Archives mensuelles : novembre 2017

Comment sortir de prison ? Le rôle des statistiques pénitentiaires dans la compréhension des comportements de récidive, par Anaïs Henneguelle

Soutenance de thèse sous la direction de Christian Bessy et Thomas Vendryes, le jeudi 30 novembre 2017 à 10h à l’École Normale Supérieure de Cachan, amphithéâtre Fonteneau (bâtiment d’Alembert, 1er étage, RER B Bagneux)

Résumé de la thèse :
Près de deux tiers des sortants de prison sont recondamnés durant les cinq années suivant leur libération. Ce constat simple interroge : peut-on imaginer des solutions au problème social de la récidive ? Quel peut être le rôle de l’économiste et du sociologue en la matière ? Comment sont construits ces chiffres et qu’omettent-ils de dire ?
Combinant méthodes quantitatives et qualitatives, cette thèse examine la construction sociale des statistiques pénitentiaires. Elle apporte une contribution en matière de connaissance économétrique des comportements de récidive, mais aussi en matière de sociologie de la quantification et plus largement de sociologie et d’économie du droit. Elle mobilise également la théorie de l’économie des conventions.
Dans la première partie, nous passons en revue la littérature économique existant au sujet de l’efficacité des sanctions pénales, avant de présenter une étude originale montrant que les condamnés ayant bénéficié d‟un bracelet électronique récidivent moins ceteris paribus que ceux qui ont été incarcéré.
Dans la seconde partie, nous plongeons dans la fabrique des statistiques pénitentiaires, c’est-à-dire dans les prisons : comment sont fabriquées les données que nous avons utilisées pour nos travaux économétriques ?
Dans la troisième partie, nous explorons un autre angle mort des statistiques en nous intéressant au biais de sélection construit dans les tribunaux : comment les juges de l’application des peines choisissent-ils les bénéficiaires d’un aménagement de peine ?

Mots-clefs : Prison, Récidive, Statistiques pénitentiaires, Économétrie, Ethnographie, Quantification

Le jury est composé de:
– Christian Bessy, Directeur de recherche au CNRS (directeur)
– Claire de Galembert, Chargée de recherche au CNRS (examinatrice)
– Olivier Godechot, Directeur de recherche au CNRS (rapporteur)
– Guillemette de Larquier, Professeure des universités (rapporteure)
– Jérôme Pélisse, Directeur de recherche au CNRS (examinateur)
– Thomas Vendryes, Maître de conférence (co-directeur de thèse)

Title : « Getting Out of Jail? How Prison Statistics can Help Us to Understand Recidivism Behaviors »

Abstract : About two third of ex-inmates are re-convicted during the five years following their release. This simple fact raises many questions: what can we do to fight recidivism? What role shold economists and sociologists play in this regard? How are these statistics established and what do they omit? Based on mixed methods, this thesis investigates the social construction of prison statistics. It contributes to econometrics in terms of recidivism behaviors, but also to the sociology of quantification and more broadly to law sociology and economics. It also uses the economics of convention theory. In the first part, we review the existing economic literature about the efficacity of penal sanctions. We then present an original study which shows that convicts who undergo electronic monitoring do re-offend less ceteris paribus than those who have been into jails.
In the second part, analyse how prison statistics are established in detail: how is the data that we used in our econometric work created? In the third and last part, we explore another blind spot of the econometric method, namely selection bias. How do judges chose who will obtain an alternative to prison?

Keywords : Prison, Recidivism, Prison Statistics, Econometrics, Ethnography, Quantification

Unravelling ambivalence: A field-theoretical approach to moralised markets

Lisa Suckert (2017)

Current Sociology, Online first.

