UK; Medford, MA: Polity.

Le Crowdfunding ou la glorification de la culture par projets

David Pucheu (2018)

In Loïc Ballarini, Stéphane Costantini, Marc Kaiser, Jacob Matthews, Vincent Rouzé (éds.), Financement participatif. Les nouveaux territoires du capitalisme, Presses universitaires de Nancy – Editions Universitaires de Lorraine, p. 241-248

Résumé. Malgré les critiques dont « l’économie collaborative » a été récemment la cible, le crowdfunding continue de véhiculer la positivité des valeurs de la participation, du partage et de l’empowerment des utilisateurs qui ont encadré le développement de la « nouvelle économie ». Pourtant, les mutations idéologiques du capitalisme contemporain incitent à reconsidérer ces modèles de financement dits « alternatifs » ou « disruptifs » à la lumière des affinités électives qu’ils entretiennent avec elles.
Mots clés : crowdfunding, financement participatif, intermédiation, plateforme, cité par projets, idéologie, capitalisme, nouvelle économie

Extrait : “Les analyses de Luc Boltanski et Ève Chiapello (1999) sur le « nouvel esprit du capitalisme » ont mis en lumière l’émergence, au tournant des années 1990, d’une « culture par projets » inscrite au coeur du fonctionnement effectif et symbolique (pour ne pas dire idéologique) du capitalisme contemporain. Construite autour du modèle idéal-typique des « cités » proposé par Luc Boltanski et Laurent Thévenot (1995) dans Les économies de la grandeur, la « cité par projet » se présente comme un système de valeur hiérarchisé et appuyé par un régime de justification actoriel qui motive une grammaire d’action propre à la logique de « projet ». […] Ce sont précisément cette logique de projet et les valeurs qui lui sont inhérentes que promeuvent les plateformes de financement participatif. Des plateformes qui offrent, en outre, à leur inscription réticulaire une objectivation technique.” (p. 243)

Crowdfunding or the glorification of culture by projects

Abstract. Despite recent criticisms of the “collaborative economy”, crowdfunding continues to convey the positive values of participation, sharing and user empowerment that have framed the development of the “new economy”. However, the ideological mutations of contemporary capitalism encourage us to reconsider these so-called “alternative” or “disruptive” funding models in the light of the elective affinities they have with them.
Keywords: crowdfunding, participative financing, intermediation, platform, project based, ideology, capitalism, new economy

English translation of the excerpt.
“The analyses of Luc Boltanski and Ève Chiapello (1999) on the ‘new spirit of capitalism’ highlighted the emergence, at the turn of the 1990s, of a ‘project-based culture’ inscribed at the heart of the effective and symbolic (not to say ideological) functioning of contemporary capitalism. Built around the ideal-typical model of the “city” proposed by Luc Boltanski and Laurent Thévenot (1995) in “Les économies de la grandeur”, the “city by project” is presented as a hierarchical value system supported by a system of actorial justification that motivates a grammar of action specific to the logic of the “project”. […] It is precisely this project logic and its inherent values that participatory financing platforms promote. Platforms that also offer a technical objectification to their reticular inscription”. (p. 243)

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Making Diabetes. The Politics of Diabetes Diagnostics in Uganda

Liggins, Arlena Siobhan (2020)

ABSTRACT

“Diabetes is regarded as one of the most challenging global health issues of the 21st century. Especially countries with weak health infrastructure are struggling to deal with the increased demands this chronic disease entails. Tracing the effects of a diagnostic device, the glucometer, this book examines how it contributes to the making of diabetes in contemporary Uganda. Arlena S. Liggins demonstrates that depending on who uses the glucometer, the outcomes may go far beyond diagnosis. The book draws a complex picture of hopes and misplaced expectations, of trust and mistrust in a technology to which access in the first place is all but a given.”