Abstract. Moralised markets are often referred to as ethical consumption markets. They are supposed to relieve a source of major distress in capitalist societies: the conflict between morality and economy. But under what conditions do these markets grow, and when do they stagnate? Deviating from the dominant focus on external constraints, this article emphasises the intrinsic ambivalence of moralised markets. Being caught between moral and economic exigencies becomes an obstacle for market growth. The article addresses ‘unravelling ambivalence’ on two levels. First, a field-theoretical framework is used to unravel the concept of ambivalence. Inspired by Pierre Bourdieu, the article proposes introducing ambivalence as an analytical category in economic sociology. Second, a historic study based on correspondence analysis depicts the development of the German organic milk market. What distinguishes growth from stagnation is the degree of ambivalence within this market. Only if opposition is mitigated and ambivalence unravels into a more pluralistic field structure does the transition from niche to mass market become viable.

Keywords. Ambivalence, Bourdieu, conventions, economic sociology, field theory, markets, morality, multiple institutional logics, sustainability
Mots clés. Ambivalence, Bourdieu, conventions, logique institutionnelle multiple, marchés, moralité, sociologie économique, théorie des champs, viabilité

Link to the review

Some institutions (social norms and conventions) of contemporary mainstream economics, macroeconomics and financial economics

David Dequech (2017)

Cambridge Journal of Economics. Volume 41, Issue 6, p. 1627–1652

Abstract. This paper applies an institutional approach to contemporary mainstream economics. It identifies some mental and behavioral rules of mainstream economics as a whole and of the mainstream segment of two important subdisciplines, namely, macroeconomics and financial economics. There are social reasons behind the sharing of these rules. They are institutions. More specifically, academics who do not comply with these rules are subject to punishment, while conformists may be rewarded. At the same time, many supporters of mainstream economics have internalized these rules as legitimate, in part because of the prestige of their advocates. Social sanctions and internalization characterize social norms. These institutions are also conventions. Through various mechanisms, some academics follow these rules at least in part because others have done so; in addition, the prevailing rules are not necessarily superior to existing or conceivable alternatives. The combination of social norms and conventions may have negative consequences for the discipline.

Link to the review

Link to the article via ResearchGate

Appel à contribution / Call for papers : « Tant de capital, temps de travail ? »

Colloque organisé les 14-15 mai 2018 par le Centre de sociologie des organisations, Paris

Résumé. Loin d’avoir disparu, le temps d’emploi a été et reste au cœur de diverses lois sur le travail et l’enjeu de nombreux conflits que ce soit dans les entreprises ou à l’échelle nationale. Si de nombreux travaux ont porté sur le passage au « 35 heures » au tournant du siècle, nous nous attacherons ici à comprendre les dynamiques temporelles en cours près de 20 ans après les premières lois Aubry. Les trois axes retenus pour ce colloque concernent (1) la quantification et les nomenclatures statistiques du temps d’emploi, (2) les conflits et les compromis sur le lieu d’emploi et (3) la régulation publique du temps d’emploi.

Trois axes thématiques :

1) Quantifier et qualifier l’évolution du temps d’emploi

2) Conflits et compromis sur le lieu d’emploi

3) Régulation publique du temps d’emploi

Calendrier :

  • Réception des propositions de communication (en français ou en anglais) : le 5 janvier 2018 au plus tard
  • Information sur la sélection retenue et annonce du programme : le 23 janvier 2018 au plus tard
  • Date limite d’envoi des communications (40.000 signes max.) : le 23 avril 2018 au plus tard
  • Colloque : 14 et 15 mai 2018 à Paris.

Appel à contribution complet : http://calenda.org/422814

 

Note de lecture de « Enrichissement. Une critique de la marchandise »

Camille Herlin-Giret (2017)

Sociologie [en ligne]

Luc Boltanski et Arnaud Esquerre (2017), Enrichissement. Une critique de la marchandise, Paris, Gallimard, 672 p.

C’est à l’identification d’une mutation récente du capitalisme qu’est consacré le dernier ouvrage de Luc Boltanski et Arnaud Esquerre. Les moindres profits générés par l’industrie de masse, la désindustrialisation comme la critique du productivisme ont constitué un terreau favorable à l’avènement d’une économie, que ces derniers appellent économie de l’enrichissement. Le terme « enrichissement » renvoie à la fois à l’augmentation du prix d’objets ayant été produits dans le passé et au profit retiré de la marchandisation de tels objets. L’économie de l’enrichissement, que les auteurs mettent au jour, repose sur de nouvelles formes de mise en valeur des biens et a la particularité d’être destinée et de profiter aux plus riches….

Article en ligne

From Research to Action

Yves Charbit & Véronique Petit (2017)

In: Petit,  V. (2017): Population Studies and Development from Theory to Fieldwork, pp 225-236.

Abstract. The general conclusion widens reflection on issues raised by the relation between research and action around a central idea: how can the indisputable contribution made by science be reconciled with the expectations and needs of the programmes and projects? Our experience of relations between field research and institutional demands leads us to emphasise the need to take into account four categories of actors and the interactions that characterise them. However, this typology must not lead to assuming that an egalitarian dialogue exists between these different categories. These actors play specific roles at particular sociological and political levels, they are marked by particular institutional rationales governing their actions, and, finally, they act within systems of constraints that can either brake or accelerate development. Identifying and understanding the rationales underlying the responses of actors is an essential point in our perspective. Finally, the theory of change and response, associated with the methodology of village monographs, does not only provide new paths for facilitating the implementation of development projects, it more generally reflection on the change from research to action.

Link to the review

Investing for profit, investing for impact: Moral performances in agricultural investment projects.

Zenia Kish & Madeleine Fairbairn (2017)

Environment and Planning A. Online first.

Abstract. The recent global boom in agricultural investment has spurred much normative critique of “land grabbing,” but amidst this critical scrutiny investor morality has remained a black box. This article examines the role of ethical narratives in advancing the financialization of nature by comparing how agricultural investment projects are pitched and implemented among two different groups of investors: mainstream agricultural investors and impact investors. We analyze the different discursive strategies used by these distinct financial communities to position themselves as ethical investor-subjects while also showing that, within both groups, some form of moral performance is necessary to maintaining legitimacy and profitability. Mainstream agricultural investors, we argue, perform morality primarily through economic and agricultural productivity, while explicit claims of socially or environmentally responsible investing serve mostly to mitigate reputational risk and preempt the value destruction of potential bad publicity. For impact investors, on the other hand, moral storytelling is essential to value generation. Their solicitation of capital involves persuading potential investors of both the value of their individual projects and the ethical framework guiding the entire sector. Finally, we present two case studies—a large-scale farmland acquisition in Mozambique and an impact investment farming project in Ghana—which demonstrate how moral performances can falter when put into practice. These case studies shed light on the co-creation of economic and moral value in markets by demonstrating how—beyond formal evaluative metrics—the everyday moral narratives of investors play a pivotal role in expanding the financial penetration of nature.

Link to the review

Konventionen und Kompromisse auf Finanzmärkten

Lisa Knoll (2018)

In: Beyer, Jürgen/Senge, Konstanze (eds.)(2018): Finanzmarktsoziologie. Entscheidungen, Ungewissheit und Geldordnung. Wiesbaden: Springer VS, pp. 107-124.

Finanzmärkte nehmen in der Wirtschaftssoziologie eine Sonderstellung ein. Dies hat einerseits damit zu tun, dass sich die Wirtschaftssoziologie, insbesondere seit Harrison White (1993), speziell mit Produzentenmärkten befasst, die White von klassischen Finanzmärkten unterscheidet. Der genuine Beitrag der Wirtschaftssoziologie erscheint so auf den Bereich der Produzentenmärkte festgelegt, denn es sind die Produzentenmärkte, die vom neoklassischen Marktverständnis abweichen und nach anderen (wirtschaftssoziologischen) Analysestrategien verlangen.

Special Issue « Critique & Social Change » Historical Social Research

Thomas Kern, Thomas Laux & Insa Pruisken (eds.)

Historical Social Research, 42(3).