EXCERPT

“What is a number, really? In this chapter, I aim to showcase the power of numbers. The world we are living in today is, perhaps as never before, a world in which quantifications and metrics take on an imperative role. We live in a “world of numbers” (Diaz-Bone and Didier 2016), in a “world of indicators” (Rottenburg et al. 2015), and in a world, in which what counts in global and public health is “metrics” (Adams 2016). Accordingly, we may express ourselves or may be expressed through numbers. A number measures something or rather is a symbol and result of measuring something. It represents an amount and/or a quantity; it gives a picture of something and it clearly most often stands for something. I think we agree that no matter for what we may use a number, it will not have a deeper meaning unless you, or someone adds this meaning to it. Numbers have to be related to something or some-body, and whoever uses them has to have an understanding or the authority to interpret and analyze this number in order to make it useful in one way or the other. A number might be an abstract or empty entity for one person, while it may mean the world for another. […] The numbers we will come to meet in this chapter are not the numbers used to monitor or surveil a group of people (previous chapter). Instead we will look at numbers and the meaning ascribed to them for the life and the self-monitoring practices of the “everyday life worlds of ordinary people” (Diaz-Bone and Didier 2016: 6).” (pp. 149/150)

Link

Design Thinking and the New Spirit of Capitalism. Sociological Reflections on Innovation Culture.

Seitz, Tim (2020)

Cham: Springer Nature

“Chapter 4 “Design Thinking and the New Spirit of Capitalism”

In this chapter, the practices and promises of design thinking are discussed in the light of Boltanski/Chiapello’s “new spirit of capitalism.” I show how specific forms of criticism directed at a loss of authenticity and autonomy resonate in the self-descriptions and practices of design thinking. Consequently, the success and popularity of design thinking becomes understandable through its affinity to contemporary ideologies instead of an assumed conceptual superiority.”

Translation of Seitz, Tim (2017): Design Thinking und der neue Geist des Kapitalismus. Soziologische Betrachtungen einer Innovationskultur.

Bielefeld: Transcript.

 

Kontroversität und Wissenschaftlichkeit in Materialien und Vorgaben für die sozioökonomische Bildung (KoWiMa)

Reinhold Hedtke, Patrick Kahle, Henning Middelschulte, Detlef Sack with collaboration of Johanna Heimann (2019)

Düsseldorf: Forschungsinstitut für gesellschaftliche Weiterentwicklung

 

EINLEITUNG

“Inhalte der politisch-ökonomischen Bildung werden seit Jahren in Wissenschaft, Bildung und Öffentlichkeit kontrovers diskutiert (vgl. z. B. sowi-online 2001b; sowi-online 2001a; Weißeno 2006; Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung 2011). Die aktuelle Debatte geht von drei Annahmen aus. So steht erstens die Vermutung im Raum, dass die derzeit gebräuchlichen sozioökonomischen Lehr-Lern-Materialien wichtige aktuelle Entwicklungen (etwa Wirtschafts- und Finanzkrise, Finanzialisierung, Austeritätspolitiken, Digitalisierung der Arbeitswelt, Transnationalisierung der Wertschöpfungskette, Vertiefung sozialer Ungleichheiten, gender pay gap und prekäre Beschäftigung, Europäische Integration und Freihandelsregime) nicht bzw. in unzureichender Weise thematisieren. Zweitens wird angenommen, dass die derzeit in der Schulnutzung befindlichen Lehr-Lern-Materialien dem Kontroversitätsgebot (vgl. Grammes 2014) in wissenschaftlicher und politischer Hinsicht oft nicht hinreichend entsprechen und dabei insbesondere einen ordo- oder neoliberalen Bias aufweisen. Dies gelte insbesondere für externe Unterrichtsmaterialien. Drittens verfehlten die Materialien oft den Anschluss an Entwicklungen des einschlägigen wissenschaftlichen State of the Art (etwa (post-)keynesianische, sozialökonomische, evolutionsökonomische, institutionalistische, konventionalistische oder komplexitätstheoretische Ansätze; vgl. dazu z. B. Colander et al. 2004; Ederer et al. 2012; Davis/Dolfsma 2015; Diaz-Bone 2015; Favereau 2013; Hanappi/Elsner 2008; Harcourt/Kriesler 2013; Hodgson et al. 1994; Whalen 2013; Wilson et al. 2013). Seltener als die Lehr-Lern-Materialien, unter denen wir hier zugelassene Schulbücher sowie Unterrichtsmaterialien externer Anbieter verstehen, geraten in dieser Debatte die staatlichen curricularen Vorgaben in die Kritik.” (p. 8)