Critique and Social Change: Historical, Cultural, and Institutional Perspectives. How does critique change society? What are the conditions for critique to emerge? These questions are the core of recent socio-logical debates. This HSR Special Issue seeks to contribute to the sociology of critique by empirically studying the historical, cultural, and institutional conditions of critique and social change. For this purpose, critique is approached in two ways: as an outcome of social change, on the one hand, and as a cause or condition for social change, on the other hand. The contributions include a broad range of empirical case studies that examine the articulation of critique and its consequences from different perspectives. They deal with topical debates on organ donation, the justification of social inequality, neoliberalism, new public management, various protest movements (Occupy Wall Street, the democratic movement in South Korea, the environmental movement in Italy, the commune movement in the United States), the transformation of institutional logics in the field of academic science, the role of public media debates during the banking crisis of 2008 and the influence of intellectuals on the critique of clientelism in Ireland.

Link to the review

Review of Die “Economie des conventions”

Sabine Frerichs (2017)

Economic Sociology – European Electronic Newsletter 19(1), pp. 42-44.

«Rainer Diaz-Bone (2015) : Die “Economie des conventions”: Grundlagen und Entwicklungen der neuen französischen Wirtschaftssoziologie.»

Speaking about “new economic sociolo y,” what first comes to mind is, usually, “American” and not “European” economic sociology (Smelser and Swedberg 2005, 17). This is no coincidence. The label was created in the United States, as a response to what was then understood as “economic imperialism” (Convert and Heilbron 2007, 35): new efforts to explain “the social” by generalizing the rational-choice approach, advancing new institutional economics, or turning to behavioral economics altogether. In countering these tendencies, “new economic sociology” and “socio-economics” represented alternative strategies to bring sociology back in (ibid., 45–46): the “intra-disciplinary strategy” sought to revitalize the anaemic subdiscipline of economic sociology (with the support of the Russel Sage Foundation, albeit ironically under the latter’s “Behavioural Economics” program), whereas the “interdisciplinary strategy” led to the founding of the “Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics” (in mimicry of the already existing “Society for the Advancement of Behavioral Economics”)…

Link to the review

Download the article

Conflicts in the calculation and use of the price index: the case of France

Florence Jany-Catrice (2017)

Cambridge Journal of Economics, Online first.

Abstract. This article presents a socio-economic analysis of the evolution of construction of inflation in France. Analysis of the various open or more muted controversies that underlie the history of the index throughout the twentieth century and into the first decades of the twenty-first century shows that the various challenges to the index have always been and continue to be linked, albeit to varying extents, to issues around economic distribution and representations of wealth. However, the actors engaged in these controversies and the principles around which they are organised have changed: politics, which brought into play the various social relations between government, statistical agencies and trade unions, has gradually given way to more scientific considerations, which has meant that the more recent controversies have been more technical in nature. And by giving experts a greater role to play, these controversies have also tended to play out at an even greater distance from the traditional actors. It is also shown that these controversies are embedded in a real world which, because of its increasing complexity and singularity and its (justifiable) concern with quality, is not fully captured by the available tools, despite their sophistication.

Link to the review

Durées courtes, journées longues. Fragmentation du temps de travail et pression sur le salaire

Amandine Barrois & François-Xavier Devetter (2017)

La nouvelle revue du travail 11/2017

Résumé. La diversification des temps de travail rend de plus en plus complexe la mesure des durées et plus floues les frontières entre temps de travail effectifs et temps « libres ». L’objectif de cette contribution est d’essayer de mesurer l’importance et les conséquences de cette confusion dans le cadre de la journée de travail. En effet, il s’agit ici de mettre en relation deux durées spécifiques : la première correspond à l’amplitude de la journée de travail (entre le début de la première période travaillée et la fin de la dernière période travaillée) tandis que la seconde renvoie à une durée journalière moyenne calculée à partir de la durée hebdomadaire et du nombre de jours travaillés. Le rapport entre ces deux valeurs peut alors être considéré comme une mesure de la densité du temps de travail quotidien. L’analyse de cet indicateur fait apparaître que certaines professions sont particulièrement concernées. Le recours à des temps de travail fragmentés se répercute alors sur les rémunérations mensuelles et peut s’apparenter parfois à des mécanismes de contournement du SMIC. Il interroge à la fois la signification sociale de ces mécanismes de gestion de la main d’œuvre et les façons dont le temps de travail est décompté.