Controversy and scientificity in materials and guidelines for socio-economic education.

INTRODUCTION

“Contents of political-economic education have been controversially discussed for years in science, education and the public (see z. e.g. sowi-online 2001b; sowi-online 2001a; Weißeno 2006; Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung 2011). The current debate is based on three assumptions. Firstly, there is the assumption that the socio-economic teaching-learning materials currently in use do not address important current developments (such as the economic and financial crisis, financialisation, austerity policies, digitalisation of the world of work, transnationalisation of the value chain, deepening social inequalities, gender pay gap and precarious employment, European integration and free trade regimes) or do so inadequately. Secondly, it is assumed that the teaching-learning materials currently in school use often do not sufficiently meet the controversy requirement (cf. Grammes 2014) in scientific and political terms and in particular exhibit an ordo- or neoliberal bias. This applies in particular to external teaching materials. Thirdly, the materials often fail to keep pace with developments in the relevant scientific state of the art (such as (post-)Keynesian, socioeconomic, evolutionary, institutionalist, conventionalist or complexity theory approaches; cf. see e.g. Colander et al. 2004; Ederer et al. 2012; Davis/Dolfsma 2015; Diaz-Bone 2015; Favereau 2013; Hanappi/Elsner 2008; Harcourt/Kriesler 2013; Hodgson et al. 1994; Whalen 2013; Wilson et al. 2013). Less frequently than the teaching-learning materials, by which we mean approved textbooks as well as teaching materials from external providers, the state curricular requirements are criticized in this debate.”

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French sociological pragmatism: Inheritor and innovator in the American pragmatic and sociological phenomenological traditions

Frère, Bruno/Jaster, Daniel (2019)

Journal of Classical Sociology 19(2), pp. 138-160

“Philosophical pragmatism has seen a revival within the sociological discourse. We bring three strands of this approach into direct dialogue with one another. Anglophone and German scholars have brought pragmatists such as George Herbert Mead back to the forefront of our understandings of social action. In a parallel development, scholars such as Alfred Schütz incorporated Husserlian phenomenology with American pragmatism, reinforcing a specific micro-interactionist model. In Francophone sociology, Luc Boltanski and Laurent Thévenot challenged the hegemonic structuralist approach in the 1980s by developing their own pragmatic framework. In this synthetic review, we illustrate why this recent French pragmatic sociology adds interesting cultural, sociological, and psychological dimensions to the American pragmatic and to phenomenological lineages. We then show how these innovations provide a richer understanding of the interaction between individuals and institutions and a way to understand something American pragmatists and phenomenological sociologists often struggle to engage with: social conflict.”

Sociology of engagements: pragmatic regimes and governing tyrannies.

Laurent Thévenot (2018)

Lecture given at the Summer School in European Education Studies (University of Naples Federico II, 3 July 2018) now online as YOUTUBE videos:

Part 1: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VvJKP5gUOl4

Part 2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jYOuHJWkk2A

Part 3: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D0Q0mIMv7wM

Part 4: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6pAO-cTvDXs

Part 5: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HGclvrLNxC8

Part 6: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GjyG2OAwFyE

Part 7: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-n3Quw9Cb3k

Coopetition in Projects in Cultural Industries. Conference Paper

Bérubé, Julie/Gauthier, Jacques-Bernard (2019)

Researchgate

This paper addresses the following question: what happens when people pool their resources in a project but also compete for market share? This question is at the heart of project management in the cultural industries. To be viable, these projects must find a compromise between competition and collaboration. To conceptualize this compromise, we used the theoretical framework On Justification by Boltanski and Thévenot (2006). These authors represented society with six independent worlds, and they explored compromises between the various worlds. We associate competition with the market world and collaboration with the civic world. Boltanski and Thévenot (2006) did not find a figure of compromise between these two worlds, but we suggest that coopetition is a viable form of compromise. We undertook 50 semi-structured interviews with professional visual artists to empirically support our assumptions that (1) coopetition is the answer to our initial question, and (2) it is the figure of compromise between the market and civic worlds. Our findings contribute to the literature on coopetition in project management by presenting three typical cases of coopetition in projects in cultural industries: artwork creation projects, art exhibition projects in private galleries, and art exhibition projects in cooperative galleries. We also contribute to the literature on Boltanski and Thévenot (2006) theoretical framework by exploring a new figure of compromise

Metadaten im Kontext. Warum wir eine neue Datenkunde brauchen

Krenn, Karoline/Tiemann, Jens (2020)

In: Klimczak, Peter/Petersen, Christer/Schilling, Samuel (eds.), Maschinen der Kommunikation. Interdisziplinäre Perspektiven auf Technik und Gesellschaft im digitalen Zeitalter. Wiesbaden: Springer VS, pp. 3-27.

Metadaten sind ein Schlüssel zur Nutzung und Deutung von Daten. Im Zusammenhang mit dem in digitalen Prozessen anfallenden Datenvolumen gilt das umso mehr. Der Beitrag diskutiert Metadaten in der digital vermittelten Kommunikation aus verschiedenen disziplinären Perspektiven: im Betrieb von Maschinen, bei der Aufbereitung und Verwertung von Daten und schließlich aus einer soziologischen Beobachtungsperspektive. Metadaten sind in allen Fällen ein kontextabhängiges Element der Wissensrepräsentation. Metadaten zu erzeugen und zu nutzen, heißt immer, Daten zu deuten und Deutungen zu materialisieren. Am Beispiel eines Community-basierten Funknetzes für das Internet der Dinge (IoT) erläutern wir die Bedeutung von Domänenwissen. Wir argumentieren, dass die Nachnutzung von (Meta-)Daten eine Rekonstruktion ihres Entstehungskontexts erfordert. Mit der sozialwissenschaftlichen Datenkunde stellen wir abschließend ein solches Werkzeug zur Rekonstruktion von Kontext vor.

Metadata in context. Why we need a new data customer

Metadata is a key to the use and interpretation of data. This is all the more true in connection with the volume of data generated in digital processes. This article discusses metadata in digitally mediated communication from various disciplinary perspectives: in the operation of machines, in the processing and exploitation of data and finally from a sociological observation perspective. In all cases, metadata are a context-dependent element of knowledge representation. Creating and using metadata always means interpreting data and materializing interpretations. Using the example of a community-based wireless network for the Internet of Things (IoT), we explain the importance of domain knowledge. We argue that the re-use of (meta-)data requires a reconstruction of its context of origin. Finally, we present such a tool for the reconstruction of context in social science data

Fachmittelschule und Gymnasium als Zugangswege zu Pädagogischen Hochschulen in der Schweiz. Zubringer zum Studiengang Primarstufe im Vergleich

Hafner, Sandra (2019)

In: Safi, Netkey/Bauer, Catherine Eve/Kocher, Mirjam (eds.)(2019): Lehrberuf: Vorbereitung, Berufseinstieg, Perspektiven. Beiträge aus der Professionsforschung. Bern: hep Verlag, pp. 35-46.