Abstract. Working time diversification has made it harder to measure total working hours while blurring the boundaries between actual and “free” working time. The present text seeks to assess the magnitude and consequences of this confusion within a working day framework by comparing two specific working time measurements : one corresponding to the magnitude of the working day (the time elapsing between the start of the first working period and the end of the final one) ; and a second referring to average daily working hours calculated using weekly totals and the number of days actually worked. The relationship between these two quanta might then be deemed to measure the density of daily working time. Analysis of this indicator reveals that certain professions are affected more than others. The fragmentation of working hours impacts monthly compensation and is sometimes a kind of trickery used to get around paying minimum wage. Hence the questions raised here about the social significance of these workforce management mechanisms and the different ways that working hours are counted.

Lien vers l’article en ligne / Link to the online article

Discourses, Conventions, and Critique – Perspectives of the Institutionalist Approach of the Economics of Convention

Rainer Diaz-Bone (2017)

Historical Social Research 42(3), pp. 79-96

Abstract. The institutionalist approach of economics of conventions (EC) was developed in France in the last decades and recombines pragmatist and structuralist concepts. In EC, conventions are not regarded as institutions, but are conceived as interpretative frames how to interpret the meaning of institutions and situations, and how to handle institutions in situations of coordination. The difference between institutions and conventions offers space for “critical movements” and can implement a tension as well as an infrastructure for critique. The article introduces main concepts of EC, which could be applied to the analysis of social critique. In fact, the pragmatist analysis of critical moments and practices of justification was one of the birth moments of EC and EC has developed strategies to analyze and explain social change. The article presents some newer reflections of EC on power and dispositive. Furthermore, the article relates the Foucaultian notions of discourse and power to EC’s analysis of critique and social change. Finally, a current strand of EC research is discussed, which is the study and critique of neoliberalism and the role of the state.

Link to the review

Link to the full text via Researchgate

Note de lecture de « Collaborer pour insérer ? »

Une  note de lecture de l’ouvrage de Philippe Semenowicz : Collaborer pour insérer ? Les partenariats sociaux dans l’insertion par l’activité économique, Rennes, Presses universitaires de Rennes, coll. « Economie et société », 2017, 232 p.

Aubrie Jouanno, « Philippe Semenowicz, Collaborer pour insérer ? Les partenariats sociaux dans l’insertion par l’activité économique », Lectures [En ligne], Les comptes rendus, 2017. URL : http://lectures.revues.org/23615

La réponse de l’auteur : Philippe Semenowicz, « Collaborer pour insérer ? : une réponse de Philippe Semenowicz à Aubrie Jouanno », Lectures [En ligne] Les comptes rendus, 2017.
URL : http://lectures.revues.org/23714

Et la recension dans Alternatives économiques : ici.

 

Process-oriented Micro-Macro-Analysis. Methodological Reflections on Elias and Bourdieu

Nina Baur (2017)

Historical Social Research, December

Abstract. Both Norbert Elias and Pierre Bourdieu argue that both the research question and social theory should guide methodology and methods. Both theorists reason that any social theory should keep in mind the importance of macro-level structures; micro-level interactions and social change. In order to fully grasp patterns of social change, social scientists would require a complex causal processed-oriented micro-macro-analysis. Because in research practice, it is almost never possible to implement the full methodology, both Elias and Bourdieu used a short-cut by using a six-step methodology, consisting of (1) self-reflexivity and detachment; (2) explicating the theoretical perspective; (3) a reconstructing of the figuration’s/field’s socio-genesis; (4) a reconstructing of the micro-level; (5) a reconstructing of the macro-level; and (6) a theoretical synopsis. By using an example on local variation of economic practices, the paper illustrates this five-step methodology and concludes with further questions for future research.

Link to the draft via Researchgate