Angesichts des steigenden Lehrkräftebedarfs auf der Primarstufe (SKBF 2018, Babel 2017) rücken diejenigen Schultypen der Sekundarstufe II in den Fokus, die formalen Zugang zu den entsprechenden Studiengängen an Pädagogischen Hochschulen bieten: das Gymnasium sowie die Fachmittelschule (FMS) mit Berufsfeld und Fachmaturität Pädagogik. Ursprünglich wurden die gymnasialen Schwerpunktfächer Musik, Bildnerisches Gestalten (BG) und Philosophie/Pädagogik/Psychologie (PPP) im Rahmen des neuen Maturitätsanerkennungsreglements (MAR 1995) und im Kontext der Auflösung der seminaristischen LLB auf Sekundarstufe II und deren Tertiarisierung als «funktionales Äquivalent» zu den Lehrer/innenseminaren und «neue Möglichkeit der Vorbereitung auf den berufsbildenden Teil der LLB» an Pädagogischen Hochschulen» (Criblez und Lehmann 2016, S. 55) institutionalisiert. Heute ist jedoch auch die Fachmittelschule mit dem Profil Pädagogik zu einer wichtigen Zubringerin zum Studium der Primarstufe geworden. Sie hat gegenüber der stets als «Königsweg» bezeichneten gymnasialen Maturität in den letzten Jahren stark an Bedeutung für die LLB an PH gewonnen: Im gesamtschweizerischen Durchschnitt beträgt der Anteil Fachmaturand/innen im Studiengang Primarstufe mittlerweile ca. 30% (SKBF 2018), und die Übertrittsquote von der Fachmaturität Pädagogik in die Pädagogischen Hochschulen ist mit 85% beachtlich (Babel et al. 2018). Vor diesem Hintergrund geht der Beitrag der Frage nach, worin sich die beiden schulischen Profile der musisch-pädagogischen Schwerpunktfächer im Gymnasium und des Berufsfelds und der Fachmaturität Pädagogik an der Fachmittelschule unterscheiden, und auf welchen Wertigkeiten die Spezifika und Charakteristika des jeweiligen Profils beruhen. Mit Rückgriff auf die ‘Économie des Conventions (EC)’(Diaz-Bone 2015, Boltanski & Thévenot 1999) wird die Definition von Wertigkeit als sozial konstruiert und auf sog. ‘Konventionen’ basierend verstanden. Konventionen sind kulturell etablierte Wertigkeitsordnungen, auf deren Grundlage beteiligte Akteure Handlungen (z.B. Arten der Wissensvermittlung), Personen (z.B. Lehrpersonen und Schüler/innen) sowie Objekte (z.B. Curricula) gestützt durch die materielle Umwelt bewerten und legitimieren. Der Beitrag zeigt, dass sich die FMS Pädagogik und die Schwerpunktfächer Musik, BG und PPP am Gymnasium trotz ihrer Ähnlichkeit als allgemeinbildende und musisch-pädagogisch orientierte Bildungsprofile der Sekundarstufe II in den mit Wertigkeit versehenen Bildungszielen, Wissensformen und Modi der Wissensvermittlung wesentlich unterscheiden. Es werden Hypothesen vorgestellt, inwiefern diese Unterschiede die unterschiedliche Bedeutung der beiden schulischen Profile zu erklären vermögen

Secondary technical schools and grammar schools as access routes to universities of teacher education in Switzerland. Feeder to the primary level in comparison

In view of the increasing demand for teachers at primary level (SKBF 2018, Babel 2017), the focus is shifting to those types of secondary level II schools that offer formal access to the corresponding courses of study at universities of teacher education: the Gymnasium and the Fachmittelschule (FMS) with a vocational field and a specialist Matura in education. Originally, the Gymnasium’s main subjects music, visual design (BG) and philosophy/pedagogy/psychology (PPP) were institutionalised within the framework of the new Matura recognition regulations (MAR 1995) and in the context of the dissolution of the seminaristic LLB at upper secondary level II and its tertiarisation as a “functional equivalent” to the teachers’ seminars and “new possibility of preparing for the vocational part of the LLB” at universities of teacher education” (Criblez and Lehmann 2016, p. 55). Today, however, the vocational secondary school with the profile of pedagogy has also become an important feeder to the primary level of study. Compared to the Gymnasium Matura, which is always described as the “royal road”, it has become much more important for the LLB at PH in recent years: On average throughout Switzerland, the proportion of specialist Matura students in the primary school programme is now around 30% (SKBF 2018), and the transfer rate from the specialist Matura in Education to the universities of teacher education is impressive at 85% (Babel et al. 2018). Against this background, this article examines the question of how the two school profiles of the music and pedagogical main subjects at the Gymnasium and the vocational field and the Fachmatura in pedagogy at the specialized secondary school differ, and on which values the specifics and characteristics of the respective profile are based. With reference to the ‘Économie des Conventions (EC)’ (Diaz-Bone 2015, Boltanski & Thévenot 1999), the definition of value is understood as socially constructed and based on so-called ‘conventions’. Conventions are culturally established orders of value, on the basis of which participating actors evaluate and legitimize actions (e.g. types of knowledge transfer), persons (e.g. teachers and students) and objects (e.g. curricula) supported by the material environment. The contribution shows that FMS pedagogy and the main subjects music, BG and PPP at the Gymnasium differ substantially in the educational goals, forms of knowledge and modes of knowledge transfer that are assigned values, despite their similarity as general education and music-pedagogically oriented educational profiles of the upper secondary level. Hypotheses will be presented on the extent to which these differences can explain the different significance of the two school profiles

Reconquérir la ville après un épisode psychotique : pratiques, espaces et temporalités

Codeluppi, Zoé (2019)

PhD thesis. Neuchâtel: University of Neuchâtel

SUMMARY

“The aim of this research is to investigate the role of the urban environment in the recovery process of psychosis. I look at the practices, spaces and temporalities of reconquering the city. I focus particularly on young people having recently experienced a first psychotic episode in the city of Lausanne, Switzerland. This analysis examines recovery from an ecological perspective that considers the city in its systemic dimension as a set of interactions between living beings, and spatially and temporally located milieus. I look at the way the constantly wavering temporal dynamics of psychosis affect people’s practices. I show how these temporal dynamics imply various levels of involvement with the urban environment, which translates into the use of specific material, social, sensory and affective resources. First, my analysis outlines the process of reclaiming urban space while recovering. I highlight the great range and diversity of spaces mobilized by young people in their daily trajectories, which include institutional care spaces such as hospitals, community care centers or outpatient clinics, as well as more informal care settings such as parks or coffee shops. Second, I draw on the concept of “intensity of engagement” developed by Laurent Thévenot (2006), in order to point out how participants are constantly adjusting their involvement with the material, social, emotional and sensory resources of the environment, according to the frequency and intensity of symptoms. I argue that the temporal recovery dynamics of psychosis involve a short and a long cycle, implying an alternation of practices between withdrawal and reconquest of the urban space. Third, I develop a broader analysis that touches upon the strategies and tactics developed by people living with a diagnosis of psychosis when facing stressful situations in the city. In my concluding discussion, I show how the knowledge of practices, temporalities and spatialities of the recovery process provides a new line of thought for care professionals and urban planners, in order to rethink the livability of our cities and the quality of life of their inhabitants. More generally, this work is part of an interdisciplinary research project between psychiatry and human geography, funded by the Swiss National Research Foundation (SNSF), which aims to better understand the role of the urban environment in the emergence of psychosis. This analysis has been conducted with patients of an early intervention program for psychotic disorders called TIPP (Traitement et intervention précoce dans les troubles psychotiques) belonging to the Vaud University Hospital Centre (CHUV). My work is based on an ethnography conducted in a community care service with participants involved in the TIPP program, as well as on go-alongs, interviews and focus groups with another group of patients from the same program.”

Keywords: human geography, psychiatry, psychosis, recovery, urban ecology, urban milieu, practices, public space, level of involvement, resources, temporalities, experience-based approach, ethnography, Lausanne.

RÉSUMÉ

“Cette recherche porte sur rôle de l’environnement urbain dans le processus de rétablissement de la psychose. Elle explore les pratiques, les espaces et les temporalités du processus de reconquête de la ville chez des jeunes personnes ayant vécu un premier épisode psychotique dans la ville de Lausanne, en Suisse. Cette analyse examine le rétablissement dans une perspective écologique qui considère la ville dans sa dimension systémique, comme un ensemble d’interactions entre les êtres vivants et les milieux spatialement et temporellement situés. Je propose d’analyser la façon dont le rythme des troubles agit sur les pratiques et sur les formes d’engagement avec l’environnement urbain et la manière dont cela se traduit par la mobilisation de ressources matérielles, sociales, sensorielles et affectives particulières. Dans un premier temps, mon analyse retrace le processus progressif de reconquête de l’espace urbain au cours du rétablissement. Je mets en évidence la grande variété et diversité d’espaces mobilisés par les jeunes personnes dans leurs trajectoires quotidiennes qui incluent tant des espaces institutionnels de soins comme les hôpitaux ou les centres de consultation que des espaces de soins plus informels comme des parcs urbains ou des cafés. Dans un deuxième temps, à l’aide du concept “d’intensité d’engagement” développé par Laurent Thévenot (2006), j’examine la façon dont les personnes modulent leur engagement avec les ressources matérielles, sociales, affectives et sensorielles de l’environnement, en fonction du rythme d’apparition et de l’intensité des troubles. Mon analyse montre l’alternance entre les pratiques spatiales de retrait et d’engagement avec l’environnement en fonction de cycles de manifestation des troubles courts ou longs. Dans un troisième temps, je développe une réflexion plus générale qui porte sur les stratégies et les tactiques développées par les personnes vivant avec un diagnostic de psychose lors de situations de stress en milieu urbain. Je m’intéresse tout particulièrement aux techniques de “mise en confort” de l’environnement qui sont employées dans les pratiques quotidiennes de rétablissement. Enfin, en guise de conclusion, mon analyse développe quelques pistes de réflexion destinées à la fois aux professionnels de la santé mentale et aux spécialistes de l’aménagement urbain, permettant de repenser l’habitabilité de nos villes et d’améliorer la qualité de vie de ses habitants. Plus largement, ce travail s’inscrit dans un projet de recherche interdisciplinaire entre la psychiatrie et la géographie humaine, financé par le Fonds national suisse de recherche (FNS), et vise à mieux comprendre le rôle de l’environnement urbain dans l’émergence des troubles de la psychose. Cette analyse a été menée avec des jeunes patients appartenant au programme de traitement et d’intervention précoce dans les troubles psychotiques (TIPP) du centre hospitalier universitaire vaudois (CHUV). Ce travail se base sur une ethnographie menée dans une institution thérapeutique lausannoise avec des personnes appartenant au programme TIPP, ainsi que sur des “go-alongs”, des entretiens et des “focus groups” avec un autre groupe de patients de ce même programme.”

Mots-clés: géographie humaine, psychiatrie, psychose, rétablissement, écologie urbaine, milieu urbain, pratiques, espace public, intensité d’engagement, ressources, temporalités, approche basée sur l’expérience, ethnographie, Lausanne.  Directeur de thèse: Prof. O. Söderström (UNINE)

Jury: Prof. Philippe Conus (CHUV), Prof. Laurent Matthey (UNIGE)

Defense 18 December 2019

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Périplos norte-atlânticos da sociologia contemporânea: a sociologia pragmática

Michetti, Miqueli (2019)

Review essay of ”Lemieux, Cyril (2018): La sociologie pragmatique. Paris: La Découverte”. In: Sociologias 21(52), pp. 298-312.

RESUMO

“O texto introduz o livro La sociologie pragmatique (A sociologia pragmática), em que Cyril Lemieux delineia a ascendência e a filiação dessa nova corrente disciplinar e explicita os princípios, conceitos e métodos que a caracterizam. Além disso, o sociólogo francês discorre sobre os principais “campos de pesquisa” nela trabalhados e toma parte nos debates centrais que a têm atravessado, interna e externamente, nas últimas décadas. Ao fazer essa apresentação, a resenha busca ancorar a obra e a vertente preconizada em seu contexto de emergência e publicização, atentando às disputas posicionais que as enformam.”

North-Atlantic pathways of contemporary sociology: pragmatic sociology.

ABSTRACT

“The text presents a review of Cyril Lemieux’s La sociologie pragmatique (The pragmatic sociology), in which the author features the origins and affiliations of this new disciplinary branch and describes its central principles, concepts and methods. The French sociologist also introduces the main “fields of research” developed through the pragmatic approach in the last few decades, advancing its main internal and external debates. This review seeks to anchor both the book and the pragmatic sociology it advocates in their context of emergency and publicization, taking into account the positional disputes shaping them.”

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Quality versus solidarity: Third Wave coffee and cooperative values among smallholding Maya farmers in Guatemala

Fischer, Edward F./Victor, Bart/Asturias de Barrios, Linda (2020)

Journal of Peasant Studies. Online first, pp. 1-18.

This article examines how a market shift toward high-end (‘Third Wave’) coffee creates tension between two producer models of economic engagement: cooperatives, with mechanisms that promote solidarity to minimize risks, and ‘open’ markets, with extraordinary rewards for those able to grow the highest quality coffees. Most Maya farmers value cooperative organization and yet a growing number are defecting, unable to forgo the premiums intermediaries offer for their best beans. This is a complicated moral and economic situation in which the Third Wave focus on single-origin coffees forces changes in relations of production that undermine the cooperative preferences of smallholding farmers.

Governing by numbers – Key Indicators and the Politics of Expectations

Bartl, Papilloud & Terracher-Lipinski (eds.)(2019)

Special issue of HISTORICAL SOCIAL RESEARCH 44(2), now open access

Contributions

Walter Bartl, Christian Papilloud & Audrey Terracher-Lipinski: Governing by Numbers – Key Indicators and the Politics of Expectations. An Introduction.

Laurent Thévenot: Measure for Measure: Politics of Quantifying Individuals to Govern Them.

Rainer Diaz-Bone: Statistical Panopticism and its Critique.

Timo Walter: Formalizing the Future: How Central Banks Set Out to Govern Expectations but Ended Up (En-)Trapped in Indicators.

Ingo Bode: Let’s Count and Manage – and Forget the Rest. Understanding NumericRationalization in Human Service Provision.

Lisa Knoll & Konstanze Senge: Public Debt Management between Discipline and Creativity. Accounting for Energy Performance Contracts in Germany.

John Berten: Failed Indicatorisation: Defining, Comparing and Quantifying Social Policy in the ILO’s International Survey of Social Services of the Interwar Period.

Oscar Javier Maldonado & Tiago Moreira: Metrics in Global Health: Situated Differences in the Valuation of Human Life.

Carlotta Mozzana: A Matter of Definitions: The Profiling of People in Italian Active Labour Market Policies.

Michael Huber & Maarten Hillebrandt: “Pay for Promise” in Higher Education: The Influence of NPM on Resource Allocation in German Universities.

Anne Piezunka: Struggle for Acceptance – Maintaining External School Evaluation as an Institution in Germany.

Philipp Lepenies: Transforming by Metrics that Matter – Progress, Participation, and the National Initiatives of Fixing Well-Being Indicators.

Oliver Holtemöller & Christoph Schult: Expectation Formation, Financial Frictions, and Forecasting Performance of Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium Models.